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Vegetation description

Mangrove forests or coastal forests are located in the shallow waters along the coast near the mouth of the Indus River. The forests are poorly stocked and the species are few. They are mainly composed of Avicennia officinalis. Where accessible they are cut for fuelwood and are mostly shrubby. The leaves serve as a valuable fodder for camels. In inaccessible areas trees attain a height of about 10m.

FAO, UNEP. 1981. Tropical Forest Resourcess Assesment Project, Forest Resources of Tropical Asia. FAO, UNEP, 475 pp.

National level mangrove area estimates







380 000

BIMS (Biodiversity Information Management System). 1997. Indo-Malayan Realm Study Final report.


Analysis of poor quality hard copy land-use maps.


400 000

Champion, H.G., S.K. Seth, and G.M. Khattak. 1965. Forest types of Pakistan. p. 87-95. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.


Cited in: Beg, A.R. 1991. Mangrove Forests of Pakistan. FAO-FO--PAK/88/018 Field Document. Forestry Sector Master Plan, Pakistan, PAK/88/018. Rough estimate.


345 000

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives, Food and Agriculture Division Letter of 12/3/81 of Inspector General of Forests/Additional Secretary to Assistant Director General, Forestry Department, FAO on FAO/UNEP Tropical Forest Resources Assesment Project - Islamabad


Cited in: FAO, UNEP. 1981. Tropical Forest Resourcess Assesment Project, Forest Resources of Tropical Asia FAO, UNEP, 475 pp.


249 500

Saenger, P., Hegerl E.J. and J.D.S., Davie. 1983. Global status of mangrove ecosystems. Commission on Ecology Papers No.3. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland. 88 pp.


Secondary reference, no primary source provided.

The "Year" is the publication year.


280 000

Government of Pakistan. 1985. Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan 1985.


Secondary reference, no primary source provided


283 000

Kogo, M. 1985. A report of Mangrove research and recommendations of afforestation in Pakistan. UNDP/UNESCO Regional Project on Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia and the Pacific - RAS/72/002; Nov. 1985; Al-Gurm Research Centre for the Middle East, Tokyo. pp i-v 47


Cited in: Rehman, L.M. and Sheikh, M.I. 1986. Mangroves of Pakistan. The Pakistan Journal of Forestry 36 (4)


250 233

Mirza, M.I., Hassan, M.Z., Akhtar S., Ali J and Sanjirani M.A. 1988. Remote sensing survey of mangrove forest along the coast of Baluchistan. In: Thompson MF & Tirmizi N.M., eds. Marine Science of the Arabian Sea. p. 339-348. AIBS, Washinghton DC.


Cited in: Saifullah, S.M., Fayyaz Raool, Sarwait Iftikhair. 1999. The Mangrove of Baluchistan, Pachistan: an overview. Pakistan Journal of Marine Biology (Mar Res), 5 (2): 195-200, 1999.

The "Year" is the publication year.


207 000

Reid, Collins and Associates, Canada, and Silviconsult Ltd. Sweden. 1992. Forestry Sector Master Plan: National Perspective. Islamabad, Pakistan. 195 pp.


Remote sensing


261 720

UNESCO. 1992. Coastal systems studies and sustainable development. Proceedings of the COMAR Interregional Scientific Conference, UNESCO, Paris, 21-25 May, 1991. UNESCO, Paris. 276 pp.


Cited in: Fisher, P. and Spalding, M.D., 1993. Protected areas with mangrove habitat. Draft report. World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, U.K., 60 pp.

The "Year" is the year of the conference.


168 300

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D., eds. 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. 178 pp.


Map analysis. Scale 1:1 000 000.


154 000

World Resources Institute. 2000. World resources 2000-2001: people and ecosystem—the fraying web of life. Washington, DC., UNDP. 400 pp.


Secondary reference, no primary source provided.

The "Year" is the publication year.

Trends in mangrove area extent over time

The figure for 2000 is based on regression analysis and expert estimate.

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