Organization, operation and maintenance of irrigation schemes - FAO irrigation and drainage paper 40

Table of Contents


J.A. Sagardoy
FAO Land and Water Development Division with contributions from
A. Bottrall
Consultant, Overseas Development Institute
G.O. Uittenbogaard
FAO Land and Water Development Division

Reprinted 1986

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ISBN 92-5-101245-8

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© FAO 1982

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Table of Contents




Part I - The organization of irrigation schemes

1. Goals and irrigation organizational structures

1.1 Associations, institutions and organizations
1.2 Goals, objectives and targets
1.3 The organizational hierarchy of goals
1.4 Main types of organizational structures
1.5 Segregated organizational structures
1.6 Integrated organizational structures

2. Planning the project organization

2.1 Organizational structure at the project level

2.1.1 The organization of water management activities
2.1.2 The distribution of responsibility

2.2 Organizational structure at the small group level
2.3 Organization at the government level

3. Main types of irrigation organizations

3.1 Integrated management organizations

3.1.1 State farms
3.1.2 Irrigation settlement projects
3.1.3 Irrigation cooperatives

3.2 Specialized water management organizations

3.2.1 Irrigation associations
3.2.2 Public irrigation schemes
3.2.3 Establishment of specialized water management organizations
3.2.4 Irrigation schemes with mixed control

3.3 Multipurpose water management organizations

4. Managing the project

4.1 The nature of the management function

4.1.1 Overall direction and coordination
4.1.2 Management of specialized activities

4.2 Managers
4.3 Preconditions for good project management
4.4 The importance of management systems

4.4.1 A management system and its components - An example
4.4.2 Particular requirements of irrigation projects
4.4.3 Planning management systems

4.5 Personnel training

4.5.1 Conditions for success: Improved career and promotion prospects

4.6 Water charges and their effect on the quality of management

Part II - The services of a water management organization

General remarks

5. Operation service

5.1 Main objectives of an operation service
5.2 Planning the operation

5.2.1 Estimating future water supply
5.2.2 Estimating water demand
5.2.3 Matching supply and demand
5.2.4 Restrictive measures to match supply and demand

5.3 Distribution of water (implementation)

5.3.1 On-demand
5.3.2 Semi-demand
5.3.3 Canal rotation and free demand
5.3.4 Rotational system
5.3.5 Continuous flow

5.4 Monitoring the operation
5.5 Staffing the operation service

5.5.1 Water guards
5.5.2 Operators of large structures
5.5.3 Pump-set operators
5.5.4 Water masters
5.5.5 Chief of the operation service
5.5.6 Auxiliary staff

5.6 Equipment
5.7 Organizational structure

6. Maintenance service

6.1 Main functions
6.2 Types of maintenance
6.3 Maintenance activities

6.3.1 Dam and reservoir
6.3.2 Irrigation network
6.3.3 Drainage network
6.3.4 Rural road network and flood protection dykes
6.3.5 Pump stations
6.3.6 Ancillary works

6.4 Planning maintenance activities

6.4.1 Inventory of the works
6.4.2 Volume of maintenance activities
6.4.3 Optimum cycle of maintenance
6.4.4 Machinery and manpower requirements
6.4.5 Costing and establishing maintenance priorities

6.5 Implementation of the maintenance programme
6.6 Staffing the maintenance service

6.6.1 Labourers
6.6.2 Ganger or headman
6.6.3 Overseer
6.6.4 Work inspector
6.6.5 Machine operators
6.6.6 Mechanics
6.6.7 Chief of maintenance

6.7 Organizational structure

7. Irrigation assistance service

7.1 Planning for the irrigation assistance
7.2 Objectives and main types of irrigation assistance at the farm level
7.3 Irrigation practices improvement

7.3.1 Main activities
7.3.2 Organizational alternatives

7.4 On-farm development

7.4.1 Main activities
7.4.2 Land grading or levelling
7.4.3 Organizational alternatives

7.5 Tertiary canal system improvement

7.5.1 Public sector approach
7.5.2 Participatory approach

7.6 Manpower requirements

8. Administrative service

8.1 Main functions

8.1.1 Accounting and financial control
8.1.2 Procurement of supplies and warehousing
8.1.3 Legal matters
8.1.4 Personnel matters
8.1.5 Various

8.2 Water rates

8.2.1 Determination of water rates
8.2.2 Method of payment
8.2.3 Monomial and binomial rates
8.2.4 Increasing or decreasing rates

8.3 Financial viability of the organization
8.4 Staffing of the administrative service
8.5 Organizational alternatives

Annex I - Associations of irrigation water users

1. Origins
2. Types of associations and their establishment
3. Legal character
4. Water use rights
5. Functional bodies

Annex II - Irrigation scheduling

1. Introduction
2. Rotational supply with limited water

2.1 Theoretical base
2.2 Determining the rotational supply
2.3 Example
2.4 Related design considerations

3. Rotational scheduling under full water supply conditions