Previous Page Table of Contents

Check-lists, sources and records

A 60

- some key requirements for tree-planting projects


  1. Organisational and administrative
    1. Sufficient forward planning and continuity of the project to provide staff with reasonable confidence about the future.
    2. More than one graduate on the full-time staff of the project, and local counterparts working full-time with each expatriate member of staff.
    3. Adequate funding through a straightforward system, allowing easy budgeting, financial control, and the purchasing of important items locally and abroad.
    4. Enough administrative staff, where appropriate bilingual, to deal efficiently with the office work and routine running of the project, so that the technical and scientific staff are relieved of part of this work-load.
    5. Successful integration of research, plant propagation, tree establishment, social concerns and ongoing management aspects of the project.
    6. Good two-way communication and other links with the local community.
    7. Effective safeguarding of the land, buildings, installations and trees against encroachment, fire, theft and vandalism.
    8. Well-maintained vehicles, controlled by the project, and protected at night.
    9. Reliable control, maintenance and care of equipment, tools and materials.
  2. Training and collaboration
    1. Emphasising the continuing training of staff and workers, including appropriate travel to other parts of the country and abroad.
    2. Timing of travel for longer periods of training so as to minimise disruption of the project.
    3. Running of short, practical courses that are designed to spread the approaches, know-how and enthusiasm generated by the project; and collaborating with people locally in identifying present and future needs.
    4. Publishing the project findings in scientific, technical and general journals; and in the form of practical advice to potential users.
    5. Arranging discussions and relevant collaboration with Universities, Colleges, Institutes and other Projects; in such fields as forestry, agriculture, agroforestry, biology, tropical land use and rural development: including the training and interchange of research students.
  3. Growing and planting trees
    1. Wherever necessary, improving existing nursery techniques, so that plenty of good nursery plants can be produced, that can establish well when planted out, and grow into trees of above average form, usefulness and yield.
    2. Ensuring effective and reliable systems for watering and care of nursery pot plants.
    3. Recognising how important it is to have good root systems inside the pot, and not in the ground beneath the pot.
    4. For clonal tree-planting, working out appropriate management systems for the stockplants and watering regimes for the poly-propagators (or the best misting regimes for automatic mistjets), in both rainy and dry seasons.
    5. Providing year-round care of the trees being propagated, and foreseeing breakdowns before they occur.
    6. Doing experiments to try out the techniques on local species, and to clarify the factors behind nursery and establishment problems.
    7. Gaining access to and control over suitable ground that is designated and kept for trials, plantations, demonstrations and other types of tree planting.
    8. Using long-lasting labelling methods, and maintaining good records.
    9. Ensuring regular weeding and climber cutting until trees are established.

A 61

- check-list of problems in growing good trees


Stage or featureProblemPossible solutionsAlternative strategies
1 - PROVENANCE unacceptablecollect or import seed from other sources 
2 - PARENT TREES unacceptablecollect from several parent trees of good form, grouped near each other, not closely related 
3 - FLOWERING intermittentuse stored seed or wildings; apply flower induction treatments (if available - see Manual 2)use cuttings
4 - FRUITING irregularuse stored seed or wildingsuse cuttings
5 - QUALITY OF SEED poorcollect early, treat against pests and diseasesuse cuttings
6 - QUANTITY OF SEED insufficientcollect by climbingmultiply by cuttings
7 - VIABILITY IN STORAGE poorsow at once; or improve drying &/or storage methods 
8 - SEED DORMANCY a problemapply appropriate technique to break the type of dormancy present (see Manual 2) 
prompt germination
9 - YOUNG SEEDLINGS die youngcheck soil, shade, watering, spray for damping-off fungi, protect from small animals 
↓   [go to (C)]
1 - WILTING a problemtake cuttings early, check high humidity is maintained in bags & propagator, check shading 
2 - LEAF-DROP commoncheck as (B) 1; use younger leaves, handle cuttings more carefullyuse pre-treatment
3 - ROTTING a problemcheck rooting medium, watering, shading; use fungicidetry leafless cuttings in situ
4 - SLOW ROOTING typicalcheck stockplant management, rooting environment, use auxins 
5 - SINGLE ROOTS usualuse auxins, try longer cuttings 
6 - INHIBITED ROOT GROWTH typicaltry less shade, weaker auxin; check fertilising of stockplants and cutting condition 
7 - MULTIPLE SHOOTS commonremove tips, leaving best; use less branchy clonestry slit half-cuttings with single bud
8 - WEANING DEATHS manydig up and handle cuttings more carefully, wean more slowly; check soil, watering and fertilisers 
1 - SURVIVAL lowcheck soil, watering, shading, pests & diseases, fertilisers; change containercheck need for mycorrhizas
2 - INHIBITED GROWTH pronouncedcheck as (C) 1, and try to avoid transplanting and weaning stress - check root systems 
3 - GROWTH RATE shoots too tallalter timings, reduce fertiliserstry cuttings at a different time
height acceptable
1 - SURVIVAL lowcheck condition of planting stock (especially root systems), transport & handling, timings re rains, soil, planting techniques, weeds, pests & diseasesprevent rooting through in nursery; try mycorrhizas
2 - INHIBITED GROWTH generalcheck as (D) 1, and (where relevant) consider mulch, fertiliser, legume shade tree, critical stage wateringchange container
(G) LEAFLESS CUTTINGS (planted in situ, directly in place)
1 - SURVIVAL & GROWTH poorcheck length, diameter and age of cuttings; check handling & timingtry leafy cuttings
2 - MULTIPLE STEMS commonremove lower buds and branches; use less branchy clone 

(See sheet A 2 for further explanation of this check-list, and the Contents list for sheets with more information on the suggested actions.)


A 62

- information on vegetative propagation


Vegetative propagation & tree improvement:

Baker, F.W.G. (Ed.) (1992). Rapid propagation of fast-growing woody species. C.A.B. International, Wallingford, Oxon, Britain.

Davis, T.D., Haissig, B.E. & Sankhla, N. (Eds.) (1988). Adventitious root formation in cuttings. Advances in Plant Sciences, Vol 2, Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Jackson, M.B. & Stead, A.D. (Eds.) (1983). Growth Regulators in Root Development, Monograph 10, Br. Plant Growth Regulator Group, Wantage, Britain.

Ladipo, D.O., Leakey, R.R.B. & Grace, J. (1991). Clonal variation in a four year old plantation of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. and its relation to the Predictive Test for Branching Habit. Silvae Genetica, 40, 135–140.

Leakey, R.R.B. (1983). Stockplant factors affecting root initiation in cuttings of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum., an indigenous hardwood of West Africa. J. hort. Sci., 58, 277–290.

Leakey, R.R.B. (1985). The capacity for vegetative propagation in trees. Pp. 110–133 in: Attributes of Trees as Crop Plants, edited by M.G.R. Cannell & J.E. Jackson, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Britain.

Leakey, R.R.B. (1987). Clonal forestry in the tropics - a review of developments, strategies and opportunities. Commonwealth Forestry Rev., 66, 61–75.

Leakey, R.R.B. (1990). The domestication of tropical forest trees by cloning: a strategy for increased production and for conservation. Pp. 22–31 in Fast Growing Trees and Nitrogen Fixing Trees, edited by D. Werner & P. Müller, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Germany.

Leakey, R.R.B. & Ladipo, D.O. (1987). Selection for improved tropical hardwoods. Pp. 229–242 in Improving Vegetatively Propagated Crops, edited by A.J. Abbott & R.K. Atkin, Academic Press, London, Britain.

Leakey, R.R.B. & Longman, K.A. (1986). Physiological, environmental and genetic variation in apical dominance as determined by decapitation in Triplochiton scleroxylon. Tree Physiology, 1, 193–207.

Leakey, R.R.B., Chapman, V.R. & Longman, K.A. (1982). Physiological studies for tropical tree improvement and conservation. Some factors affecting root inititation in cuttings of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. Forest Ecol. & Management, 4, 53–66.

Leakey, R.R.B. and others (1990). Low-technology techniques for the vegetative propagation of tropical trees. Commonwealth Forestry Rev. 69, 247–257.

Libby, W.J. & Rauter, R.M. (1984). Advantages of clonal forestry. Forestry Chronicle, 60, 145–149.

Pochet, P. (1987). Le bouturage du caféier Robusta/Robusta propagation by cuttings. Administration Générale de la coopération au Développement (AGCD), 5, place du Champ de Mars, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.

Tissue culture & micropropagation:

Biondi, S. & Thorpe, T.A. (1982). Clonal propagation of forest tree species. Pp. 197–204 in: Tissue Culture of Economically Important Plants, edited by A.N. Rao, Comm. on Sci. & Tech. in Devel. Countries/Asian Network for Biol. Sci., Singapore.

Bonga, J.M. & Durzan, D.J. (Eds.) (1982). Tissue culture in forestry, Martinus Nijhoff/ W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.

Jones, O.P. (1983). In vitro propagation of tree crops. Pp. 139–159 in: Plant Biotechnology, edited by S.H. Mantell & H. Smith, Soc. exptl Biol., Seminar Series 18, Cambridge Univ. Press, Britain.

Sommer, H.E. & Caldas, L.S. (1981). In vitro methods applied to forest trees. Pp. 349–358 in Plant Tissue Culture: methods and applications in agriculture, edited by T.A. Thorpe, Academic Press, New York, USA.

Staritsky, G. & van Hasselt, G.A.M. (1980). The synchronised mass propagation of Coffea canephora in vitro. pp. 597–602 in: Proc. 9th internat. Colloquium on Coffee, Vol. 2, London, Britain.

Nursery manuals:

Dirr, M.A. & Heuser, C.W., Jr. (1987). The reference manual of woody plant propagation. Varsity Press, Inc., P.O. Box 6301, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Duryea, M.L. & Landis, T.D. (Eds.) (1984). Forest Nursery Manual: production of bareroot seedlings. Martinus Nijhoff/W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.

Liegel, L.H. & Venator, C.R. (1987). A technical guide for forest nursery management in the Caribbean and Latin America. Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agric., Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-67.

Napier, I. (1985). Técnicas de viveros forestales con referencia especial a Centroamérica. Publicación Miscelanea No. 5, Escuela Nacional Ciencias Forestales, Siguatepeque, Honduras, Central America.

Napier, I. & Robbins, M. (1989). Forest seed and nursery practice in Nepal. Nepal/UK Forestry Research Project, Dept of Forestry & Plant Research, Babar Mahal, P.O. Box 3339, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Willan, R.L. (1985). A guide to forest seed handling, with special reference to the tropics. FAO, Rome, Italy & DANIDA Forest Seed Centre, Humlæbek, Denmark.

General information on growing trees:

Aumeeruddy, Y. & Pinglo, F. (1989). Phytopractices in tropical regions. Man and the Biosphere Program, UNESCO, Paris/Institut de Botanique, Montpellier, France.

Carter, E.J. (1987). From seed to trial establishment. DFR User Series No. 2, Division of Forest Research, Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), P.O. Box 4008, Yarralumla, ACT 2600, Australia.

Dupriez, H. & de Leener, P. (1983). Jardins et vergers d'Afrique. English translation (1989): African Gardens and Orchards. Macmillan/Terres et Vie, 13, rue Laurent Delvaux, 1400 Nivelles, Belgium.

Hartmann, H.T. & Kester, D.E. (1983). Plant Propagation: principles and practices, 4th edn, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA.

Longman, K.A. & Jeník, J. (1987). Tropical Forest and its Environment, 2nd Edn, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, Britain & John Wiley, New York, USA.

Tinus, R.W. & McDonald, S.E. (1979). How to grow tree seedlings in containers in greenhouses. Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agric., Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-60.

Wilson, J. & Leakey, R.R.B. (1990). Repairing the damage: re-establishing trees in the tropics. The Crown Agents Review, London, 1, 14–20.


A 63

- Some sources of chemicals and materials


(A) Examples of suppliers of chemicals, some with agents in the tropics:

  1. Auxins for rooting cuttings:

    Dip `N Grow - contains 1.0% Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) plus 0.5% 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in alcohol: from Alpkem Corporation, Clackamas, Oregon 97015, USA.

    Hormo-Root - contains 0.1–4.0% IBA plus Thiram (a fungicide) in talc (inert powder); from Hortus Products Co., P.O. Box 275, Newfoundland, New Jersey 07435, USA.

    Rootone - contains 0.057% IBA plus a total of 0.113% of 3 chemical derivatives of NAA, plus Thiram (fungicide), in talc; from Union Carbide Agricultural Products Co., Inc, P.O. Box 12014, T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

    Seradix - contains 0.1–0.8% IBA in talc; from Rhone-Poulenc, Agricultural Centre, 14–20 Rue Pierre Baizet, 69009 Leon, France [Tel: (33) 7229 255]

    Strike - contains 0.2–0.3% NAA plus Captan (fungicide): from Pan Britannica Industries (pbi), Britannica House, Waltham Cross, Herts, EN8 7DY, Britain. [Tel: 0992 23691; Telex: 23957; Fax: 0992 26452].

  2. Pure chemicals for micropropagation and research are available from many firms, including:

    Cyanamid, C House, Fareham Road, Gosport, Hants, PO13 0AS, Britain [Tel: 0329 224000; Telex 86173; Fax: 0329 220213].

    Mackay & Lynn Ltd, 2 West Bryson Road, Edinburgh, EH11 1EH, Britain [Tel: 031-337 9006] (Also laboratory equipment and sundries.)

    Sigma Chemical Co Ltd, Fancy Road, Poole, Dorset BH17 7TG, Britain [Tel: 0202 73314; Telex: 418242; Fax: 0202 715460 (Group ⅔)].

  3. Pesticides, fungicides, weedkillers, fertilisers, etc are also widely available. Main suppliers include:

    Du Pont (UK) Ltd, Agricultural Products Department, Wedgwood Way, Stevenage, Herts, SG1 4QN, Britain. [Tel: 0438 734000; Telex 825591].

    Fisons Horticulture Division, Paper Mill Lane, Bramford, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP8 4BZ, Britain. [Tel: 0473 830492; Telex: 98240].

    Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), Woolmead Walk, Farnham, Surrey, GU9 7UB, Britain. [Tel: 0252 733919 (horticultural products); 0428 644061 (agrochemicals).

    Pan Britannica Industries (pbi), Britannica House, Waltham Cross, Herts, EN8 7DY, Britain. [Tel: 0992 23691; Telex: 23957; Fax: 0992 26452].

Note that Benomyl = Benlate fungicide, and is a wettable powder that can be used for sprays, dips or soil drenches. It acts systemically, by being taken up by the plant and spreading inside it.

(B) Horticultural materials & equipment: for example from:

Grangewood Plastic Packaging Ltd, Essex House, Jutsoms Lane, Romford, Essex, RM7 0ER, Britain [Tel: 0708 725911; Telex: 8951426; Fax 0708 728 677] (Polythene sheet and bags).

Kerrypak Ltd, Longbrook House, Ashton Vale Road, Bristol, BS3 2HA, Britain [Tel: 0272 669 684, 0272 662 455; Telex: 444 277; Fax: 0272 231 251] (Plastic shadecloth).

LBS Polythene, Cotton Tree, Near Colne, Lancs BB8 7BW, Britain. [Tel: 0282 871777; Fax: 0282 869850] (Wide range of products).

Right Rain, Stag Business Park, 164–166 Christchurch Road, Ringwood, Hampshire, BH24 3AS; [Tel: 0425 472 251; Telex: 41206; Fax: 0425 472 258] (Mist propagation equipment).

Spencer-Lemaire Industries, Ltd, 10310 112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T5K 1N1 [Tel: (403) 426 3203] (Rootrainers).

(Note: when calling from outside Britain, omit the first zero from telephone and fax numbers.)


A 64

- record-keeping and labelling


Why keeping records is important:

Tropical trees are not plants with short life-cycles, like many food crops. Making records is therefore especially important, for instance, to:

  1. write down basic information that will soon be forgotten or confused;
  2. inform someone else about the trees;
  3. keep track of which clone a tree belongs to, and avoiding muddle if labels are lost or become indistinct;
  4. be able to find the original coppice stump or seedling from which a clone was started;
  5. keep stock of the potted trees available for planting;
  6. know which clones and batches of trees are doing best;
  7. see how to improve the quality and rate of production of nursery stock.

Some hints about making records:

  1. make them on the same day as the work is done. Draw a simple sketch map to show the positions of coppice stumps, planted stockplants, cuttings being rooted, experimental lay-outs, etc.
  2. try to make them user-friendly, so that you or anyone else can understand them after some time has passed;
  3. when similar information will often be recorded, photocopy one of the sheets in the Manual (A 66–68), change it to suit, or design your own;
  4. Always put down the date and the clone or batch numbers;
  5. Keep extra copies of essential information in case of loss of files, note-book or labels.

Different types of label:

For short-term purposes (less than a year), many types of label are suitable, for example those made of plastic, wood or metal.
However, it is difficult to find labelling that will last a long time in the tropics, because of the effects of bright sun, heavy rain, termites, weed growth, etc. Plastic can become brittle in the sun, wood may rot and metal tarnish.

Writing the information:

  1. reduce the amount to be written to a minimum, but remember to keep an explanation in the records;
  2. the general information, like date, aim or experiment, species, etc, can go on a few (larger) labels, for example one at the beginning and one at the end;
  3. the specific information, like clone, type of cutting, treatment, etc, needs to be written for each tree (or sometimes batch of trees).

What to write with:

  1. Pencil - with a good HB, B or 2B pencil, pressing hard on the label, writing on metal, plastic or painted wood can remain legible for several years;
  2. Waterproof felt-tip pens - writing done with these can last for up to 1–3 years on wooden labels, and also if written on smooth-barked trees when the surface is dry and clean. These indelible markers are quick and easy, and can also be used on leaves (A 42). On plastic and metal labels, the writing tends to fade quickly, especially during propagation;
  3. Paint - slower and more cumbersome, but lasts well if an exterior quality paint has soaked into the bark or wooden label;
  4. Numbers on concrete posts - this is the longest lasting method, but it takes more time. It needs a set of reversed numbers and letters that can be re-used after they have left their imprint in the concrete.

Where to attach the labels:

  1. pushed into the pot - best when the plant is too small to attach a label; but note that they can fall out, or get mixed up during repotting or planting out;
  2. attached to small plants - pass a plastic twist, a small piece of thin wire or strong twine through a hole in the label and fasten round the main stem below a branch. Note: make a loop that is large enough for the plant to grow in diameter, but not big enough for it to come off.
  3. attached to larger trees - as soon as possible, transfer the loop and label to a strong branch, or make a much larger loop of thicker wire (to lie on the ground around the main stem) for planted saplings;
  4. set in the ground - labels can be nailed to stakes made of durable wood, and driven into the ground; concrete marker posts can be set in a hole with stones, and a sand/cement mixture poured on.

Problems with labels:

  1. branches holding labels may die and be shed;
  2. as the main stem grows, labels can become detached, or strangle the tree;
  3. writing on the trunk separates and gets fainter as the tree grows in girth;
  4. labels in wet places can get covered with dirt or small green plants like algae or mosses. Clean them gently, not to rub off the writing;
  5. certain animals (for example porcupines and birds) may damage labels;
  6. vandals sometimes remove labels, so it can be best not to display them too prominently;
  7. on the other hand, a rapid change of appearance of a site may make it hard to find the trees again, so draw a sketch-map, and standardise the position of the label.

Using the records

The best-kept records are of little use if they are not used! Here are two suggestions:

  1. Arrange your records in a file or notebook that you can easily carry round with you.
  2. Make a habit of checking up at the same time each week on stockplants, propagation conditions, numbers of plants in each clone or batch, etc, using your records to do this, and updating them as you go.

A 65

- assessment by scoring


(A) Need for scoring methods

Scoring is a useful way of getting a rapid, general view of a situation in biology. Use it before embarking on long and detailed measurements that may or may not be appropriate, and especially when the features to be assessed are difficult or impossible to record by measurement or counting; for example when:

  1. the feature is primarily qualitative, such as the presence or absence of visible roots on a cutting, or the incidence of forking in the main stem of a clone;
  2. the feature is rather subjective, such as the branching habit of a tree;
  3. the feature cannot be accurately measured without killing the plant organs in question, as for example with the dry weight of roots on a cutting;
  4. the trees are too big for easy measurement;
  5. there are too many items to count.

(B) Weaknesses of scoring methods

  1. it can be difficult to standardise the categories;
  2. intervals between categories are not necessarily equal;
  3. bias is harder to avoid;
  4. after a time, the brain may refuse to carry on scoring without a rest;
  5. some statistical tests might be impossible, or could be misleading.

(C) Features of useful scoring methods

The main aims when choosing an appropriate scoring method are to minimise the weaknesses and achieve a valid and useful assessment without undue difficulty or delay. Some hints are:

  1. Do the scoring with at least one other person - difficult features may need three or four observers. Discuss the features together before scoring independently;
  2. If possible, look through the material first in order to gauge the range of variation to be expected in the feature(s) to be scored; and to discover whether the trees have yet reached a suitable stage of development;
  3. Choose between 5 and 10 categories which cover the whole range of the feature, and give each category a number (for example 5 = very straight stem; 1 = very crooked stem);
  4. A short trial run is often a help, as you may want to modify the categories;
  5. Consistency is more important than the level chosen;
  6. Don't try and score too many different features at the same time;
  7. To reduce bias in experiments, it may be better to do the scoring without knowing the treatment, variety, clone, etc.

(D) Analysis of scored data

  1. Chi-square tests are very quick to calculate, and give a simple estimate of the significance of qualitative differences such as the presence or absence of a feature. Where features have been scored into several categories, but the frequencies in some are too low for valid analysis, they can be grouped (for example) into categories 0 + 1, and categories 2 – 5, and the two groups analysed by a chi-square test.
  2. Analysis of variance can be applied to scored data, provided that:
    a) the variation is continuous and the intervals between categories are reasonably even;
    b) an appropriate transformation is used when the data is not normally distributed, or is expressed as a percentage. If there are many zero values, it may be sensible to compare the presence or absence of the feature by a chi-square test, and confine the analysis of variance to the cases where the feature is present.
    Transformations may also be relevant when the categories are non-linear (for example, with numbers of roots in categories of 0, 1, 2–5, 6–14, 15+).
    If variation between independent observers is included in the analysis, the error mean square (variance estimate) may be reduced.

(E) Summary

Used with judgement, scoring methods can provide a rapid and useful complement to more precise and quantitative measurements. They are especially appropriate when the features do not lend themselves to easy measurements, or when time is short. Although the data obtained are only semi-quantitative, it may be possible to carry out valid statistical tests of significance.


A 66

- record sheet for clone numbers


Species Provenance Clone number
Whereabouts of original plant:AltitudeApproximate age
Features of original plant:Date selectedApprox. height
stem straight?stem cylindrical?forking?
live branch angle?live branch size?dead branch shedding?
live crown depth? live crown evenness?health and other features?
Cuttings taken:typenumber takennumber set
 on (date)on (date)
 number rootednumber potted
 on (date)on (date)
Planted as stockplants:place position
 number date
Planted as trees:place position
 number date


A 67

- record sheet for cuttings set


Date:          /         /Identity/Identité no.
Country/pays -Provenance/Land race - Exact
locality/Localité exacte -Altitude -
Location/Localisation -Clone no(s) - 
Height cuttings taken/Hauteur relative qu'on a pris les boutures -m.
No. of stockplants used/No. des plantes utilisées comme source -
Previous treatment of stockplants/Traitement antérieur des plantes -
 clone no(s) -
Approximate no. of each clone/No. approximatif de chaque clone
Date(s) of collection/Date(s) de collecte -
Where propagated/Lière de multiplication-
Rooting medium/Milieu d'enracinement -Length/Longeur-cm. +/- Auxin(e)
Number rooted/Nombre enraciné -on/le-(date)(                   %)
Number potted/Nombre mis en pot -on/le-(date)(                   %)
No. planted for stockplants/No. pour le parc à bois- on/le-(date)
No. planted for clonal trials/No. pour essais clonaux -on/le-(date)
No. sent/No. expédié-to/à -on/le-(date)
(Example of a bilingual record sheet used in Cameroun)


A 68

- record sheet for propagation checks


Weekly checks:-Week starting:Month:Year:
Shading intact?
Polythene intact?
Water level?  Rotting? 
Rooting starting?  Disease? 
Ready to pot up?  Pests? 

Daily checks:-MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturdaySunday
Cuttings moist?       
Rooting medium moist?       
Air temperature?       
Soil temperature?       
Appearance of cuttings:       
Leaves falling?       
Wilting seen?       

What problem was: 
Solution found? 
How long problem lasted?What else needs attention?

Tropical Trees: Propagation and Planting Manuals

Volume 1 - Rooting Cuttings of Tropical Trees

genetic selection
stockplant management
propagating conditions
taking the cuttings
care of cuttings
check-lists, sources and records

Volume 2 - Raising Seedlings of Tropical Trees

choosing seed sources
seed handling
propagating conditions
germinating the seeds
care of seedlings
check-lists, sources and records

Volume 3 - Growing Good Tropical Trees for Planting

planning a forest nursery
general principles of tree growth
symbionts and nutrition
protection from damage and loss
running a nursery
check-lists, sources and records

Volume 4 - Preparing to Plant Tropical Trees

general principles for tree survival
types of planting site
which species to plant?
choosing on appropriate system
preparing the ground
check-lists, sources and records

Volume 5 - Planting and Establishment of Tropical Trees

getting the plants there
how and when to plant
successful establishment
assessing the results of field trials
check-lists, sources and records

Tropical Trees: Propagation and Planting Manuals. Volume 1.


This Manual is the first in a new series of readable, illustrated handbooks for propagating and planting tropical trees.

The series is designed to provide clear and concise information on how to select, grow, plant and care for tropical trees. The Manuals are intended for anyone interested in growing trees, from the small-holder to the experienced forester, in both humid and drier areas.

Manual 1 is concerned with rooting cuttings in order to multiply trees vegetatively. Farmers have used vegetative propagation for centuries in growing tropical food crops. It is a standard technique for producing improved rubber trees, and is also now used for tea, coffee, oil-palm and other crops. But growing more and better indigenous trees may be the most far-reaching contribution to sustainable land use that vegetative propagation can play. It facilitates the quicker ‘domestication’ of these ‘wild’ species, encouraging both smaller and larger growers to tap the multiplicity of potential benefits offered by tropical trees.

This manual gives clear, step-by-step instructions on the rooting of tree cuttings, including:

The procedures described in this Manual can be used with most woody species to provide diverse clonal mixtures. Such superior planting stock will help to fulfil the potential of multiple usefulness offered by tropical trees, while encouraging the conservation of genetic resources.

© 1993
Published by Commonwealth Science Council
May be purchased from
Commonwealth Secretariat
Marlborough House, Pall Mall
London SWIY 5HX
ISBN 0 85092 394 8
Price £12.50

Back Cover

Previous Page Top of Page