Water for animals AGL/MISC/4/85

Table of Contents

based on the work
FAO Consultant
Land and Water Development Division

Rome, 1986

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

1.1 Rangelands and livestock
1.2 Water is a necessity for livestock
1.3 Man, livestock, water and rangeland are components of the same system
1.4 Suggestions for use of the book

2. Objectives of the manual

3. Interrelations between the components of the system (man, water, livestock, rangeland)

3.1 Man and water

3.1.1 Creation or improvement of water supplies
3.1.2 Water lifting devices and maintenance
3.1.3 Cost of water
3.1.4 Water and rangeland management

3.2 Man and livestock
3.3 Water and livestock

3.3.1 Water quality
3.3.2 Water requirement
3.3.3 Location of the water supplies
3.3.4 Watering facilities

3.4 Livestock and rangeland

3.4.1 Rainfall and rangeland resources
3.4.2 Stocking rate and carrying capacity
3.4.3 Overgrazing problems

3.5 Concluding or summary statement

4. Selection of the type of water supply and distribution

4.1 Water source
4.2 Distribution of water supplies

5. Surface water resources development for rangeland

5.1 Surface water utilization and development
5.2 Excavated reservoirs

5.2.1 Advantages and conditions of use
5.2.2 Selection of sites
5.2.3 Construction
5.2.4 Stock watering and protection of the pond
5.2.5 Maintenance
5.2.6 Case study and cost

5.3 Impounded reservoirs

5.3.1 Main characteristics
5.3.2 Selection of sites

5.4. Rainwater harvesting techniques

5.4.1 Preliminary considerations
5.4.2 Methods for improving catchment runoff efficiency
5.4.3 Building water storage tanks
5.4.4 Case study and cost

5.5 Concluding statement

6. Groundwater resources development for rangelands

6.1 Occurrence of groundwater

6.1.1 Continuous and discontinuous aquifers

6.2 Groundwater exploration techniques

6.2.1 General approach
6.2.2 Purpose of preliminary survey
6.2.3 Preliminary hydrogeological survey - methodology
6.2.4 Additional investigations required for continuous aquifers
6.2.5 Additional investigations required for discontinuous aquifers

6.3 Groundwater development techniques

6.3.1 Selection of the type of well and pump
6.3.2 Dug wells
6.3.3 Drilled wells
6.3.4 Well cistern associated with a drilled well
6.3.5 Springs

6.4 Water lifting devices

6.4.1 Main requirements
6.4.2 Different types of water lifting
6.4.3 Man or animal powered water lifting devices
6.4.4 Motor driven pumps
6.4.5 Wind powered pumps
6.4.6 Solar pumps

6.5 Groundwater monitoring

6.5.1 Need for groundwater monitoring
6.5.2 Rainfall observations
6.5.3 Water level fluctuations
6.5.4 Water abstraction

6.6 Case study and cost

6.6.1 Well construction
6.6.2 Water lifting

6.7 Conclusion on groundwater development