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Appendix 1. Agencies providing technical and/or financial assistance to address micronutrient malnutrition

Academy for Educational Development (AED) 1255 Twenty-third Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA Addresses human development needs through education, communication and information services on topics including micronutrients, health and agriculture.

Appropriate Health Resources and Technologies Action Group (AHRTAG)

Three Castles House, 1 London Bridge Street, London SKI 9SG, UK Provides technical support, training and resources for breastfeeding, diarrhoeal diseases, primary health care and health education.

Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre (AVRDC)

P.O. Box 205, Taipei 10099, Taiwan Assists countries in the region to set up vitamin Arich gardens using indigenous foods.

Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID)

GPO Box 887, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601, Australia Promotes sustainable economic and social advancement and supports numerous nutrition and micronutrient activities in developing countries.

Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI)

University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 140, Kingston 7, Jamaica Improves food and nutrition situation in its member countries through education, training, information dissemination, coordination and research.

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

200 Promenade Portage, Hull, Quebec K1 A 0G4, Canada Supports micronutrient activities, especially efforts to promote universal iodisation of salt in Africa, Latin America and Asia.

Centre d' Etudes économiques et sociales de l'Afrique occidentale (CESAO)

BP 305, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkino Faso Promotes comprehensive participatory development through primary research and related activities, especially in the Francophone areas of West Africa.

Christoffel Blindenmission

Nibelungen Strasse 124, Bensheim 4 D-6140, Germany Carries out blindness-prevention activities including prevention of vitamin A deficiency through nutrition education.

Economic Commission for Africa of the UN

P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Offers wideranging training, research and education in nutrition and rural development for women.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy Provides assistance and support to governments in developing the food, agriculture and nutrition components of their micronutrient strategies.

Helen Keller International (HKI)

15 West Sixteenth Street, New York, NY 10011, USA Provides technical assistance on a wide range of components of vitamin A and other micronutrient deficiency control programmes, including advocacy, assessment, training, social marketing and operational research.

Institut d'Ophthamologie tropicale de l'Afrique (IOTA)

P.O. Box 248, Bamako, Mali Addresses problems of blinding diseases in West Africa through studies, surgical expertise and training.

Institut du Sahel (INSAH)

Boulevard de l'Independence, BP 15, Bamako, Mali Serves as an information centre on Vitamin A for Francophone African countries.

Instituto de Nutrición de Centro América y Panama (INCAP)

Centro Regional de Documentation, Apartado 1188,01901 Guatemala, Guatemala Promotes practical research and capacity building through training, formal education programmes, technical assistance, research and information services.

International Agricultural Centre (IAC)

P.O. Box 88,11 Lawickse Allee, 6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands Supports IDD control programmes and wide-ranging activities in food fortification, including training programmes.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Section of Nutrition and Health-Related Environmental Studies

P.O. Box 100, A- 1400 Vienna, Austria Supports research programmes in various aspects of human nutrition through coordinated and technical cooperation.

International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN)

GIFA, Case 157, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland Promotes and protects breastfeeding, especially in developing countries.

International Centre for Eye Health (ICEH)

Institute of Opthamology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK Provides training in primary eye care.

International Council for the Control of iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) c/o Health Development Foundation, 8th Floor Samual Way Building, 72 King William Road, North Adelaide 5006, Australia Provides advice and technical consultation on all aspects of IDD.

International Development Research Centre (IDRC)

P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario KIG 3H9, Canada Lends direct support to scientists working in various sectors such as food systems under stress, health and the environment.

International Eye Foundation

7801 Norfolk Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA Organizes programmes and services for the prevention and cure of blindness in Latin America, Caribbean, Africa and Eastern Europe.

International Food Policy and Research Institute (IFPRI)

1200 Seventeenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036, USA Explores cost-effective alternatives for increasing micronutrient intakes via the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

Box 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria Conducts international agricultural research and outreach activities with national agricultural research systems (NARS), particularly on maize, cassava, cowpea, plantain, soybean and yam.

International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI)

1126 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-4810, USA Provides research and information exchange on nutrition and food safety issues.

International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS)

Barbara Burlingame, Cropland Food Research, Palmerstone North Research (Centre, Private Bag 11030, Palmerstone, New Zealand Promotes global collaboration amongst those concerned with the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of foods.

International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group (INACG)

ILSI Research Foundation, 1126 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-4810, USA

Works towards reducing the prevalence of iron deficiency and other nutritionally preventable anaemias worldwide.

International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)

1717 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA Supports policy-oriented research, programs and analytical services designed to promote social and economic development with women's full participation.

International Vitamin A Consultative Group (IVACG)

ILSI Research Foundation, 1126 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-4810, USA Offers consultation and guidance to organisations seeking to reduce vitamin A deficiency.

La Leche League International (LLLI)

P. O. Box 1209, Franklin Park, IL 60131 8209, USA Provides worldwide mother-to mother breastfeeding support groups, and has the largest English language breastfeeding database.

The Manoff Group

2001 S Street, NW, Washington, DC 20009, USA Provides technical assistance in social marketing in nutrition and health programmes, including breastfeeding practices, growth monitoring and micronutrient malnutrition.

Micronutrient Initiative

c/o International Development Research Centre, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa K1G 3H9, Canada Provides support for projects to catalyse the sustainable control of micronutrient malnutrition.

Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP)

P.O. Box 653, MCC, Makati, Metro-Manila, Philippines Supports wide-ranging nutrition activities through the delivery of integrated services, training, development and production of communication materials and research.

OMNI (Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions)/USAID

John Snow, Inc., 1616 N. Fort Myer Drive, 11th Floor, Arlington, VA 22209, USA Provides technical support to control and prevent micronutrient deficiencies, food-based strategies and supplementation programs.

Organisme de recherches sur l'alimentation et la nutrition africaines (ORANA)

39, Avenue Pasteur, BP 2089, Dakar, Senegal Houses the ORANA Information Centre on Child Survival, a regional resource base on diarrhoeal disease, nutrition and vitamin A for Francophone African countries.


Health Unit, 274 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7DZ, UK Involved in education activities through sister organizations, local committees and field offices in 48 countries and territories.

Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH)

4 Nickerson Street, Seattle, WA 98109, USA Identifies, develops and applies appropriate and innovative solutions to public health problems including micronutrient malnutrition.

Programme Against Micronutrient Malnutrition (PAMM)

Centre for International Health, Emory University, School of Public Health, 1599 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA Holds training courses on laboratory methods, communication and management aspects of micronutrient deficiency control programmes.

Sight Savers

P.O. Box 191, Haywards Heath, West Sussex RH16 1FN, UK Provides professional training to prevent xerophthalmia; supports publication of the Xerophthalmia Club Bulletin.

Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)

International Child Health Unit, Uppsala University, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden Supports nutrition initiatives in vitamin A deficiency, anaemia and IDD control through capacity and institution building activities.

Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC)

P.O. Box 977, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Serves as the secretariat for national micronutrient consultative groups; provides technical assistance and coordination for national micronutrient programs.

Task Force Sight and Life

P.O. Box 2116, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland Provides materials, finances or services to intervention projects designed to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

Teaching Aids at Low Cost (TALC)

P.O. Box 49, St. Albans, Herts AL1 4AX, UK Provides low-cost educational materials on health and nutrition, and has compiled a listing of 42 free newsletters on related issues.

Tropical Disease Research Centre (TDRC)

P.O. Box 71769, Ndola, Zambia Collects and disseminates information on vitamin A to Anglophone African countries.

UN Administrative Committee on Coordination/ Sub Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN)

c/o WHO, Avenue Appia 20, CH- 1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland Serves as a focal point for harmonizing and disseminating information on nutrition policies and activities in the UN system.


3 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA Provides financial and technical support for food-based approaches to the control of micronutrient deficiencies.

US Agency for International Development (USAID)

Office of Health and Nutrition, Bureau for Global Programs, Field Support and Research, Washington, DC 20523- 1817, USA Addresses major micronutrient deficiencies through supplementation, food fortification, dietary modification, breastfeeding promotion and intervention programmes in developing countries.

Wellstart International

3333 K Street, NW, Suite 101,Washington, DC 20007, USA Promotes practical approaches to support successful breastfeeding practices.

World Bank

1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA Provides loans for micronutrient programmes in developing countries, with special interest in fortification programmes and other food-based programmes that have received funding as well.

World Food Programme (WFP)

Via Cristoforo Colombo 426,00145 Rome, Italy Targets relief assistance and development programmes to the poorest populations, particularly vulnerable groups such as mothers, infants and children of pre-school and school age.

World Health Organization (WHO)

CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland Maintains data banks, provides international technical guidelines and provides technical assistance to micronutrient programmes through national ministries of health.

World Vision International (WVI)

121 East Huntington Drive, Monrovia, CA 91016-3400, USA Provides children and families with emergency relief, rehabilitation and community development.

Worldview International Foundation (WIF) Comprehensive Nutrition and Blindness Prevention Programme

/5, Block C (2nd Floor), Lalmatia, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh Implements large-scale food-based micronutrient control programmes in Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

Appendix 2. Further reading

Vitamin A

IVACG (International Vitamin A Consultative Group).1986. Methodologies for monitoring and evaluating vitamin A deficiency intervention program. Washington, DC: IVACG/ILSI (International Life Sciences Institute)/Nutrition Foundation.

IVACG. 1989. Guidelines for the development of a simplified dietary assessment to identify groups at risk for inadequate intake of vitamin A. Washington, DC: IVACG/ILSI/Nutrition Foundation.

IVACG. 1992. XIV IVACG Meeting, 1991 June 18-21, Guayaquil, Ecuador. Washington, DC: IVACG/ILSI/Nutrition Foundation.

IVACG. 1993. A brief guide to current methods of assessing vitamin A status. Washington, DC: IVACG/ILSI/Nutrition Foundation.

Micronutrient Initiative. 1994. Vitamin A key resources, 2nd ed. Ottawa, Canada: The Micronutrient Initiative.

Rodale Institute. The vitamin A sieve [published semi-annually]. Rodale Press Information Services, 33 E. Minor Street, Emmaus, PA 18098, USA.

Vitamin A news notes [newsletter]. New York: Helen Keller International.

Xerophthalmia Club Bulletin (MacLaren DS, ed.). International Centre for Eye Health, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1 V9EL, UK.


DeMaeyer E. 1989. Preventing and controlling iron deficiency anaemia through primary health care. A guide for health administrators and programme managers. Geneva: World Health Organization.

INACG (International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group).1981. Iron deficiency in women. Washington, DC: INACG/Nutrition Foundation.

INACG. 1986. Combating iron deficiency in Chile: a case study. Washington, DC: INACG/ILSI/Nutrition Foundation.

INACG. 1989. Guidelines for the control of maternal nutritional anemia. Washington, DC: INACG/ILSI/Nutrition Foundation.


Mannar MGV, Dunn JT. 1995. Salt iodization for the elimination of iodine deficiency. MI/ ICCIDD/WHO/UNICEF. Ottawa, Canada: Micronutrient Initiative.

Sullivan KM, Houston R. Gorstein J. Cervinska J. eds. 1995. Monitoring of universal iodization programmes. Ottawa, Canada: Micronutrient Initiative.


Den Hartog AP, Van Staveren WA, Brouwer ID. 1995. Manual for social surveys on food habits and consumption in developing countries. Heidelberg, Germany: Monograph Verlag.

Helen Keller International (HKI). 1994. How to use the HKI food frequency method to assess community risk of vitamin A deficiency. New York: HKI.

Rosen DS. 1992. Conducting a qualitative assessment of vitamin A deficiency: a field guide for program managers. New York: HKI.

West CE, Poortuliet EJ. 1993. The carotenoid content of foods with special reference to developing countries. Washington, DC: VITAL.


Brownrigg L. 1985. Home gardening in international development: what the literature shows. Washington, DC: League for International Food Education.

Dupriez H. De Leener P. 1989. African gardens and orchards: growing vegetables and fruit. London: Macmillan Press Ltd. (available in French).

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (Undated). Techniques de transformation et conservation artisanales de fruits et legumes. Rome: FAO.

FAO Regional Office for Asia/Mahidol University. 1995. Empowering vitamin A foods: a food-based process for Asia and the Pacific region. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO.

Midmore DJ, Niñez V, Venkataraman R. 1991. Household gardening projects in Asia: past experience and future directions (report of a workshop sponsored by the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre). Taiwan.

Pacey A. 1987. Gardening for better nutrition. London: Oxfam.

Peduzzi CS. 1990. Home and community gardens assessment: program implementation experience: the tip of the iceberg. Washington, DC: VITAL.

Sommers P. 1982. The UNICEF home gardens handbook for people promoting mixed gardening in the humid tropics. New York: UNICEF.

Sommers P. 1985. Gardening for food in the semi-arid tropics: a handbook for programme planners. A WHO/UNICEF Joint Nutrition Support Programme Publication.

Vitamin A Field Support Project. 1991. Getting out the message: a review of communications strategies for promoting vitamin A interventions. Arlington, VA, USA: VITAL, International Science and Technology Institute, Inc.


Clydesdale FM, Wiemer KL, eds. 1985. Iron fortification of foods. London: Academic Press.

Draper A. 1996. Street foods in developing countries: the potential for micronutrient fortification. Rosslyn, VA: OMNI, John Snow Inc.

FAO. 1996. Report of Technical Consultation on Food Fortification Technology and Quality Control. Rome: FAO.

Lotfi M, Mannar MGV, Merx RJHM, Naber-van der Heuvel. 1996. Micronutrient fortification of foods: current practices, research and opportunities. Ottawa, Canada: Micronutrient Initiative.

Micronutrient Initiative/OMNI (Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions). 1996. Sharing risk and reward: public-private collaboration to eliminate micronutrient malnutrition. Report of the Forum on Food Fortification, Ottawa, Canada.

Nutrition Communication

Andrien M. 1992. Social communication in nutrition: a methodology for interventions. Rome: FAO (available in French).

Rasmuson MR, Seidel RE, Smith W. Booth EM. 1988. Communications for child survival. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development (available in French, Spanish and Bahasa Indonesia).

Seidel R. 1989. Results and realities: a decade of experience in communication for child survival. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development.


Arroyave G. Dary O. 1996. Manual for sugar fortification with vitamin A. Washington, DC: OMNI.

FAO. 1993. Guidelines: developing action plans for nutrition. Rome: FAO Food, Nutrition and Agriculture (quarterly; issue 7,1993, devoted to micronutrients); free to developing countries. Rome: Food and Nutrition Division, FAO.

OMNI. 1994. Micronutrient fortification and enrichment of P.L. 480 Title II commodities: recommendations for improvement. Available from OMNI-John Snow, Inc., Rosslyn, VA

PAMM News. Atlanta, GA: Emory University, Program Against Micronutrient Malnutrition.

WHO. 1993. Policy framework for ensuring sound practices in the feeding of infants and young children. Geneva: World Health Organization.

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