Previous PageTable Of ContentsNext Page


Vegetation description

Mangroves in Singapore are reduced to small stands found primarily along the eastern half of the northern shore (Changi Creek, Pasir Ris Park, Loyang and Sungei Khatib Bongsu); in the western sector (Mandai and Sungei Buloh Nature Park), on the eastern shore (Pulau Semakau) and on the northern islands of Tekong and Ubin. The main tree species found are Rhizophora sp., Bruguiera sp., Avicennia sp.and Sonneratia sp.

National Council on the Environment. 1994. A first look a biodiversity in Singapore. Singapore, 163 pp.
National Parks Board.
1997. Biodiversity in the Nature Reserves of Singapore. In: L. Chan & R.T. Corlett, eds. Proceedings of the Nature Reserve Survey Seminar. The Garden's Bulletin, Vol. 49, Part 2.

National level mangrove area estimates







22 700

Watson, J.G. 1928. Mangrove forest of the Malay Peninsula. Malay Forest Records No. 6 Singapore, frases & Neave. 275 pp.


Cited in: FAO. 1982. Management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific. FAO environment paper 3. 160 pp.


3 210

Ministry of Culture. 1978. Singapore - Singapore facts and figures, 1978.


Cited in: FAO, UNEP, Zoology Department University of Singapore. 1980. The present state of Mangrove Ecosystems in Southeast Asia and the Impact of Pollution. Singapore. 103 pp.


1 800

Saenger, P., Hegerl E.J. and J.D.S., Davie. 1983. Global status of mangrove ecosystems. Commission on Ecology Papers No.3. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland. 88 pp.


Secondary reference, no primary source provided.

The "Year" is the publication year.


5 600

Corlett, R.T. 1986. Report on the Third Introductory Training Course on Mangrove Ecosystems, UNDP/UNESCO, Singapore, 20 October - 16 November 1985. UNESCO, New Delhi. 46 pp.


Cited in: WCMC. 2000. Coral reefs and mangroves of the world.


1 570

Thang, H. C. 1991. Asean Forest Resource Database Country Report Singapore


Ground survey



Chan, L and R. Corlett., eds. 1999. Biodiversity in the Nature Reserves of Singapore. The Garden's Bulletin, Singapore, 49(2): 147-425


Ground survey

Trends in mangrove area extent over time

No significant changes appear to have taken place since 1990.

Previous PageTop Of PageNext Page