Intensive sheep production in the near east

Soterios Economides
FAO Consultant

Rome, 1983

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ISBN 92-5-101399-3

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© FAO1983





2.1 Semi-intensive and intensive production systems

2.2 Early weaning and suckling regimes

2.3 Fattening

[Part 1 ; Part 2 ]

3.1 Choice of location

3.2 Housing system

3.3 Floor and floor space

3.4 Ventilation

3.5 Manure handling

3.6 Feed handling facilities

3.7 Feeding facilities

3.8 Watering facilities

3.9 Fencing

3.10 Building materials

3.11 Farm layout

[Part 1; Part 2;Part 3; Part 4]

4.1 Improving breeding efficiency

4.2 Early breeding of ewe lambs

4.3 Management at mating

4.4 Management of ewes and suckling lambs from birth to weaning

4.5 Weaning

4.6 Artificial rearing of lambs

4.7 Milking

4.8 Machine milking

4.9 General disease control measures

4.10 Control of parasites

4.11 Major diseases in sheep

4.12 Health problems of young lambs

4.13 Nutritional disorders

4.14 Trimming of hooves, castration, docking and dehorning

4.15 Fleece and shearing

4.16 Record keeping

4.17 Feeding of the ewe

4.18 Water intake


5.1 Lamb fattening from weaning to 35-40 kg liveweight

5.2 Slaughter weight

5.3 Fattening of older lamhs



Figure 1

Types of roof shape.

Figure 2

Hay storage shed. Dimensions depend on the quantity of hay to be stored.

Figure 3

Portable grain trough with cover. The length is variable. Cover is optional. Small quantities of hay can also be fed.

Figure 4

Portable grain and hay feeder. Hay is placed on the top. It is used for small groups of ewes (see also Photograph 3).

Figure 5

Grain and hay racks.

Figure 6

Grain self-feeder for lambs. The length is variable. Lambs can be fed from one side (single) or both sides (double).

Figure 7

Fenceline feeding bunk. Hay and grains or complete diets can be fed. The bunks are constructed on the perimeter of the open yard or under the sheltered area (see also Photographs 2 and 4).

Figure 8

Creep feeding and partial suckling enclosure. Creep feeding starts two weeks after lambing. When partial suckling starts after the fourth week, a sliding door or a fence is used to close the creep panels and isolate the lambs from the ewes. A similar construction without the creep panels is used for lamb-bar. Milk is placed in plastic containers outside the enclosure and suckling teats inside, connected with plastic tubing (see also Photograph 5).

Figure 9

Concrete waterer with float valve. The length is variable.

Figure 10

Oil drum waterer. Float valve may be installed if connected to a water pipe.

Figure 11

Automatic waterer.

Figure 12

Fencing: corner post. With barbed wire to fence the perimeter of the barns or of the pastures. Without barbed wire for divisions inside the barn or the paddocks.

Figure 13

Gate. Width of three metres for tractor access in the yards.

Figure 14

Sorting chutes. Two way (left) or three way (right) sorting chute.

Figure 15

Fattening unit for 50 lambs from weaning up to 40 kg liveweight. Sheltered area of 6m x 8m including feeding alley and feeding troughs for 50 lambs. Windows for better ventilation during hot weather. Gate three metres wide for tractor access. Feeding alley is used for sorting. Perimeter of the open yard with permanent fencing. Division between the two open yards permanent fencing or movable hurdles.

Figure 16

Fattening unit for lots of 50 feeder lambs over 4Q kg liveweight. Sheltered area 8m x 8m for 50 lambs. Other details as in Figure 15,

Figure 17

Farm layout for 100 ewes. Hay and grain bunks are used. W = Automatic waterer. Creep = Creep feeding area and partial suckling enclosure. S.P. = Starter pen. 1.b. = lamb-bar. Office includes a small toilet. After lambing the area of lambing pens is used for lamb fattening after weaning. Hurdles for divisions in the barn are moved after weaning. Permanent fencing (-/-/-/-/-) hurdles (-.-.-), alterations after lambing to form the fattening unit (-------).

Figure 18

Farm layout for 100 ewes. Fenceline bunk is used. Other details as in Figure 17.

Figure 19

Lambing pens. Prepared from movable hurdles. Side walls of 2 metres. Front doors of 1.2 metres. Height 1 metre.

Figure 20

Hurdles. Prepared from galvanized iron pipes (left), usually for large animals, or frame from galvanized iron pipes, and woven or chain link wire (right). Movable doors (bottom left). Hurdles are placed in the ground (bottom right) with the legs of the hurdles placed inside.

Figure 21

Milking stands. A wooden ramp leads to the wooden floor through an opening (45cm x 45cm). Another ramp leads from the opening gate to the collection yard.

Figure 22

Milking parlour. Layout of the pit system. The pit is 90cm deep.

Figure 23

Yokes. Details of the mobile framework and the yokes. Grain feeder is optional.

Figure 24

Dipping tank. Permanent dipping vat and footbath. Hurdles for fencing collecting yards.


Photograph 1

Storage shed for hay

Photograph 2

Fenceline feeding bunk and feed storage shed

Photograph 3

Portable trough for roughage and concentrates

Photograph 4

Fenceline feeding bunk

Photographs 5

Creep feeding and partial suckling enclosure: creep panel closed (top photograph); creep panel open (bottom photograph)

Photograph 6

Rams in mating pens

Photograph 7

Ewes indentified in heat in the mating enclosure

Photograph 8

Recording of ewes'weight after lambing

Photograph 9

A portable weighing scale

Photograph 10

Recording of birth weight of lambs. The sling can also be used for larger lambs

Photograph 11

Eartagging of lamb at birth together with weighing in a bucket

Photograph 12

Disinfection of lamb's navel

Photograph 13

Assisting lamb in sucking colostrum

Photograph 14

Lambs start on solid feed

Photograph 15

Milk replacer is reconstituted to give dry matter of 20 percent

Photographs 16

Lamb-bar - Portable plastic container fitted with nipples

Photographs 17

Lamb-bar. Plastic container with milk outside the pen. -The nipples are attached on a piece of flat sheet steel fixed on the inside of the pen.

Photograph 18

Ewe on a milking stand; machine-milked by a portable unit

Photograph 19

Milking parlour, pit system. Individual grain racks attached to the yokes (optional)

Photographs 20

Milking parlour, pit system. Upper photograph shows the position of yokes before milking

Photograph 21

Drenching gun (top), multidose syringe (bottom)

Photograph 22

Dehorning wire (left), hand shears (right) and hoof trimming scissors (middle)

Photograph 23

Trimming of hooves

Photographs 24

Electric shearing machine

Photograph 25

Shearing after lambing