Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page

Table 37. Selected non-conventional feedstuffs of potential value to aquaculture available in the Philippines



Nutritional Value1

Existing Preparation Method

African snail (Achatina fulica)

introduced into the Philippines in the 1940s, it has been a serious pest for rice, bananas, and other plants

CP-60%; Ca-2%; P-0.8%; Methionine-1%; Lysine - 4.35%; Cystine- 6%

cooked for 30 minutes to facilitate removal of shell; dried, ground and mixed with other feed ingredients

“Anabiong” (Trema orientalis)

this tree is widely distributed in Asia and grows abundantly in the Philippines; the upper surface of the leaves is rough with the lower side covered with soft hairs

CP- 19% (dry matter); CP -13%; total oxalate - 0.2%

sun dried to a moisture of less than 15% and ground into leaf meal

Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)

a tuber crop, known locally as “uraro”; suitable as substitute for yellow corn in poultry feeds; has a high starch content

DM-91.23%; CP-4.64%; CF- 8.37%; Ash-5.18%; EE-1.06%; NFE- 71.98%; starch-38.32%; energy- 3486 kcal/kg (as fed)

washed thoroughly, sliced, dried at 80°C in a forage dryer and ground


an aquatic fern with symbiotic association with blue-green algae Anabaena spp.

per ton of fresh biomass: CP- 24-30%; 2.1 kg N; 1.05 kg P2O5;1.75 kg K2O; oxalate content-0.2; CP-19%; CF-13%

fed dried or fed directly to animals since drying with 90-93% water is tedious and expensive

Bakery waste

consist primarily of stale bakery products and other bakery wastes

similar to corn in composition except that it is usually much higher in fat and may contain a considerable amount of salt

fed directly

Banana (Musa paradisiaca) leafmeal, fruit rejects

by-product of banana cultivation and processing; produced in significant quantities

leaf meal: CP-13.66%; CF-25.25%; fruit rejects with peelings: 3364 kcal/kg

leafmeal: dried and ground; fruit rejects: sliced or chopped into pieces, dried and then ground

Brewer’s dried grains

brewing residue after most of the starches and sugars have been removed from the barley and other grains; it is relatively rich in protein but is deficient in some amino acids and is high in fiber

CP-23%; EE-6.5%; CF-16.1%

maybe fed in wet form if farm is near the brewery; most brewer’s grains are dried to facilitate handling, shipping and storage

Cassava leaf meal (yellow variety)

obtained by finely grinding dried cassava leaves; it is comparable to ipil-ipil leaf meal or alfalfa meal in nutrient value

CP- 22.3%; CF-8.4%; Ca- 1.42%; P-0.58%

dried and ground

Cassava meal (Manihot esculenta)

use in feeds is limited due to a high carbohydrate and low protein content, and the presence of toxic glucosides; has excellent binding properties

CP-2.5%; EE*- 0.3%; CF- 3.5%; Ash- 1.8%; NFE-79.8%; Ca-0.18%; P- 0.09%; gross energy (yellow variety, with peelings)-3,496 kcal/kg

dried, sliced and ground into fine particles

Chicken manure

dried excreta collected from broiler house or caged layers and uncontaminated with chemicals; relatively high in proteins, minerals and vitamins from spilled feeds

dried poultry waste: true protein - 8-10%; Ca- 3.7-12.5%; P-1.6-2.6%;

dried and used as feed ingredient

Coco (Cocos nucifera) residue

locally known as “sapal”, which is thrown away after the milk has been extracted

DM-89.65%; CP-7.56%; EE-11.18%; CF 17.77%; Ash- 2.9%; NFE-57.39%; gross energy-5554 kcal/kg (high fat)

dried; can be made into mash or pellet form

Coffee (Caffea arabica), spent meal

spent coffee pulp, also hulls

CP-16.3%, EE-12.7%, CF-38.4%

dried and then ground

Earthworm (Perionyx excavatus) meal

can be mass produced with rice bran as feed; has higher protein content than those of conventional protein-rich feed ingredients such as fish meal, meat and bone meal, and soybean meal

CP- 64% (dry); CP-60%; Ca-0.56; ysine-2.65%; Methionine- 0.75%; Cystine-1.74%; P- 0.825

dried or dehydrated, following blanching

Elephant yam/bread/sweet yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus)

locally known as “pongapong”; herbaceous plant, usually grows up to 2 1/2 m tall with a life cycle between 4-6 years

starch but low in protein, vitamins and minerals; gross energy (with peelings)-3,308 kcal/kg

soft boiling to gelatinizing the starch

Fermented mother liquid

a by-product in the manufacture of monosodiumglutamate (a food flavoring)

high in protein (CP- 30%); contains amino acids, vitamins and trace minerals

Fish silage

formic acid fermented mixture (fluid) of fish waste, fish and fish offals

“Gabi” (Colocasia esculenta)

a root crop which is an excellent source of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals

Vit. A and C, Ca and P present in leaves and petioles; gross energy (edible portion)-850 kcal/kg

cooked to remove the itchy crystals (raphides), dried and ground

Giant toad (Bufo marinus) meal

relatively easy to farm, high in protein


dried toads, cut and ground into fine particles

Housefly (Musca domestica) maggots meal

larvae of common housefly

DM-7%; CP-55-60%; ash-11%; NFE-2%; EE-20; Ca- 0.74; P-1.81

dried and ground

Hydrolized feather meal

produced by means of treatment under pressure of clean, undecomposed feathers from the slaughtered poultry, free of additives, and/or accelerators

CP-85-87%; rich in glycine, cystine, and phenylalanine, but deficient in methionine, lysine, histidine, and tryptophan

dried and ground into a meal

Rice middlings

a by-product obtained in the milling process of rice which consists of bran particles and small fragments of rice kernels locally known as “binlid”

DM-85-85%; CP- 8-10%; EE-1-2.6%; CF-1.1-3%; NFE-66-75%

can be used directly as feed ingredient

Rice polishings

a by-product of rice obtained in the milling operation of brushing the grain to polish the kernel

CP-11.8%; EE- 13.2%

can be used directly as feed ingredient

Single cell protein (SCP)

produced by aerobic fermentation of bacteria and yeast SCP (e.g. Candida utilis), fed wiih carbohydrate,hydrocarbon, alcohol and organic acid)


Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) meal

commonly called as “camote”, is loaded with carbohydrates and rich in carotene (provitamin A); exremely low in proteins and minerals, esp. Ca & P; common varieties used are red, purple, white, yellow

Moisture (approx.)- 85%; CP- 2 to 3.5%; gross energy (yellow variety)-3316 kcal/kg

sliced or chopped into pieces, dried and then ground

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

popularly known as waterlily, extract has an amino acid pattern similar to that of soybean oil meal

DM-90.90%; CP-11.6%; EE-1.23%; CF-22.38%, ash-10.76%; NFE-43.04%; Ca-0.033%; P-0.05%

fresh leaves chopped, ground finely, and pressed to extract the juicy substance; extracted juice allowed to stand overnight for solid particles to settle; solid materials are then dried and further ground

Sources: Gerpacio and Castillo (1979), Sison (1983), Devendra (1985), and PCARRD (1986)

1 CP-crude protein, CF-crude fiber; EE-ether extract/crude fat, NFE-nitrogen-free extract, Ca- Calcium, P-Phosphorus

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page