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China, Taiwan and Hong Kong

Vegetation description

Mangroves are widespread along the coasts of China and Taiwan, but in almost case they are restricted to small stands of relatively stunted and degraded trees. They are most heavily concentrated on the southernmost coasts, in Hainan Island and Taiwan. The coast of China was once fringed with mangroves, but these have been largely destroyed. In Taiwan the largest spot of mangrove is located along the West Coast, especially in Tanshui estuary and further south, where the Chan-Yun-Chia reserve is located. Now just a few small areas remain, including ones with well-developed mangroves, 22 of which fall within nature reserves (seventeen in China and five in Taiwan). The following species are present: Acanthus ebracteatus, Acanthus ilicifolius, Acrostichum aureum, Acrostichum speciosum, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia alba, Avicennia marina, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Bruguiera sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Heritiera littoralis, Kandelia candel, Lumnitzera littorea, Lumnitzera racemosa, Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora stylosa, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sonneratia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonneratia ovata, and Xylocarpus granatum.

In Hong Kong the mangroves are concentrated in tiny areas with dwarf trees. The largest area of mangrove forest in Hong Kong is the Mai Po Marsh, in the north west, on the shores of Deep Bay. Just few species of mangrove are found in this country: Acanthus ilicifolius, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera cylindrica, B. gymnorrhiza, Acrostichum aureum, Derris trifoliata, Excoecaria agallocha and Kandelia candel. There are six protected areas with mangrove in Hong Kong.

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. & Field, C.D., eds. 1997 World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. 178 pp.
Wu Qi
. 2000. Environment-China: Protecting mangrove forests from man-made threats

National level mangrove area estimates







66 000

Peng L. 1984. Ecological Notes on Mangroves in Southeast coast of China including Taiwan province and Hainan island. p. 11. In: proceedings of the Asian Symposium on Mangrove Environment Research and Management, Kuala Lumpur, August 25-29, 1980. Edited by E. Soepadmo, A.N. Rao and D.J. MacIntosh. 1984.


Secondary reference, no primary source provided. "Year" is the year in which the Symposium took place.


67 100

Saenger, P., Hegerl E.J. and J.D.S., Davie. 1983. Global status of mangrove ecosystems. Commission on Ecology Papers No.3. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland. 88 pp.


Secondary reference, no primary source provided. "Year" is the publication year.


40 000

UNESCO, UNEP, SCOR, IABO. 1992. Coastal systems studies and sustainable development. In: proceedings of the COMAR Interregional Scientific Conference UNESCO, Paris, 21-25 May 1991. UNESCO technical papers in marine science 64, UNESCO




20 000

CAS. 1992. Biodiversity action plan for China.Unpublished report. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 112 pp.


Cited in: Fisher, P and Spalding, M.D. 1993. Protected areas with mangrove habitat. Draft Report World Conservation Centre, Cambridge, UK. 60pp. The "Year" is the publication year.


36 882

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D., eds. 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. 178 pp.


Map analysis. Scale 1:500 000 and
1:1 000 000.

Trends in mangrove area extent over time

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