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Table 32. Description of major feedstuffs available in the Philippines



Rice by-products

Rice bran

accounts for 5-10% of the paddy weight, it is derived from the pericarp or bran layer of rice, with some quantities of hull fragments which is unavoidable in the regular milling of rice. It should have the following analysis*:

Cono (D1) - first class or fine rice bran: crude protein - 11% min., fat - 12% min., fiber - 7% max., moisture - 13% max.

Cono (D2)- second class or coarse rice bran: crude protein - 8% min., fat- 4% min., fiber- 18% max., moisture- 13% max.

Kiskis: crude protein - 4% min., fat - 2% min., fiber - 30% max., moisture - 13% max.

It is a good source of B group vitamins but its high lipid level makes it prone to rancidity which significantly reduces feed value. Ideally, rice bran for feed use should have undergone oil-extraction to improve its keeping quality.

Rice polishings

approximately 3% of the paddy weight, rice polishings is the finely powdered material obtained in polishing rice kernels to improve its appearance. It should have the following analysis*: crude protein - 12% min., fat - 15% min., fiber - 6% max., moisture - 13% max. It is lower in protein and fiber than rice bran but has the same storage problem due to its high lipid content.

Rice middlings

consist of bran particles and small fragments of rice kernels obtained as a by-product in the milling of rice.

Corn and by-products

Corn grain

dried and shelled corn with moisture content of generally less than 13%.

Corn grits or hominy grits

hard, flinty portions of sound corn, with little or none of the bran or germ; separated from the rest by screens of different gauges - fine (#22), intermediate (#16), and coarse (# 14). It should have the following analysis*: crude protein - 7% min., fat - 0.5% min., fiber - 2% max., moisture - 13% max.

Corn gluten feed

a combination of corn gluten meal and corn bran mixed in a proportion to contain 20-25% protein. Like all corn products, it is very lysine deficient. It should have the following analysis*: crude protein - 20% min., fat - 2% min., fiber- 8% max., moisture - 13% max.

Hominy feed

by-product of the manufacture of hominy, hominy grits, and corn meal for human consumption. Consists of a mixture of corn bran, corn germ, and varying amounts of finer starchy portions of the grain.

Corn bran

outer coating of the corn kernel, with little or none of the starchy part of the germ. Corn bran should have the following analysis*: crude protein - 10% min., fat - 5% min., fiber - 8% max., moisture - 13% max.

Corn gluten meal

that part of the corn grain that remains after the extraction of the starch and germ, and the separation of the bran by the process employed in the wet milling manufacture of corn starch or syrup. It should have the following analysis*: crude protein - 42% min., fat - 1.5% min., fiber - 4.5% max., moisture - 13% max

Corn germ meal

this is ground corn germ cake (the residual product after extraction of oil from corn germ with other parts of the corn kernel) as separated in the dry milling process of manufacture of corn meal, corn grits, hominy feed, and other corn by-products. It should have the following analysis*: crude protein - 14% min., fat- 10% min., fiber - 9% max., moisture - 13% max.

Wheat flour and by-products

Wheat flour

the starchy interior of the wheat grain, with the fibrous seedcoat, bran and pollard removed. It has a considerably higher protein compared to corn (around 12.8% vs. 8.8%) and aids in the hyderostability of processed feeds.

Wheat pollard

the portion of the wheat bran between the skin or the bran and the white interior (source of white flour). Under Philippine conditions of flour milling, pollard may include millrun, middlings and shorts. It should have the following analysis*: Soft: crude protein - 12% min., fat - 4% min., fiber - 8% max., moisture - 13% max. Hard: crude protein - 16% min., fat - 3% min., fiber - 8% max.,moisture - 13% max.

Wheat bran

consists primarily of the fibrous seed coat, without the germ, which is removed in the manufacture of wheat flour. It contains most of the vitamins and protein of the wheat grain.

Oil cakes

Soybean oil meal

consists of fat extracted soybeans which have been ground to a meal and sometimes pelleted. It is of two types, hulled and dehulled, with protein levels of approximately 44% and 49%, respectively. Soybean oil meal is high in lysine but quite low in methionine and cystine. It contains growth-inhibiting factors, specifically a trypsin inhibitor and urease, but these are readily destroyed with proper processing.

Copra meal

is what remains after the dried coconut meat has been subjected to a mechanical fat extraction process and ground. Copra meal is also available in cake and pellet form. The feedstuff is relatively high in protein (at least 22%) although the quality is relatively low. It is also high in fiber. Copra meal is particularly prone to rancidity and aflatoxin contamination.

Animal and fish processing by-products

Meat and bone meal

consists of unusable animal tissue and bones which have been cooked under steam pressure, partially detagged, dried and ground; usually contains from 55-60% protein; is a good source of calcium and phosphorus

Fish meal

is produced from fish processing wastes or from whole fish. Fish meal quality varies greatly depending on the raw material used.
Most of the local fish meal are by-products in the canning of tuna and sardines and consists of heads, internal organs, scraps, black meat, bones, tail, and reject/spoiling fish. The product is generally high in protein (55-60%) but quality in terms of freshness and bacterial contamination is quite low. Fish meal production in canneries are mechanized. In some areas where trash fish abound, fish meal is produced by grinding sundried fish that has been slightly salted.

Shrimp head/shell meal

made from dried and grounded waste heads and shells of shrimps. Its true protein is only 50-70% since part of this is in the form of indigestible chitin. The ingredient however is a valuable source of this chitin which is important in shrimp diets. Shrimp head/shell meal is also a major source of naturally occurring choline and carotenoids. If not finely ground, the ingredient will tend to reduce feed stability.

Tallow or animal fat

obtained from the tissues of mammals and/or poultry in the commercial processing of rendering or extracting.

*adopted from Bureau of Animal Industry (1975a)

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