Previous Page Table of Contents


Abiya, I.O., 1996. Towards sustainable utilization of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 2: 231–42.

Adamek, Z. and I. Adamkova, 1999. Environmental determinants of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) egg microhabitat. Abstract. In: Seventh Internat Symp. on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes, 10–13 May 1999, University of Lodz, Poland.

Akkermann, R., 1975. Untersuchungen zur Okologie und Populationsdynamik des Bisam (Ondatra zibethicus L.) an einem norddeutschem Verlandungssee. Z. angew. Zool. 62: 39–81, 173–218, 281–338.

Anderson, I., 1996. Weevils go to work on water weeds. New Scientist, 6 April 1996, p. 10.

Anderson, M.G. and J.P. Low, 1976. Use of sago pondweed by waterfowl on the Delta Marsh, Manitoba. J. Wildl. Manage. 40: 233–42.

Andersson, G., 1981. Influence of fish on waterfowl in lakes. Anser 20: 21–34.

Anon., 1974. An International Centre for Manatee Research. Report of a Workshop held 7–13 February 1974, Georgetown, Guyana, South America. The National Science Research Council, Georgetown, Guyana. 34p.

Anon., 1985. Weed-infested waterways cleared by imported weevil. Ceres No. 105: 4–6.

Anon., 1989. Weed feeder helps to fight disease. Fish Farming International, May 1989.

Anon., 1994. Proceedings of the Grass Carp Symposium, March 7–9, 1994, Gainesville, Florida. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, USA. 242p.

Araujo-Lima, C.A.R.M., M. Goulding, B. Forsberg, R. Victoria and L. Martinelli, 1998. The economic value of the Amazonian flooded forest from fisheries perspective. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26: 2177–9.

Araujo-Lima, C.A.R.M., L.P.S. Portugal and E.G. Ferreira, 1986. Fish-macrophyte relationship in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, a black water system in the Central Amazon. J. Fish Biol. 29: 1–11.

Arnold, W.R., 1979. Fluridone - a new aquatic herbicide. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 17: 30–3.

Arumugam, P.T., 1994. Present utilization and recommendations for management of tin-mine lakes in Malaysia. Mitt. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24: 265–72.

Bailey, R.G., S. Churchfield, T. Petr and R. Pimm, 1978. The ecology of the fishes in Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir, Tanzania. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 10: 109–37.

Bailey, R.G. and M.R. Litterick, 1993. The macroinvertebrate fauna of water hyacinth fringes in the Sudd swamps (River Nile, southern Sudan). Hydrobiologia 250: 97–103.

Bailey, W.M., 1978. A comparison of fish populations before and after extensive grass carp stocking. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 107: 181–206.

Baily, W.M., 1975. Operational experiences with the white amur in weed control programs. In: Proc. Symp. on Water Quality Management through Biological Control (eds P.L. Brezonik and J. F. Fox): pp. 75–8. Univ. of Florida and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gainesville, Jan. 29–31, 1975.

Bakar, B.B., S.M. Amin and E.B. Yusof, 1984. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)(Solms) in Malaysia: status and distribution, problems and control. In: Procs International Conference on Water Hyacinth (ed. G. Thyagarajan): 944–58. UNEP, Nairobi.

Bakry, M.F., 1996. The improvement of irrigation conveyance efficiency with respect to biologial agent, using grass carp. In: Sustainability of Irrigated Agriculture - Irrigation Planning: Measures in Harmony with the Environment. Vol. 1-C: pp.181–93. Internat. Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID). New Delhi.

Balciunas, J.K., 1991. Progress during 1990 in the search for biological control agents in temperate Asia. Procs. 25th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, 26–30 November 1990, Orlando, Florida. Final Report, pp.166–71. Environmental Laboratory, Waterways Experimental Station, Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Miss., USA.

Balciunas, J.K., T.D. Center and F.D. Dray, 1989. Testing suitability of Australian bioagents for control of Hydrilla verticillata. Procs 23rd Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Miscellaneous Paper A-89-1: pp.24–27. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Barko, J.W., M.S. Adams and N.L. Clesceri, 1986. Environmental factors and their consideration in the management of submersed aquatic vegetation: a review. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 24: 1–10.

Barnett, B.S. and R.W. Schneider, 1974. Fish populations in dense submersed plant communities. Hyacinth Control J. 12: 12–14.

Barnley, G.R., (undated). Anti-malarial precautions in the management of fish ponds. Uganda Medical Department. A Health Education Division Publication.

Bayley, P., 1989. Aquatic environments in the Amazon Basin, with an analysis of carbon sources, fish production and yield. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 106: 309–408.

Beadle, L.C., 1981. The Inland Waters of Tropical Africa. An Introduction to Tropical Limnology. Longman, London. 475p.

Best, E.P.H., 1982. The aquatic macrophytes of Lake Vechten. Species composition, spatial distribution and production. Hydrobiologia 95: 115–77.

Best, R.C., 1981. Foods and feeding habits of wild and captive Sirenia. Mammal. Rev. 11: 3–29.

Bettoli, P.W., M.J. Maceina, R.L. Noble and R.K. Betsill, 1992. Piscivory in largemouth bass as a function of aquatic vegetation abundance. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 12: 509–16.

Bettoli, P.W., M.J. Maceina, R.L. Noble and R.K. Betsill, 1993. Response of a reservoir fish community to aquatic vegetation removal. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 13: 110–24.

Bhukaswan, T., S. Pholprasith and S. Chatmalai, 1981. Aquatic weed control by the grass carp. Thai Fish. Gaz. 34:529–38.

Bickerstaff, W.B., C.D. Ziebell and W.J. Matter, 1984. Vulnerability of redbelly tilapia fry to bluegill predation with changes in cover availability. North Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 4: 120–5.

Bina, R.T., R.S. Jara, E.N. Lorenzo and B.R. de Jesus, Jr., 1978. Detection and monitoring of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) infestation in Laguna de Bay through multispectral digital analysis of Landsat imageries. NRMC Research Monograph No.5. Quezon City, Republic of the Philippines. 9p.

Bishai, H.M., 1960/1961. The effect of the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, on the fisheries of the Sudan. Hydrobiol. Res. Unit, Univ. Khartoum, Sudan, 8th Ann. Rep.: 29–36.

Blanco-Belmonte, L., J.J. Neiff and A. Poi de Neiff, 1998. Invertebrate fauna associated with floating macrophytes in the floodplain lakes of the Orinoco (Venezuela) and Parana (Argentina). Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26: 2030–4.

Blindow, I., G. Andersson, A. Hargeby and S. Johansson, 1993. Long-term pattern of alternative stable states in two shallow eutrophic lakes. Freshwater Biology 30: 159–167.

Blonmark, C. and S.E.B. Weisner, 1992. Indirect effects of fish community structure on submersed vegetation in shallow, eutrophic lakes: an alternative mechanism. Hydrobiologia 243/244: 293–301.

Bolser, R.C., M.E. Hay, N. Lindquist, W. Fenical and D. Wilson, 1998. Chemical defenses of freshwater macrophytes against crayfish herbivory. J. Chem. Ecology 24: 1639–58.

Bonar, S.A., 1990. Efficacy of sterile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) for aquatic plant control in the Pacific Northwest. Doctoral dissertation. University of Washington. Pullman. 273p.

Bonar, S.A., S.A. Vecht, C.R. Bennett, G.B. Pauley and G.L. Thomas, 1993. Capture of grass carp from vegetated lake. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 31: 168–74.

Boonsom, J., 1984. Zooplankton feeding in the fish Trichogaster pectoralis Regan. Hydrobiologia 113: 217–21.

Boorman, L.A. and R.M. Fuller, 1981. The changing status of reedswamps in the Norfolk Broads. J. appl. Ecol. 18: 241–69.

Borawa, J.C., J.H. Kerby, T. Huish and A.W. Mullis, 1979. Currituck Sound fish populations before and after infestation by Eurasian water-milfoil. Procs. Ann. Conf. SE Assoc. Fish and Wildlife Agencies 32: 520–28.

Bowker, D.W. and P. Denny, 1978. The periphyton communities of Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir, Tanzania. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 10:49–65.

Boyd, C.E., 1968. Fresh water plants: a potential source of protein. Econ. Bot. 22: 359–68.

Boyer, M.G. and C.E. Cichra, 1994. Effects of 2,4-D amine on the movement of largemouth bass. (Abstract). Lake and Reservoir Management 9(2): 58.

Boyer, M.G. and C.E. Cichra, 1994a. Effects of 2,4-D amine on largemouth bass feeding behaviour. (Abstract). Lake and Reservoir Management 9(2):59.

Brakhage, D., 1994. Comments on the Symposium. In: Proceedings of the Grass Carp Symposium, March 7–9, 1994, Gainesville, Florida. Pp. 239–40. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

Brege, D.A., 1986. A management plan for Lake Puckaway, Green Lake County, Wisconsin. 6th Annual International Symposium: Lake and Reservoir Management: Influences of Nonpoint Source Pollutants and Acid Precipitation. November 5–8, 1986, Portland, Oregon. P.32.

Breukelaar, A.W., E.H.R.R. Lammens, J.P.G. Klein Breteler and I. Tatrai, 1994. Effect of benthivorous bream (Abramis brama) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) on resuspension. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limno. 25: 2144–7.

Bronmark, C., 1985. Interactions between macrophytes, epiphytes and herbivores: an experimental approach. Oikos 45: 26–30.

Bronmark, C., 1994. Effects of tench and perch on interactions in a freshwater, benthic food chain. Ecology 75: 1818–28.

Bronmark, C. and J.E. Vermaat, 1998. Complex fish-snail-epiphyton interactions and their effects on submerged freshwater macrophytes. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 47–68. Springer, New York.

Brooker, M.P. and R.W. Edwards, 1975. Aquatic herbicides and the control of water weeds. Wat. Res. 9: 1–15.

Brummett, R.E., 1995. Weed control by adult and juvenile Tilapia rendalli in rainfed ponds. Naga: 18 (1): 25–28.

Bruton, M.N., 1985. The effects of suspensoids on fish. Hydrobiologia 125: 221–41.

Buddington, R.K., 1979. Digestion of an aquatic macrophyte by Tilapia zillii (Gervais). J. Fish Biol. 15: 449–55.

Burgis, M.J., J.P.E.C. Darlington, I.G. Dunn. G.G. Ganf, J.J. Gwahaba and L.M. McGowan, 1973. The biomass and distribution of organisms in Lake George, Uganda. Proc. Roy Soc. Lond. B184: 271–98.

Caffrey, J.M., 1993. Aquatic plant management in relation to Irish recreational fisheries development. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 31: 162–8.

Caffrey, J.M., 1996. Glyphosate in fisheries management. Hydrobiologia 340: 259–63.

Cailteux, R.L., W.F. Porak, S. Crawford and L. Connor, 1994. Food habits and growth of largemouth bass in vegetated vs. unvegetated lakes in central Florida. (Abstract). Lake and Reservoir Management 9(2): 61.

Canfield, D.E. and M.V. Hoyer, 1992. Aquatic macrophytes and their relation to the limnology of Florida lakes. Final Report. Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, Florida. 598p.

Carlander, K.D., 1980. Water hyacinth and overfishing problems of an Indonesian lake. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 87(1): 20–2.

Carpenter, S.R. and D.M. Lodge, 1986. Effects of submersed macrophytes on ecosystem. Aquat. Bot. 26: 341–60.

Carpenter, S.R. and N.J. McCreary, 1985. Effects of fish nests on pattern and zonation of submerged macrophytes in a softwater lake. Aquat. Bot. 22: 21–32.

Carpenter, S.R., E. van Donk and R.G. Wetzel, 1998. Nutrient-loading gradient in shallow lakes: report of the Group Discussion. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 393–6. Springer, New York.

Cassani, J.R., 1995. Problems and prospects for grass carp as a management tool. Amer. Fish. Soc. 15: 407–12.

Cassani, J.R., E.L. de la Vega and H. Allaire, 1995. An assessment of triploid grass carp stocking rates in small warmwater impoundments. N. Amer. J.Fish. Manage. 15: 400–7.

Casselman, J.M. and C.A. Lewis, 1996. Habitat requirements of northern pike (Esox lucius). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53 (Suppl.1): 161–74.

Caulton, M.S., 1977. A quantitative assessment of the daily ingestion of Panicum repens by Tilapia rendalli Boulenger (Cichlidae) in Lake Kariba. Trans. Rhod. Scient. Ass. 56: 38–46.

Cebrian, J. and C.M. Duarte, 1994. The dependence of herbivory on growth rate in natural plant communities. Functional Ecology 8: 518–25.

Chadwick, M.J. and M. Obeid, 1966. A comparative study of the growth of Eichhornia crassipes Solms. and Pistia stratiotes L. in water-culture. J. Ecol. 54: 563–75.

Chambers, P.A., J.M. Hanson, J.M. Burke and E.E. Prepas, 1990. The impact of the crayfish Orconectes virilis on aquatic macrophytes. Freshwater Biology 24: 81–91.

Chambers, P.A., J.M. Hanson and E.E. Prepas, 1991. The effect of aquatic plant chemistry and morphology on feeding selectivity by the crayfish, Orconectes virilis. Freshwater Biology 25. 339–48.

Chapman, L.J., C.A. Chapman and T.L. Crisman, 1998. Limnological observations of a papyrus swamp in Uganda: implications for fish faunal structure and diversity. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26: 1821–6.

Chapman, L.J., L.S. Kaufman, C.A. Chapman and F.E. McKenzie, 1995. Hypoxia tolerance in twelve species of East African cichlids: potential for low oxygen refugia in Lake Victoria. Cons. Biol. 9: 1–15.

Chapman, L.J. and K.F. Liem, 1995. Papyrus swamps and the respiratory ecology of Barbus neumayeri. Environ. Biol. Fish. 44: 183–97.

Charyev, R., 1984. Some consequences of the introduction and acclimatization of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae), in the Kara Kum Canal. J. Ichthyol. 24:1–8.

Chaudhuri, H., D.S. Murty, R.K. Dey and P.V.G.K. Reddy, 1977. Role of Chinese carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) in biological control of noxious aquatic weeds in India. In: Aquatic Weeds in S.E. Asia (eds C.K. Varshney and J. Rzoska): 315–22. V. Junk Publishers, The Hague.

Chick, J.H. and McIvor, C.C., 1994. Patterns in the abundance and composition of fishes among beds of different macrophytes: viewing a littoral zone as a landscape. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51: 2873–82.

Chifamba, P.C., 1990. Preference of Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger) for some species of aquatic plants. J. Fish Biol. 36: 701–5.

Chokder, A.H., 1967. Biological control of aquatic vegetation. Agricult. Pakistan 18: 225–229.

Coates, D., 1993. Recommendations regarding fish species suitable for stocking: Recommendation #9: The stocking of the “Pacu”, Colossoma bidens Spix (Characidae), and responses from the advisory group regarding its suitability in-line with the Code of Practice Regarding Fish Species Transfers. Field Document No. 17, FI:PNG/85/001. FAO, Rome. 20p.

Coates, D., 1997. Fish stocking activities undertaken by the Sepik River Fish Stock Enhancement Project (1987–1993) and the FISHAID Project (1993–1997). Field Document No.5, FI:P.N.G./93/007. FAO, Rome. 41p.

Coates, D. and P.A.M. Van Zwieten, 1992. Biology of the freshwater halfbeak Zenarchopterus kampeni (Teleostei: Hemiramphidae) from the Sepik and Ramu River basin, northern Papua New Guinea. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 3: 25–36.

Colle, D.E. and J.V. Shireman, 1980. Coefficients of condition for largemouth bass, bluegill, and redear sunfish in hydrilla-infested lakes. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 109: 521–31.

Conserva, A. and M.T.F. Piedade, 1998. Influence of flood-pulse and land-use on the composition of herbaceous species on a floodplain in Central Amazonia. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26: 994–5.

Cooke, G.D., F.B. Welch, S.A. Peterson and P.R. Newroth, 1988. Lake and reservoir restoration and management techniques. In: The Lake and Reservoir Guidance Manual (eds L. Moore and K. Thornton): pp.6-20-6-34. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 440/5-88-001. Washington, D.C.

Cowx, I.G. and R.L. Welcomme (eds), 1998. Rehabilitation of Rivers for Fish. Fishing News Books, Oxford. 160p.

Crivelli, A.J., 1983. The destruction of aquatic vegetation by carp. Hydrobiologia 106: 37–41.

Cronin, G., 1998. Influence of macrophyte structure, nutritive value, and chemistry on the feeding choices of a generalist crayfish. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 307–17. Springer, New York.

Crowder, L.B. and W.E. Cooper, 1979. Structural complexity and fish-prey interactions in ponds: a point of view. In: Response of Fish to Habitat Structure in Standing Water (eds D.L. Johnson and R.A. Stein): pp. 2–10. Amer. Fish. Soc. North Central Division, Special Publication 6. Bethesda, Maryland.

Crowder, L.B. and W.E. Cooper, 1979a. The effects of macrophyte removal on the feeding efficiency and growth of sunfishes: evidence from pond studies. In: Aquatic Plants, Lake Management and Ecosystem Consequences of Lake Harvesting (eds J.E. Breck, R.T. Prentki and O.L. Loucks): 251–68. Inst. Environ. Stud., Madison, Wisconsin.

Crowder, L.B. and W.E. Cooper, 1982. Habitat structural complexity and the interaction between bluegills and their prey. Ecology 63: 1802–13.

Crowder, L.B., E.W. McCollum and T.H. Martin, 1998. Changing perspectives on food web interactions in lake littoral zones. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 240–9. Springer, New York.

Crowder, L.B. and D.S. Painter, 1991. Submerged macrophytes in Lake Ontario: current knowledge, importance, threats to stability, and needed studies. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48:1539–45.

Crutchfield, J.U., Jr., D.H. Schiller, D.D. Herlong and M.A. Mallin, 1992. Establishment and impact of redbelly tilapia in a vegetated cooling reservoir. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 30: 28–35.

Csavas, I., D.J. Doulman, T.O. Petr, J.Prado and L. Debas, 1994. Cambodia - Rehabilitation and Development Needs of the Fishery Sector. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 873. Rome, FAO. 89p.

Daldorph, P.W.G. and J.D. Thomas, 1991. The effect of nutrient enrichment on a freshwater community dominated by macrophytes and molluscs and its relevance to snail control. J. appl. Ecol. 28: 685–702.

Dale, H.M. and T.J. Gillespie, 1977. The influence of sumbersed aquatic plants on temperature gradients in shallow water bodies. Can. J. Bot. 55: 2216–25.

Dasgupta, M., 1990. A study on the food and feeding habits of the mahseer Tor tor (Hamilton). Indian J. Fish. 37: 297–304.

Davies, H.R.J., 1958/1959. The effect of Eichhornia crassipes on the peoples of the Sobat, and White Nile between Sobat and Kosti. Hydrobiol. Res. Unit, Univ. Khartoum, Sudan, 6th Ann. Rep.: 26–8.

Davis, J.T. and J.S. Hughes, 1971. Effects of standing timber on fish populations and fisherman success in Bussy Brake, Louisiana. In: Reservoir fisheries and limnology (ed. G.E. Hall). Spec. Publ. Am. Fish. Soc. 8: 255–64.

Dawson, F.H., E.M.F. Clinton and M. Ladle, 1991. Invertebrates on cut weed removed during weed-cutting operations along an English river, the River Frome, Dorset. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 22: 113–21.

De Bont, A.F., V. Deconninck and L. Detaille, 1949. Regime alimentaire des Tilapia melanopleura et macrochir en etangs. Comptes rendus de la conference pisciculture anglobelge (Elizabethville, B.C.), 2d sec., Group B, Comm. 7.

Dejoux, C., 1969. Les insectes aquatiques du lac Tchad. - Apercu systematique et bio-ecologique. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 17: 900–6.

De Nie, H.W., 1987. The decrease in aquatic vegetation in Europe and its consequences for fish populations. EIFAC/CECPI Occasional Paper No. 19. FAO, Rome. 52p.

Denny, P., R. Bailey, E. Tukahirwa and P. Mafabi, 1995. Heavy metal contamination of Lake George (Uganda) and its wetlands. Hydrobiologia 297: 229–39.

Desai, V.R., 1970. Studies on the fishery and biology of Tor tor (Hamilton) from river Narbada. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 2: 101–12.

Desai, V.R., 1992. Food of Tor tor (Hamilton) from four localities of India - a comparative analysis. Punjab Fish. Bull. Jan.-June 1992, 16(1): 45–8.

De Silva, S.S., 1988. Reservoir bed preparation in relation to fisheries development: an evaluation. In: Reservoir Fishery Management and Development in Asia (ed. S.S. De Silva): 121–30. International Development Research Centre. Ottawa, Canada.

De Silva, S.S., P.R.T. Cumaranatunga and C.D. De Silva, 1980. Food, feeding ecology and morphological features associated with feeding of four co-occurring cyprinids (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Netherlands J. Zool. 30: 54–73.

Devaraj, K.V. and J.K. Manissery, 1979. Preliminary studies on the utilisation of indigenous carp, Puntius pulchellus as one of the biological agents of weed control in ponds. Abstract. Proc. Symp. Integrated Weed Control, Parbhani, Marathawada Agric. Univ. Pp. 82–89.

De Zylva, R., 1996. NZ approves diploid grass carp for weed control. Fish Farming International Vol.23, No. 10.

Dewey, M.R., W.B. Richardson and S.J. Ziegler, 1997. Patterns of foraging and distribution of bluegill sunfish in a Mississippi River backwater: influence of macrophytes and predation. Ecol. Freshwat. Fish 6: 8–15.

Dibble, E.D. and S.L. Harrel, 1995. Effects of stem and leaf complexity in two aquatic plants (Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton nodosus) on the diets of adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Procs 29th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, 14–17 November 1994, Vicksburg, Mississippi. Miscellaneous Paper A-95-3: pp. 273–80. US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss., USA.

Dibble, E.D. and K.J. Killgore, 1994. A habitat-based approach for studying fish-plant interactions. Procs 18th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, 15–18 November 1993, Baltimore, Maryland. Miscellaneous Paper A-94-2: pp.32–40. US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss., USA.

Dibble, E.D., K.J. Killgore and S.L. Harrel, 1996. Assessment of fish-plant interactions. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 16: 357–72.

Diehl, S., 1988. Foraging efficiency of three freshwater fishes: effects of structural complexity and light. Oikos 53: 207–214.

Diehl, S. and R. Kornijow, 1998. Influence of submerged macrophytes on trophic interactions among fish and macroinvertebrates. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 24–46. Springer, New York.

Dionne, M. and C.L. Folt, 1991. An experimental analysis of macrophyte growth form as fish foraging habitat. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 123–31.

Donnelly, B.G., 1969. A preliminary survey of Tilapia nurseries on Lake Kariba during 1967/68. Hydrobiologia 34: 195–206.

Dudgeon, D., 1983. The utilization of terrestrial plants as a food source by the fish stock of a gently sloping marginal zone in Plover Cove Reservoir, Hong Kong. Env. Biol. Fishes 8: 73–7.

Duffy, K.C. and D.M. Baltz, 1998. Comparison of fish assemblages associated with native and exotic submerged macrophytes in the Lake Pontchartrain estuary, USA. J. exptl. Marine Biol. Ecol. 223: 199–221.

Duffy, J.J. and D.C. Jackson, 1994. Bluegill populations associated with water lily, water shield and pondweed stands: management implications. Proc. Annu. Conf. SEAFWA 48:566–74.

Dunn, I.G., 1975. Ecological notes on the Haplochromis (Pisces: Cichlidae) species-flock of Lake George, Uganda (East Africa). J. Fish Biol. 7: 651–66.

Dvorak, J. and E.P.H. Best, 1982. Macro-invertebrate communities associated with the macrophytes of Lake Vechten: structural and functional relationships. Hydrobiologia 95: 115–26.

Edwards, P., 1980. Food Potential of Aquatic Macrophytes. ICLARM Studies and Reviews 5. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Philippines. 52p.

Eklov, P. and S. Diehl, 1994. Piscivore efficiency and refuging prey: the importance of predator search mode. Oekologia 98: 344–53.

Eklov, P. and S.F. Hamrin, 1989. Predator efficiency prey selection: interactions between pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis and rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus. Oikos 56: 149–56.

Eminson, D. and B. Moss, 1980. The composition and ecology of periphyton communities in freshwaters. The influence of host type and external environment on community composition. Br. Phycol. J. 15: 429–46.

Erikson, M.O.G., 1979. Competition between freshwater fish and goldeneye Bucephala clangula (L.) for common prey. Oecologia 41: 99–107.

Etheridge, K., G.B. Rathbun, J.A. Powell and H.I. Kochman, 1985. Consumption of aquatic plants by the West Indian manatee. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 23: 21–5.

FAO, 1993. Sepik River Fish Stock Enhancement Project. Papua New Guinea. Project Findings and Recommendations. UNDP/FAO, Rome, Italy. 29p.

FAO, 1993a. Water Hyacinth Control. Lake Victoria Environment Management Project TCP/RAF/2371. Report.

Fernandez, O.A., K.J. Murphy, A. Lopez Cazorla, M.R. Sabbatini, M.A. Lazzari, J.C.J. Domaniewski and J.H. Irigoyen, 1998. Interrelationships of fish and channel environmental conditions with aquatic macrophytes in an Argentine irrigation system. Hydrobiologia 380:15–25.

Fischer, Z., 1972. The elements of energy balance in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.). Part 2. Fish fed with animal food. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii 19: 65–72.

Fletcher, A.R., A.K. Morison and D.J. Hume, 1985. Effects of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., on communities of aquatic vegetation and turbidity of waterbodies in the lower Goulburn River Basin. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 36: 311–327.

Forester, J.S. and J.W. Avault, Jr., 1978. Effects of grass carp on freshwater red swamp crayfish in ponds. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 107: 157–60.

Forester, T.S. and J.M. Lawrence, 1978. Effects of grass carp on the productivity of carp ponds. In: Coarse Fish Farming Bibliography, July 1979, p.99. Water Space Amenity Commission. London.

Freeman, B.J., H.S. Greening and J.D. Oliver, 1984. Comparison of three methods for sampling fishes and macroinvertebrates in a vegetated freshwater wetland. J. Freshw. Ecol. 2:603–6.

Frodge, J., G.L. Thomas and G.B. Pauley, 1987. Some impacts of aquatic plants on the ecology of fishes in the Pacific Northwest. In: Managing Tomorrow's Fisheries. 117th A.F.S. Annual Meeting, Winston-Salem, N. Carolina, September 13–17, 1987.

Frodge, J.D., D.A. Marino, G.B. Pauley and G.L. Thomas, 1995. Mortality of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in densely vegetated littoral areas tested using in situ assay. Lake and Reservoir Management 11: 343–58.

Fuller, D.A., C.E. Sasser, W.D. Johnson and J.G. Gosselink, 1984. The effect of herbivory on vegetation on islands in the Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana. Wetlands 4: 105–14.

Gaerheart, R.A., 1992. Use of constructed wetlands to treat domestic wastewater, City of Arcata, California. Wat. Sci. Tech. 26: 1625–37.

Gallo, K.L. and R.W. Drenner, 1995. Experimental pond study of the effects of carp and fertilizer on water quality, macrophytes, and centrarchids. Procs 29th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Programme, 14–17 November 1994, Vicksburg, Mississippi. Miscellaneous Paper A-95-3, pp. 255–62. Us Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss., USA.

Gamboa-Perez, H.C. and J.J. Schmitter-Soto, 1999. Distribution of cichlid fishes in the littoral of Lake Bacalar, Yucatan Peninsula. Environ. Biol. Fishes 54: 35–43.

Gasith, A. and Gafny, S., 1998. Importance of physical structures in lakes: the case of Lake Kinneret and general implications. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 331–8. Springer, New York.

Gasith, A. and M.V. Hoyer, 1998. Structuring role of macrophytes in lakes: changing influence along lake size and depth gradients. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 381–92. Springer, New York.

Gaudet, J.J., 1976. Salvinia infestation on Lake Naivasha in East Africa (Kenya). In: Aquatic Weeds in South East Asia (eds C.K. Varshney and J. Rzoska): 193–209. Dr. W. Junk b.v. Publishers, The Hague.

Gaudet, J.J., 1977. Natural drawdown on Lake Naivasha, Kenya, and the formation of papyrus swamp. Aquat. Bot. 3: 1–47.

Gaudet, J.J., 1978. Effect of a tropical swamp on water quality. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 20: 2202–6.

Gaudet, J.J., 1979. Seasonal changes in nutrients in a tropical swamp: north swamp, Lake Naivasha, Kenya. J. Ecol. 67: 953–81.

Gaudet, J.J., 1979a. Aquatic weeds in African man-made lakes. PANS 25: 279–86.

Gaudet, J.J., 1980. Papyrus and ecology of Lake Naivasha. National Geographic Society Research Reports 12: 267–72.

Gaudet, J.J., 1992. Structure and functions of African floodplains. J. East Afr. Nat. History Soc. and Nat. Museum 82(199): 1–32.

Gaudet, J.J., and A. Falconer, 1983. Remote sensing for tropical freshwater bodies. The problem of floating islands on Lake Naivasha. Regional Remote Sensing Facility, Nairobi, Kenya. 4p.

Gibson, M., 1973. A study of the coypu Myocaster coypus Molina in Lake Naivasha. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. 35p.

Giles, N., 1994. Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) habitat use and brood survival increases after fish removal from gravel pit lakes. Hydrobiologia 279/280: 387–92.

Giles, N., M. Street and R.M. Wright, 1990. Diet composition and prey preference of tench, Tinca tinca (L.), common bream, Abramis brama (L.), perch, Perca fluviatilis L. and roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.) in two contrasting gravel pit lakes: potential trophic overlap with waterfowl. J. Fish Biol. 37: 945–57.

Ginnelly, G.D., 1990. Cachama culture in Venezuela. Aquaculture Magazine May/June 1990:52–65.

Goeltenboth, F. and Kristyanto, 1987. Ecological studies on Rawa Pening Lake (Central Java): some biotic parameters of the semi-natural lake. Trop. Ecol. 28: 101–16.

Gopal, B. and K.P. Sharma, 1981. Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), the most troublesome weed of the world. Hindasia Publishers, New Delhi, India. 219p.

Goulding, M., 1980. The Fishes and the Forest. University of California Press, Berkeley. 280p.

Goulding, M. and M.L. Carvalho, 1982. The history and management of the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Characidae): an important Amazonian food fish. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 1: 107–33.

Graber, M., J.A. Euzeby and J.P. Gevrey, 1981. Lutte biologique contre les mollusques vecteurs de Bilharziose. Action predatrice de Tilapia rendalli, Boulenger et de Sarotherodon mossambica, Peters al'egard de Biomphalaria glabrata, Say. Hydrobiologia 78: 253–7.

Green, J., S.A. Corbet, E. Watts and O.B. Lan, 1976. Ecological studies on Indonesian lakes. Overturn and restratification of Ranu Lamongan. J. Zool. Lond. 180: 315–54.

Greenwood, P.H., 1976. Lake George, Uganda. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 274: 375–91.

Gregory, R.S. and P.M. Powles, 1985. Chronology, distribution and sizes of larval fish sampled by fish traps in macrophytic Chemung Lake. Canad. J. Zool. 19: 2569–77.

Gressens, S.E., 1995. Grazer density, competition and the response of the periphyton community. Oikos 73: 336–46.

Griffith, J.S. and R.W. Smith, 1995. Failure of submersed macrophytes to provide cover for rainbow trout through their first winter in the Henrys Fork of the Snake River, Idaho. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 15: 42–8.

Grimm, M.P., 1983. Regulation of biomasses of small northern pike with special reference to the contribution of individuals stocked as fingerlings. Fish. Mngt. 14: 115–34.

Grimm, M.P. and J.J.G.M. Backx, 1990. The restoration of shallow eutrophic lakes, and the role of northern pike, aquatic vegetation and nutrient concentration. Hydrobiologia 200–201:557–66.

Guan, R.Z. and Wiles, P.R., 1998. Feeding ecology of the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in a British lowland river. Aquaculture 169 (3–4): 177–93.

Gulati, R.D., E.H.R.R. Lammens, M.-L. Meijer and E. van Donk (eds), 1990. Biomanipulation, tool for water management. Proceedings of an International Conference held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 8–11 August, 1989. Developments in Hydrobiology 61. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 628p.

Hakkari, L. and P. Bagge, 1984. On the fry densities of pike (Esox lucius L.) in Lake Saimaa, Finland. Verh. Internat. Verein. Theor. Angew. Limnol. 22: 2560–5.

Hall, D.J. and E.E. Werner, 1977. Seasonal distribution and abundance of fishes in the littoral zone of a Michigan lake. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 106: 545–55.

Haller, W.T., 1994. Probable grass carp stocking strategies. In: Proceedings of the Grass Carp Symposium, March 7–9, 1994, Gainesville, Florida. Pp. 236–8. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

Haller, W.T. and J.V. Shireman, 1982. Vegetative and herbicide monitoring study in Kings Bay, Crystal River, Florida, 27–29 March 1979. Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee. 154p.

Haller, W.T., J.V. Shireman and D.F. DuRant, 1980. Fish harvest resulting from mechanical control of Hydrilla. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 109: 517–20.

Hamer, D.A. (ed.), 1990. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural. Lewis Publishers. 856p.

Haniffa, M.A. and V. Venkatachalam, 1980. Effects of quality food on energy budget and chemical composition of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. In: Procs Conf. on Conservation Inputs from Life Sciences, pp. 163–73. Malaysia, University of Kelangsaam.

Hanson, J.M., P.A. Chambers and E.E. Prepas. 1990. Selective foraging by the crayfish Orconectes virilis and its impact on benthic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 24: 69–80.

Hanson, M.A. and M.G. Butler, 1990. Early responses of plankton and turbidity to biomanipulation in a shallow prairies lake. Hydrobiologia 200/201: 317–27.

Hansson, L.A., H. Anadotter, E. Bergman, S.F. Hamrin, E. Jeppesen, T. Kairesalo, E. Luokkanen, P.A. Nilsson, M. Sondergaard and J. Strand, 1998. Biomanipulation as an application of food-chain theory: constraints, synthesis, and recommendations for temperate lakes. Ecosystems 1(6): 558–74.

Hansson, L.A., L. Johansson and L. Persson, 1987. Effects of fish grazing on nutrient release and succession of primary producers. Limnol. Oceanogr. 32: 723–9.

Hargeby, A., 1990. Macrophyte associated invertebrates and the effect of habitat permanence. Oikos 57: 338–46.

Hargeby, A., G. Andersson, I. Blindow and S. Johansson, 1994. Trophic web structure in a shallow eutrophic lake during a dominance shift from phytoplankton to submerged macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 279/280: 83–90.

Haroon, A.K.Y., 1998. Diet and feeding ecology of two sizes of Barbodes gonionotus (=Puntius gonionotus) and Oreochromis sp. in ricefields in Bangladesh. Naga 21(3): 13–19.

Harper, D., 1992. The ecological relationships of aquatic plants at Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 232: 65–71.

Harper, D.M., K.M. Mavuti and S. Mucai Muchiri, 1990. Ecology and management of Lake Naivasha, Kenya, in relation to climatic change, alien species' introductions, and agricultural development. Environmental Conservation 17 (4): 328–36.

Harper, D.M., G.Phillips, A. Chilvers, N. Kitaka and K. Mavuti, 1993. Eutrophication prognosis for Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 25: 861–5.

Haslam, S.M., 1978. River plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hauser, W.J., 1975. An unusually fast growth rate for Tilapia zillii. Calif. Fish and Game, 61:54–6.

Henderson, P.A. and H.F. Hamilton, 1995. Standing crop and distribution of fish in drifting and attached floating meadow within an Upper Amazonian varzea lake. J. Fish Biol. 47: 266–76.

Hickley, P. and R.G. Bailey, 1986. Fish communities in the perennial wetland of the Sudd, southern Sudan. Freshwater Biology 16: 695–709.

Hickley, P. and R.G. Bailey, 1987. Food and feeding relationships of fish in the Sudd swamps (River Nile, Southern Sudan). J. Fish Biol. 30: 147–59.

Hickley, P. and R.G. Bailey, 1987a. Fish communities in the eastern seasonal floodplain of the Sudd, Southern Sudan. Hydrobiologia 144: 243–50.

Hofer, R. and F. Schiemer, 1983. Feeding ecology, assimilation efficiencies and energetics of two herbivorous fish: Oreochromis (Tilapia) mossambicus (Peters) and Puntius filamentosus (Cuv. and Val.). In: Limnology of Parakrama Samudra (ed. F. Schiemer): 155–64. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.

Holcik, J., 1995. Restoration and protection of fish stocks in water bodies affected by aquatic weed infestation. FAO Travel Doc. No.2. Project GCP/GHA/026/EEC. 11pp. FAO, Rome.

Hoover, J.J., K.J. Killgore and R.P. Morgan II, 1989. Food habits of fishes associated with hydrilla beds and open water in Lake Seminole, Florida-Georgia. Procs 23 Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, 14–17 November 1988, West Palm Beach, Florida. Final Report. Miscell. Paper A-89–1, pp. 202–18. Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Waterways Experimental Station, Vicksburg, Miss., USA.

Hosn, Wafa Aboul and J.A. Downing, 1994. Influence of cover on the spatial distribution of littoral-zone fishes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51: 1832–8.

Howard-Williams, C., 1981. Studies on the ability of a Potamogeton pectinatus community to remove dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus from lake water. J. appl. Ecol. 18:619–27.

Howard-Williams, C. and J.J. Gaudet, 1985. The structure and functioning of African swamps. In: The Ecology and Management of African Wetland Vegetation (ed. P. Denny): 153–75. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

Hoyer, M.V. and D.E. Canfield, 1992. Nutrients, aquatic macrophytes and fish populations in streams. (Abstract.) In: Abstracts of The Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc. Thirty-Second Annual Meeting and International Symposium on the Biology and Management of Aquatic Plants. July 12–16, 1992, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA.

Hoyer, M.V. and D.E. Canfield, 1993. Aquatic macrophytes and their relation to fish populations of Florida lakes. (Abstract). In: Abstracts, Thirty-third Annual Meeting, The Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc., and The Fifteenth Annual Meeting, The South Carolina Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc., Charleston, South Carolina, July 11–14, 1993.

Hoyer, V.M. and D.E. Canfield, Jr., 1994. Bird abundance and species richness on Florida lakes: influence of trophic status, lake morphology, and aquatic macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 297/280: 107–19.

Hoyer, M.V. and D.E. Canfield, Jr., 1996. Lake size, aquatic macrophytes, and largemouth bass abundance in Florida lakes: a reply. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 34: 48–50.

Hoyer, V.M. and D.E. Canfield, Jr., 1996a. Largemouth bass abundance and aquatic vegetation in Florida lakes: an empirical analysis. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 34: 23–32.

Humphries, P., 1996. Aquatic macrophytes, macroinvertebrate association and water levels in a lowland Tasmanian river. Hydrobiologia 321: 219–33.

Husak, S. and F. Krahulec, 1994. Monitoring successional and other changes in wetland plant communities. In: Monitoring of Ecological Change in Wetlands of Middle Europe (eds G. Aubrecht, G. Dick and C. Prentice): 197–209. Proc. Internat. Workshop. Linz, Austria, October 1993.

Hutabarat, J., L Syarani and M.A.K. Smith, 1986. The use of freshwater hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in cage culture in Lake Rawa Pening, Central Java. In: Proc. First Asian Fisheries Forum, Manila, Philippines, 26–31 May 1986 (eds J.L. Maclean, L.B. Dizon, L.V. Hostillos): 577–80. The Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines.

Jacobsen, D. and K. Sand-Jensen, 1994. Growth and energetics of a trichopteran larva feeding on fresh submerged and terrestrial plants. Oecologia 97: 412–18.

Jacobsen, D. and K. Sand-Jensen, 1994a. Invertebrate herbivory on the submerged macrophyte Potamogeton perfoliatus in a Danish stream. Freshwater Biology 31: 43–52.

Jacobsen, L. and M.R. Perrow, 1998. Predation risk from piscivorous fish influencing the diel use of macrophytes by planktivorous fish in experimental ponds. Ecol. Freshwat. Fish 7: 78–86.

Jacobsen, L., M.R. Perrow, F. Landkildehus, M. Hjorne, T.L. Lauridsen and S. Berg, 1995. Interactions between piscivores, zooplanktivores and zooplankton in submerged macrophytes: preliminary observations from enclosure and pond experiments. Hydrobiologia 342–343: 197–205.

Jedicke, A., B. Furch, U. Saint-Paul and U.-B. Schluter, 1989. Increase in the oxygen concentration in Amazon waters resulting from the root exudation of two notorious water plants, Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) and Pistia stratiotes (Araceae). Amazoniana 11(1): 53–69.

Jenkins, R.M., 1970. Large reservoirs - management possibilities. Proc. Annu. Meeting Midwest Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 36: 82–9.

Jeppesen, E., T.L. Lauridsen, T. Kairesalo and M.R. Perrow, 1998. Impact of submerged macrophytes on fish-zooplankton interactions in lakes. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 91–114. Springer, New York.

Jeppesen, E., M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen (eds), 1998a. The Structuring Role of Submersed Macrophytes in Lakes. Ecological Studies, Vol. 121. Springer, New York. 423p.

Jhingran, V.G., 1977. Fish and Fisheries of India. Hindustan Publishing Corporation (India), Delhi. 954p.

Jhingran, V.G. and R.S.V. Pullin, 1985. A hatchery manual for the Common, Chinese and Indian Major Carps. ICLARM Studies and reviews 11. ADB/ICLARM, Manila, Philippines. 191p.

Jones, C.M., 1988. Aquaculture potential of Cherax quadricarinatus: research objectives and preliminary results. Presented at the First Australian Shellfish Aquaculture Conference, Perth, 1988. 7p.

Jones, J.I., B. Moss and J.O. Young, 1998. Interactions between periphyton, non-molluscan invertebrates, and fish in standing freshwaters. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 69–90. Springer, New York.

Jones, R.C., 1984. Application of a primary production model to epiphytic algae in a shallow eutrophic lake. Ecology 65: 1895–1903.

Junk, W., 1973. Investigations on the ecology and production-biology of the “floating meadows” (Paspalo-Echinochloetum) in the Middle Amazon. Amazoniana 4(1): 9–102.

Junk, W.J., 1977. Note on aquatic weeds in some reservoirs in Thailand. Aquat. Bot. 3: 85–90.

Junk, W.J., 1996. Ecology of floodplains - a challenge for tropical limnology. In: Perspectives in Tropical Limnology (eds F. Schiemer and K.T. Bollard): 255–65. SPB Academic Publishing by, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Junk, W.J. and B.A. Robertson, 1997. Aquatic invertebrates. In: The Central Amazon Floodplain. Ecology of a Pulsing System (ed. W.J. Junk): 279–98. Ecological Studies Vol. 126. Springer, Berlin.

Junk, W.J., G.M. Soares and F.M. Carvalho, 1983. Distribution of fish species in a lake of the Amazon river floodplain near Manaus (Lago Camaleao) with special reference to extreme oxygen conditions. Amazoniana 7(4): 397–431.

Junk, W.J., M.G.M. Soares and U. Saint-Paul, 1997. The fish.. In: The Central Amazonian Floodplain. Ecology of a Pulsing System (ed. W.J.Junk): 385–408. Ecological Studies Vol. 126. Springer, Berlin.

Junk, W.J. and G.E. Weber, 1996. Amazonian floodplains: a limnological perspective. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26: 149–57.

Junor, F.J.R., 1969. Tilapia melanopleura Dum. in artificial lakes and dams in Rhodesia with special reference to its undesirable effects. Rhod. J. Agric. Res. 7: 61–9.

Jupp, B.P. and D.H.N. Spence, 1977. Limitation of macrophytes in an eutrophic lake, Loch Leven, II. Wave action, sediments and waterfowl grazing.. J. Ecol. 65: 431–46.

Jurgens, K. and E. Jeppesen, 1998. Cascading effects on microbial web structure in a dense macrophyte bed. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 262–73. Springer, New York.

Karenge, L. and J. Kolding, 1995. Inshore fish population and species changes in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. In: The Impact of Species Changes in African Lakes (eds T.J. Pitcher and P.J.B. Hart): 245–275. Chapman & Hall, London.

Keast, A., 1984. The introduced aquatic macrophyte, Myriophyllum spicatum, as habitat for fish and their invertebrate prey. Can. J.Zool. 62: 1289–1303.

Kemp, A., T. Anderson, A. Tompley and I. Johnson, 1981. The use of the Australian lungfish, (Neoceratodus forsteri) for the control of submerged aquatic weeds. In: Procs Sixth Australian Weeds Conference (eds B.J. Wilson and J.T. Swarbrick) 1: 155–8. Queensland Weed Society for the Council of Australian Weed Science Societies, Queensland.

Khogali, F.A. and A.I. Moghraley, 1979. Observations on the toxicity of 2,4-D to the biota of the White Nile. In: Weed Research in Sudan (eds M.E. Beshir and W. Koch), Vol 1: 79–84. The University of Sudan. Sudan.

Kilgen, R.H., 1978. Growth of channel catfish and striped bass in small ponds stocked with grass carp and water hyacinth. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 107: 176–80.

Killgore, K.J., J.J. Hoover and R.P. Morgan, 1991. Habitat value of aquatic plants for fishes. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, Tech. Rep. A-91-5. Department of the Army, Vickburg, USA. 35p.

Killgore, K.J., J.P. Kirk and J.W. Foltz, 1998. Response of littoral fishes in upper Lake Marion, South Carolina following hydrilla control by triploid carp. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 36: 82–87.

Killgore, K.J., R.P. Morgan II and N.B. Rybicki, 1989. Distribution and abundance of fishes associated with submerged aquatic plants in the Potomac River. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 9:101–11.

Killgore, K.J. and B.S. Payne, 1984. Field methods to measure aquatic plant treatment method efficacy. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Waterways Experiment Station. Miscell. Paper A-84–3. Vicksburg. Mississippi. 28p.

Killgore, K.J., D.H. Powell, R.P. Morgan II and N.H. Douglas, 1988. Use of modified popnets to estimate fish density in Eurasian watermilfoil. Procs 22nd Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, 16–19 November 1987, Portland, Oregon. Final Report. Miscellaneous Paper A-88-5, pp.94–99. Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss., USA.

Kiorboe, T., 1980. Distribution and production of submerged macrophytes in Tipper Ground (Ringkobing Fjord, Denmark), and the impact of waterfowl grazing. J. appl. Ecol. 17: 675–87.

Kongere, P.C., 1979. The Salvinia infestation on Lake Naivasha in Kenya. Swedish Fund-in-Trust, Project TF-RAF 112(SWE) - Suppl. 1, pp. 143–53. FAO, Rome.

Kornijow, R. and R.D. Gulati, 1992. Macrofauna and its ecology in Lake Zwemlust, after biomanipulation. II. Fauna inhibiting hydrophytes. Arch. Hydrobiol. 123 (2): 349–59.

Kornijow, R., R.D. Gulati and E. van Donk, 1990. Hydrophyte-macroinvertebrate interactions in Zwemlust, a lake undergoing biomanipulation. Hydrobiologia 200/201: 467–74.

Kornijow, R. and B. Moss, 1998. Vertical distribution in relation to fish and floating-leaved macrophyte populations. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 227–32. Springer, New York.

Kracko, K.M., 1989. Effects of exposure of plants to herbicides on grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) feeding. MS thesis, North Carolina State University.

Kracko, K.M. and R.L. Noble, 1993. Herbicide inhibition of grass carp feeding on Hydrilla. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 31: 273–5.

Krapu, G.L. and K.J. Reinecke, 1992. Foraging ecology and nutrition. In: Ecology and Management of Breeding Waterfowl (eds B.D.J. Batt, A.D. Afton, M.G. Anderson, C.D. Ankney, D.H. Johnson, J.A. Kadlec and G.L. Krapu): 1–29. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Krueger, A., G. Okoniewska, Z. Pochitonow, Z. Kroll and R.P. Garnett, 1996. Glyphosate as a management tool in carp fisheries. Hydrobiologia 340: 253–7.

Lahser, C.W. Jr., 1967. Tilapia mossambica as a fish for aquatic weed control. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 29: 48–50.

Lamarra, V.A. Jr., 1975. Digestive activities of carp as a major contributor to the nutrient loading of lakes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 19: 2461–8.

Lamberti, G.A. and Moore, J.W., 1984. Aquatic insects as primary consumers. In: The Ecology of Aquatic Insects (eds V.H. Resh and D.M. Rosenberg): 164–95. Praeger Scientific, New York.

Lammens, E.H.R.R. and W. Hoogenboezen, 1991. Diets and feeding behaviour. In: Cyprinid Fishes: Systematics, Biology and Exploitation (eds I.J. Winfield and J.S. Nelson): 353–76. Chapman & Hall, London.

Larson, E.W., D.L. Johnson and W.E. Lynch, 1986. A buoyant pop net for accurately sampling artificial habitat structures. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 115: 351–5.

Lauridsen, T.L., E. Jeppesen and F.O. Andersen, 1993. Colonization of submerged macrophytes in shallow fish manipulated Lake Vaeng: impact of sediment composition and waterfowl grazing. Aquat. Bot. 46: 1–15.

Lazzaro, X., 1997. Do the trophic cascade hypothesis and classical biomanipulation approaches apply to tropical lakes and reservoirs? Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26: 719–30.

Legner, E.F., W.J. Hauser, T.W. Fisher and R.A. Medved, 1975. Biological aquatic weed control by fish in the Lower Sonoran Desert of California. Calif. Agriculture, Nov. 1975: 8–10.

Lembi, C.A., B.G. Ritenour, E.M. Iverson and E.C. Forss, 1978. The effects of vegetation removal by grass carp on water chemistry and phytoplankton in Indiana ponds. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 107: 161–71.

Leslie, A.J., Jr., L.E. Nall and J.M. van Dyke, 1983. Effects of vegetation control by grass carp on selected water-quality variables in four Florida lakes. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 112:777–87.

Leslie, A.J., J.M. vas Dyke, R.S. Hestand and B.Z. Thompson, 1987. Management of aquatic plants in multi-use lakes with grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Lake Reserv. Manage. 3:266–76

Le Roux, P.J., 1956. Feeding habits of the young of four species of Tilapia. S. Afr. J. Sci. 53:33–7.

Leventer, H., 1981. Biological control of reservoirs by fish. Bamidgeh 33(1): 3–23.

Lillie, R.A. and J.O. Evrard, 1994. Influence of macroinvertebrates and macrophytes on waterfowl utilization of wetlands in the Prairies Pothole Region of northwestern Wisconsin. Hydrobiologia 279/280: 235–46.

Lim, R.P. and J.I. Furtado, 1975. Population changes in the aquatic fauna inhabiting the bladderwort, Utricularia flexuosa Vahl., in a tropical swamp, Tasek Bera, Malaysia. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 19: 1390–7.

Lindsey, K. and H.-M. Hirt, 1999. Use Water Hyacinth! A Practical Handbook of Uses for the Water Hyacinth from Across the World. Anamed, Winnenden, Germany. 115p.

Lock, J., 1974. The aquatic vegetation of Lake George, Uganda. Phytocoenologia 1: 250–62.

Lodge, D.M., 1991. Herbivory on freshwater macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 41: 195–224.

Lodge, D.M., A.L. Beckel and J.J. Magnuson, 1985. Lake-bottom tyrant. Nat. Hist. 94: 32–37.

Lodge, D.M., G. Cronin, E. van Donk and A.J. Froelich, 1998. Impact of herbivory on plant standing crop: comparisons among biomes, between vascular and nonvascular plants, and among freshwater herbivore taxa. In: The Structuring Role of Submersed Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 149–74. Springer, New York.

Lodge, D.M. and J.G. Lorman, 1987. Reductions in submersed macrophyte biomass and species richness by the crayfish Orconectes rusticus. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44: 591–7.

Lorman, J.G., 1975. Feeding and activity of the crayfish Orconectes rusticus in a northern Wisconsin lake. MS thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. 56p.

Lorman, J.G., 1980. Ecology of the crayfish Orconectes rusticus in northern Wisconsin. Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. 227p.

Lougheed, V.L., B. Crosbie and P. Chow-Fraser, 1998. Predictions on the effect of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes in a Great Lakes wetland. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: 1189–97.

Lowe-McConnell, R.H., 1987. Ecological Studies in Tropical Fish Communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 382p.

Maberly, S.C. and D.H.N. Spence, 1983. Photosynthetic inorganic carbon use by freshwater plants. J. Ecol. 71: 705–24.

Maceina, M.J., 1996. Largemouth bass abundance and aquatic vegetation in Florida lakes: an alternative interpretation. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 34: 43–7.

Maceina, M.J., P.W. Bettoli, W.G. Klussmann, R.K. Betsill and R.L. Noble, 1991. Effect of aquatic macrophyte removal on recruitment and growth of black crappies and white crappies in Lake Conroe, Texas. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 11: 556–63.

Maceina, M.J., M.F. Cichra, R.K. Betsill and P.W. Bettoli, 1992. Limnological changes in a large reservoir following vegetation removal by grass carp. J. Freshwat. Ecol. 7: 81–95.

MacLean, S.F. and T.S. Jensen, 1985. Food plant selection by insect herbivores in Alascan Arctic tundra: the role of the plant life form. Oikos 44: 211–21.

Magnuson, J.J., G.M. Capelli, I.O. Lorman and R.A. Stein, 1975. Consideration of crayfish for macrophyte control. In: Water Quality Management Through Biological Control (eds P.L. Brezonik and J.L. Fox): 66–74. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Magurran, A.E., 1990. The adaptive significance of schooling as antipredator defence in fish. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 27: 51–6.

Mallison, C.T., R.S. Hestand III and B.Z. Thompson, 1994. Removal of triploid carp using Fish Management Bait (FMB). Procs of the Grass Carp Symposium, March 7–9, 1994, Gainesville, Florida: 65–71. U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

Mallison, C.T., A.H. Lingle, Jr., B.V. Jaggers and L.L. Trent, 1994a. Public angling as a method of triploid grass carp removal. Procs of the Grass Carp Symposium, March 7–9, 1994, Gainesville, Florida: 72–5. U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

Markham, R.H., 1986. Biological control agents of Hydrilla verticillata. Final Report on Survey in East Africa, 1961–1984. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Miscell. Paper A-86–4. Depart. of the Army, US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington D.C. 19p.

Martin, C.C., 1981. The bluegill. Delaware Fish. Bull. 2(2): 14–16.

Martin, T.H., L.B. Crowder, C.F. Dumas and J.M. Burkholder, 1992. Indirect effects of fish on macrophytes in Bays Mountain Lake: evidence for a littoral trophic cascade. Oecologia 89:476–81.

Martines Espinoza, M., 1984. El cultivo de las especies del genero Colossoma en America Latina. RLAC (FAO) Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean. RLAC/84/41-PES-5. RLAC Santiago, Chile. 47p.

Martyn, R.D., R.L. Noble, P.W. Bettoli and R.C. Maggio, 1986. Mapping aquatic weeds with aerial color infrared photography and evaluating their control by grass carp. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 24: 46–56.

McAtee, W.L., 1939. Wildfowl Food Plants, their Value, Propagation, and Management. Collegiate Press, Ames, IA. 141p.

McCrimmon, H.R., 1968. Carp in Canada. Bulletin 165. Fisheries Research Board, Ottawa, Canada. 93p.

McCowen, M.C., C.L. Young, S.D. West, S.J. Parka and W.R. Arnold, 1979. Fluridone, a new herbicide for aquatic plant management. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 17: 27–30.

McCullough, F.S., 1981. Biological control of the snail intermediate hosts of human Schistosoma spp: a review of its present status and future prospects. Acta Tropica 38: 5–13.

McKinnon, S.L. and S.F. Mitchell, 1994. Eutrophication and black swan (Cygnus atratus Latham) populations: tests of two simple relationships. Hydrobiologia 279/280: 163–70.

McKnight, S.K. and G.R. Hepp, 1995. Potential effect of grass carp herbivory on waterfowl food. J. Wildl. Manage. 59: 720–27.

McLachlan, A.J., 1969. The effect of aquatic macrophytes on the variety and abundance of benthic fauna in a newly created lake in the tropics (Lake Kariba). Arch. Hydrobiol. 66: 212–31.

McLachlan, A.J., 1974. Development of some lake ecosystems in Tropical Africa, with special reference to the invertebrates. Biol. Rev. 49: 365–97.

McLachlan, S.M., 1971. The rate of nutrient release from grass and dung following immersion in lake water. Hydrobiologia 37: 521–30.

McVea, C. and C.E. Boyd, 1975. Effects of water hyacinth cover on water chemistry, phytoplankton, and fish in ponds. J. Environ. Qual. 4: 375–8.

Meijer, M.-L., N.W. de Haan, A.W. Breukelaar and H. Buiteveld, 1990. Is reduction of the benthivorous fish an important cause of high transparency following biomanipulation in shallow lakes? Hydrobiologia 200/201: 303–15.

Mendes dos Santos, G., 1981. Studies of the food and feeding habits of Schizodon fasciatus Agassiz, 1829, Rhytiodus microlepis Kner, 1859 and Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1859, of Lake Janauaca - AM. (Osteichthyes, Characoidei, Anostomidae). Acta Amazon. 11: 267–83. (In Portuguese)

Merola, N., 1988. Effects of three dietary protein levels on the growth of pacu, Colossoma mitrei Berg, in cages. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 19: 145–50.

Mikol, G.F., 1985. Effects of harvesting on aquatic vegetation and juvenile fish population at Saratoga Lake, New York. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 23: 59–63.

Mikschi, E., G. Wolfram and A. Wais, 1996. Long-term changes in the fish community of Neusiedler See (Burgenland, Austria). In: Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe: 111–120. Birghauser Verlag, Basel.

Mitchell, D.S., 1974. Aquatic Vegetation and its Use and Control. Unesco, Paris. 135p.

Mitchell, D.S., T. Petr and A.B. Viner, 1980. The water-fern Salvinia molesta in the Sepik River, Papua New Guinea. Environmental Conservation 7: 115–22.

Mitchell, D.S. and D.J.W. Rose, 1979. Factors effecting fluctuations in extent of Salvinia molesta on Lake Kariba. Pans 25: 171–7.

Mitchell, S.A., 1976. The marginal fish fauna of Lake Kariba. Kariba Studies No. 8: 109–162. Publ by the Trustees of the National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia.

Mitchell, S.F. and M.R. Perrow, 1998. Interactions between grazing birds and macrophytes. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 175–96. Springer, New York.

Mitchell, S.F. and R.T. Wass, 1995. Food consumption and faecal deposition of plant nutrients by black swans (Cygnus atratus Latham) in a shallow New Zealand lake. Hydrobiologia 306: 189–97.

Mitchell, S.F. and R.T. Wass, 1996. Grazing by black swans (Cygnus atratus Latham), physical factors, and the growth and loss of aquatic vegetation in a shallow lake. Aquat. Bot. 55: 205–15.

Mittelbach, G.G. and C.W. Ossenberg, 1993. Stage-structured interactions in bluegill: consequences of adult resource variation. Ecology 74: 2381–94.

Mitzner, L., 1978. Evaluation of biological control of nuisance aquatic vegetation by grass carp. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 107: 135–45.

Mitzner, L., 1994. Management of aquatic vegetation with grass carp in Iowa, 1973–1993. (Abstract). Lake and Reservoir Management 9(2): 99–100.

Monahan, C. and J.M. Caffrey, 1996. The effect of weed control practices on macroinvertebrate communities in Irish canals. Hydrobiologia 340: 205–11.

Monakov, A.V., 1969. The zooplankton and zoobenthos of the White Nile and adjoining waters in the Republic of the Sudan. Hydrobiologia 33: 161–85.

Morgan II, R.P., K.J. Killgore and N.H. Douglas, 1988. Modified popnet design for collecting fishes in varying depths of submersed aquatic vegetation. J. Freshwat. Ecol. 4: 533–9.

Morrow, J.V., K.J. Killgore and J.J. Hoover, 1991. Growth of black bass in different densities of Hydrilla. Procs 25th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, 26–30 November 1990, Orlando, Florida. Final Report, pp.58–63. Environmental Laboratory, Waterways Experimental Station, Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Miss., USA.

Mortensen, E., 1977. The mortality of trout fry (Salmo trutta L.) with special reference to density and management of small streams. J. Fish Biol. 11: 613–17.

Moshiri, G.A. (ed), 1994. Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement. Lewis Publishers. 656p.

Moss, B., 1980. Ecology of Fresh Waters. Blackwells Scientific Publications, Oxford. 332p.

Moss, B., 1990. Enginering and biological approaches to the restoration from eutrophication of shallow lakes in which aquatic plant communities are important components. Hydrobiologia 200/201: 367–77.

Moss, B., R. Kornijow and G.J. Measey, 1998. The effects of nymphaeid (Nyphar lutea) density and predation by perch (Perca fluviatilis) on the zooplankton communities in a shallow lake. Freshwater Biology 39: 689–97.

Moss, B., J. Madgwick and G. Phillips, 1996. A Guide to the Restoration of Nutrient-enriched Shallow Lakes. Environment Agency, Broads Authority. 179p.

Muchiri, S. Mucai, P.J.B. Hart and D.M. Harper, 1995. The persistence of two introduced tilapia species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, in the face of environmental variability and fishing pressure. In: The Impact of Species Changes in African Lakes (eds T.J. Pitcher and P.J.B. Hart): 299–319. Chapman & Hall, London.

Mulamoottil, G., E.A. McBean and F. Rovers (eds), 1998. Constructed Wetlands for the Treatment of Landfill Leachates. Lewis Publishers. 325p.

Munro, J.L., 1967. The food community of East African freshwater fishes. J. Zool., Lond. 151: 389–415.

Murphy, K.J. and J.W. Eaton, 1981. Waterplants, boat traffic and angling in canals. Procs 2nd Brit. Freshw. Fish. Conf.: 173–87. The University of Liverpool, U.K.

Nandeesha, M.C., P. Keshavanath, N. Basavaraja, T.J. Varghese and G.K. Srikanth, 1989. Biological control and utilisation of aquatic weeds in India - a review. Indian J. Animal Sciences 59: 1198–1205.

Nefedov, V.N. and G.M. Fesenko, 1987. Fisheries significance of meliorated spawning sites in Tsimlyansk reservoir. Rybnoe Khoziaistvo No. 7: 41–4. (In Russian)

Nelson, J.W. and J.A. Kadlec, 1984. A conceptual approach to relating habitat structure and macroinvertebrate production in freshwater wetlands. Trans. N. Amer. Wildl. Conf. 49: 262–70.

Nessimian, J.L., L.F.M. Dorville, A.M. Sanseverino and D.F. Baptista, 1998. Relation between flood pulse and functional composition of the macroinvertebrate benthic fauna in the lower Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Amazoniana 15: 35–50.

Newman, R.M., 1991. Herbivory and detritivory on freshwater macrophytes by invertebrates: a review. J. North American Benthological Soc. 10: 89–114.

Nichols, S.A., 1991. The interaction between biology and the management of aquatic macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 41: 225–52.

Nystrom, P. and J.R. Perez, 1998. Crayfish predation on the common pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis): the effect of habitat complexity and snail size on foraging efficiency. Hydrobiologia 368: 201–8.

Obeng, L.E., 1969. The invertebrate fauna of aquatic plants of the Volta Lake in relation to the spread of helminth parasites. In: Man-Made Lakes: The Accra Symposium (ed. L.E. Obeng): 320–5. Ghana University Press, Accra.

Obeng, L.E., 1978. Starvation or bilharzia? - rural development dilemma. Water Supply & Management 2: 343–50.

Odei, M.A., 1979. Some ecological factors influencing the distribution of snail hosts of schistosomiasis in the Volta Lake. In: Proc. Int. Conf. On Kainji Lake and River Basin Development in Africa, Ibadan, 11–17 December 1977: 588–93. Kainji Lake Research Institute, Nigeria.

Ogutu-Ohwayo, R., 1995. Diversity and stability of fish stocks in Lakes Victoria, Kyoga and Nabugabo, after establishment of introduced species. In: The Impact of Species Changes in African Lakes (eds T.J. Pitcher and P.J.B. Hart): 59–81. Champan & Hall, London.

Okeyo, D.O., 1989. Herbivory in freshwater fishes. Israel J. Aquaculture 41(3): 79–97.

Olaleye, V.F. and O.A. Akinyemiju, 1996. Effects of a glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) application to control Eichhornia crassipes Mart. on fish composition and abundance in Abiala Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. J.Environ. Management 47: 114–22.

Olsen, T.M., D.M. Lodge, G.M. Capelli and R.J. Houlihan, 1991. Mechanisms of impact of an introduced crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) on littoral congeners, snails, and macrophytes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 1853–61.

Olson, M.H., S.R. Carpenter, P. Cunningham, S. Gafny, B.R. Herwig, N.P. Nibbelink, T. Pellett, C. Storlie, A.S. Trebitz and K.A. Wilson, 1998. Managing macrophytes to improve fish growth: a multi-lake experiment. Fisheries 23(2): 6–12.

Olson, M.H., G.G. Mittelbach and C.W. Osenberg, 1995. Competition between predator and prey: resource-based mechanisms and implications for stage-structured dynamics. Ecology 76: 1758–71.

Ondok, J.P., J. Pokorny and J. Kvet, 1984. Model of diurnal changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentrations in a stand of Elodea canadensis Michx. Aquat. Bot. 19: 293–305.

Opuszynski, K., 1992. Are herbivorous fish herbivorous? Aquaphyte 12(2): 1,12–13.

Opuszynski, K. and J.V. Shireman, 1995. Herbivorous Fishes. Culture and Use for Weed Management. CRS Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 223p.

Orach-Meza, F.L. 1996. Water hyacinth: its problems and the means of control in Uganda. In: Strategies for water hyacinth control. Report of a Panel of Experts Meeting 11–14 September, 1995, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA: pp. 105–112. FAO, Rome.

Orr, B.K. and V.H. Resh, 1987. Interactions among mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), and the survivorship of Anopheles mosquito larvae. Proceedings and Papers of the 55th Ann. Conf. California Mosquito and Vector Control Assoc., Sacramento, Ca: pp. 94–97.

Orr, B.K. and V.H. Resh, 1992. Influence of Myriophyllum aquaticum cover on Anopheles mosquito abundance, oviposition and larval microhabitat. Oecologia 90: 474–82.

Osborne, J.A., D.I. Richard and J.W. Small, Jr., 1982. Environmental effect and vegetation control by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) and herbicides in four Florida Lakes. Final Report to Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Aquatic Plant Research and Control, Tallahassee. 431p.

Osborne, J.A. and N.M. Sassic, 1981. The size of grass carp as a factor in the control of Hydrilla. Aquat. Bot. 11: 129–36.

Ostergaard, T.A.S., 1999. The influence of weedcutting on the diversity of microhabitats for fish in streams. In: Seventh Internat. Symp. on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes. 10–13 May 1999, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. (Abstract).

Otto, C. and B.S. Svendsson, 1981. How do macrophytes growing in or close to water reduce their consumption by aquatic herbivores? Hydrobiologia 78: 107–12.

Ozimek, T., R.D. Gulati and E. van Donk, 1990. Can macrophytes be useful in biomanipulation of lakes? The Lake Zwemlust example. Hydrobiologia 200/201: 399–407.

Paperna, I., 1969. Aquatic weeds, snails and transmission of bilharzia in the new man-made Volta lake in Ghana. Bulletin de l'I.F.A.N. 30(ser.A): 487–99.

Paperna, I., 1970. Study of an outbreak of schistosomiasis in the newly formed Volta Lake in Ghana. Z. Tropenmedizin u. Parasitologie 21: 411–25.

Paterson, M., 1993. The distribution of microcrustacea in the littoral zone of a freshwater lake. Hydrobiologia 263: 173–83.

Patnaik, S., 1976. Control of some aquatic vegetation in fish ponds at Cuttack. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 8:221–6.

Payne, A.I., 1987. A preliminary stocks assessment of the fishery at Trinidad on the Rio Mamore. Overseas Development Administration/Coventry Polytechnic, United Kingdom. 34p.

Pelikan, J., J. Svoboda and J. Kvet, 1971. Relationships between the population of muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) and the primary production of cattail (Typha latifolia). Hydrobiologia (Bucharest) 12: 177–80.

Pelli, A. and F.A.R. Barbosa, 1998. Insect fauna associated with Salvinia molesta Mitchell in a lake of Lagoa Santa Plateau, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 1998. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26:2125–7.

Perna, A. and E.P. Demilio, 1986. Influence of submerged macrophytes on the oxygen content of a river used for trout farming (R. Ticino, Central Italy). Riv. Ital. Piscic. Ittiopatol. 21(4): 138–40.

Perrow, M.R., M.L. Meijer, P. Dawidowicz and H. Coops, 1997. Biomanipulation in shallow lakes: state of the art. Hydrobiologia 342–343: 355–65.

Persson, L, 1993. Predator-mediated competition in prey refuges: the importance of habitat dependent prey resources. Oikos 68: 12–22.

Persson, L, and L.B. Crowder, 1998. Fish-habitat interactions mediated via ontogenetic niche shifts. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 3–23. Springer, New York.

Persson, L. and P. Eklov, 1995. Prey refuges affecting interactions between piscivorous perch (Perca fluviatilis) and juvenile perch and roach (Rutilus rutilus). Ecology 76: 70–81.

Petr, T. 1967. Food preferences of the commercial fishes of the Volta Lake. Tech. Report X22. Volta Basin Research Project, University of Ghana. 9p.

Petr, T., 1968. Population changes in aquatic invertebrates living on two water plants in a tropical man-made lake. Hydrobiologia 32: 449–485.

Petr, T., 1968a. Distribution, abundance and food of commercial fish in the Black Volta and the Volta Man-made lake in Ghana during the first period of filling (1964–1968). I. Mormyridae. Hydrobiologia 32: 417–48.

Petr, T., 1970. Macroinvertebrates of flooded trees in the man-made Volta Lake (Ghana) with special reference to the burrowing mayfly Povilla adusta Navas. Hydrobiologia 36: 373–98.

Petr, T., 1973. Some factors limiting the distribution of Povilla adusta Navas (Ephemeroptera, Polymitarcidae) in African lakes. In: Proc. First Internat. Conf. On Ephemeroptera, Florida A & M University, August 17–20, 1970(eds W.L. Peters and J.G. Peters): 223–230.

Petr, T., 1974. Distribution, abundance and food of commercial fish in the Black Volta and the Volta Man-made Lake in Ghana during the filling period (1964–1968). II. Characidae. Hydrobiologia 45: 303–337.

Petr, T., 1975. On some factors associated with the initial high fish catches in new African man-made lakes. Arch. Hydrobiol. 75: 32–49.

Petr, T., 1986. The Volta River system. In: The Ecology of River Systems (eds B.R. Davies and K.F. Walker): 163–183. Monographiae Biologicae Vol. 60. Dr. W.Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

Petr, T., 1986a. Zoobenthos of the Volta system. In: The Ecology of River Systems (eds B.R. Davies and K.F. Walker): 185–199. Monographiae Biologicae Vol. 60. Dr. W.Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

Petr, T., 1993. Aquatic weeds and fisheries production in developing countries of the world. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 31: 5–13.

Petrere, M., 1983. Yield per recruit of the tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, in the Amazonas State, Brazil. J. Fish Biol. 22: 133–44.

Petridis, D., 1990. The influence of grass carp on habitat structure and its subsequent effect on the diet of tench. J. Fish Biol. 36: 533–44.

Pflieger, W.L., 1975. The Fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Jefferson City.

Pieterse, A.H., 1981. Hydrilla verticillata: a review. Abstracts on Tropical Agriculture 7: 9–34.

Pine, R.T., L.W.J. Anderson and S.S.O. Hung, 1990. Control of aquatic plants in static and flowing water by yearling triploid grass carp. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 28: 36–40.

Pires,, J.M., 1972. Tipos de vegetacao de Amazonia. Mus. Paraense E. Goeldi 20: 170–202.

Pisolkar, M.D. and S.J. Karamchandani, 1984. Fishery and biology of Tor tor (Ham.) from Govindgarh lake (Madhya Pradesh). I. Food and feeding habits. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 13:15–24.

Planas, D. and J.J. Neiff, 1998. Is periphyton important in the Eichhornia crassipes meadow? Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 36: 1865–70.

Ploskey, G.R., 1985. Impact of terrestrial vegetation and preimpoundment clearing on reservoir ecology and fisheries in the USA and Canada. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 258: 35p.

Poddubny, A.G. and D.L. Galat, 1994. Habitat associations of Upper Volga River fishes: effects of reservoirs. (Manuscript). 34p.

Poi de Neiff, A. and Solis de Chiozza, D., 1994. Aporte de las plantas de Eichhornia crassipes a la acumulacion de materiales organicos e inorganicos. Rev. Hydrobiol. trop. 27:329–35.

Pokorny, J., L. Pechar, J. Koutnikova, V. Dufkova, G. Schlott and K. Schlott, 1992. The effects on the aquatic environment of fish pond management practices. In: Integrated management and conservation of wetlands in agricultural and forested landscapes (ed. M. Finlayson): 50–55. Procs. of a Workshop, Trebon, Czechoslovakia, 25–31 March 1992. IWRB Special Pub. No.22.

Pokorny, J., J. Kvet and J.P. Ondok, 1990. Functioning of the plant component in densely stocked fishponds. Bull. Ecol. 21(3): 44–8.

Prabhavathy, G. and A. Sreenivasan, 1976. Cultural prospects of Chinese carps in Tamil Nadu. Paper presented at the Symposium on the Development and Utilisation of Inland Fishery Resources, 27–29 October 1976, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Prejs, A., 1978. Lake macrophytes as the food of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.). II. Daily intake of macrophyte food in relation to body size of fish. Ekol. Pol. 26: 537–53.

Prejs, A. 1984. Herbivory by temperate freshwater fishes and its consequences. Environ. Biol. Fishes 10: 281–96.

Prejs, A. and Jackowska, H., 1978. Lake macrophytes as the food of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.). I. Species composition and dominance relations in the lake and food. Ekol. Pol. 26: 429–38.

Rakocy, J.E. and R. Allison, 1981. Evaluation of a closed recirculating system for the culture of Tilapia and aquatic macrophytes. In: Proc. Bio-Engineering Symposium for Fish Culture (eds L.J. Allen and E.C. Kinney): 296–307. American Fisheries Society, Publ. No.1. Washington, D.C.

Randall, R.G., C.K. Minns, V.W. Cairns and J.E. Moore, 1996. The relationships between an index of fish production and submerged macrophytes and other habitat features at three littoral areas in the Great Lakes. Can. J. Aquat. Sci. 53 (Suppl.1): 35–44.

Redding, T.A. and A.B. Midlen, 1992. Fish production in irrigation canals: a review. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 317. FAO, Rome, Italy. 114pp.

Resendez-Medina, A., 1981. Estudio de los peces de la laguna de Terminos, Campeche, Mexico. II. Ultima parte. Biotica 6: 345–430.

Revilla, J., 1991. Aspectos floristicos e estruturais da floresta inundavel (Varzea) do Baixo Solimoes, Amazonas, Brasil. Tese de doutorado, INPA, FUA. Manaus.

Reynolds, J.D., 1970. Biology of the small pelagic fishes in the new Volta Lake in Ghana. Part I: The lake and the fish: feeding habits. Hydrobiologia 35: 568–602.

Richardson, L.V., 1994. Louisiana grass carp policies, concerns, and issues. Proc. of the Grass Carp Symposium, March 7–9, 1994, Gainesville, Florida: 9–10. U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

Rickett, J.D., 1974. Trophic relationships involving crayfish of the genus Orconectes in experimental ponds. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 36(4): 207–211.

Rider, S.J., M.J. Maceina and D.R. Lowery, 1994. Comparison of cove efficiency and electrofishing catch-depletion estimates to determine abundance of age-0 largemouth bass in unvegetated and vegetated areas. J. Freshw. Ecol. 9: 19–27.

Robel, R.J., 1961. The effects of carp populations on the production of waterfowl food plants on a western waterfowl marsh. Trans. 36th Am. Wildl. Nat. Res. Conf: 147–59.

Roberts, J., A. Chick, L. Oswald and P. Thompson, 1995. Effect of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., an exotic benthivorous fish, on aquatic plants and water quality in experimental ponds, 1995. Mar. Freshwater Res. 46: 1171–80.

Robinson, H.W. and T.M. Buchanan, 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville.

Ronald, K., L.J. Selley and E.C. Amoroso, 1978. Biological synopsis of the manatee. IDRC, Ottawa. 112p.

Roussel, J.M., A. Bardonnet, J. Haury, J.L. Bagliniere and E. Prevost, 1998. Aquatic plant and fish assemblage: a macrophyte removal experiment in stream riffle habitats in a lowland salmonid river (Brittany, France). Bull. Fr. Pech. Piscic. 350–51: 693–709.

Rowe, E.D.K., 1984. Some effects of eutrophication and the removal of aquatic plants by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Lake Parkinson, New Zealand. N.Z.J.Mar. Freshwat. Res. 18: 115–27.

Rzoska, J., 1974. The upper Nile swamps, a tropical wetland study. Freshwater Biology 4: 1–30.

Rzoska, J., 1976. The invasion of Eichhornia crassipes in the Sudanese White Nile. In: The Nile (ed. J. Rzoska). Monographiae Biologicae 29: 315–320.

Saeed, M.O. and C.D. Ziebell, 1986. Effects of dietary non-preferred aquatic plants on the growth of redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii). The Progressive Fish-Culturist 48: 110–12.

Saiki, M.K. and J.C. Tash, 1979. Use of cover and dispersal by crayfish to reduce predation by largemouth bass. North-Central Division Amer. Fish. Soc. Pub. No. 6(eds D.L. Johnson and R.A. Stein): 44–8.

Saint-Paul, U., 1984. Physiological adaptation to hypoxia of a neotropical characoid fish Colossoma macropomum, Serrasalmidae. Environ. Biol. Fishes 11: 53–62.

Sand-Jensen, K. and J. Borum, 1984. Epiphyte shading and its effect on photosynthesis and diel metabolism of Lobelia dortmanna L. during the spring bloom in a Danish lake. Aquat. Bot. 20: 109–19.

Sand-Jensen, K. and M. Sondergaard, 1981. Phytoplankton and epiphyte development and their shading effect on submerged macrophytes in lakes of different nutrient status. Internat. Rev. ges. Hydrobiologie 66: 529–52.

Sandon, H., 1951. The problem of fisheries in the area affected by the Equatorial Nile Project. Sudan Notes and Records 32: 5–36.

Sarkar, S.K., 1991. Effects of the herbicide 2,4-D on the bottom fauna of fish ponds. The Progressive Fish Culturist 53: 161–5.

Sarvala, J., H. Helminen, V. Saarikari, S. Salonen and K. Vuorio, 1998. Relations between planktivorous fish abundance, zooplankton and phytoplankton in three lakes of differing productivity. Hydrobiologia 363: 81–95.

Savino, J., E.A. Marshall and R.A. Stein, 1992. Bluegill growth as modified by plant density: an exploration of underlying mechanisms. Oecologia 89: 153–60.

Savino, J. and R.A. Stein, 1982. Predator-prey interaction between largemouth bass and bluegills as influenced by simulated submerged vegetation. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 111: 255–66.

Sazima, I. and C. Zamprogno, 1985. Use of water hyacinth as shelter, foraging place, and transport by young piranhas, Serrasalmus spilopleura. Environ. Biol. Fishes 12: 237–40.

Schardt, J., 1999. Maintenance control and vibrant fisheries. Aquatics 21(2): 9–17

Scheffer, M., 1990. Multiplicity of stable states in freshwater systems. Hydrobiologia 200/201: 475–86.

Schriver, P., J. Bogestrand, E. Jeppesen and M. Sondergaard, 1995. Impact of submerged macrophytes on fish-zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions: large-scale enclosure experiments in a shallow eutrophic lake. Freshwater Biology 33: 255–70.

Schuster, W.H., 1952. Fish Culture in Brackishwater Ponds of Java. Indo-Pacific Fish. Council Special Publ. 1. 143p.

Schuytema, G.S., 1977. Biological control of aquatic nuisances - a review. USEPA, EPA-600/3-77-084. Corvallis, Oregon, USA. 90p.

Schwartz, D.P., O.E. Maughan and G.E. Gebhart, 1986. Effectiveness of blue tilapia as a weed control agent in ponds. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 48: 259–63.

Schwartz, M.F. and C.E. Boyd, 1995. Constructed wetlands for treatment of channel catfish pond effluents. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 57: 255–66.

Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman, 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 184. 966p.

Serafy, J.E., R.M. Harrell and L.M. Hurley, 1994. Mechanical removal of Hydrilla in the Potomac River, Maryland: local impacts on vegetation and associated fishes. J. Freshw. Ecol. 9: 135–43.

Setala, H. and I. Makela, 1991. Galerucella nymphaeae (Col., Chrysomelidae) grazing increases Numphar leaf production and affects carbon and nitrogen dynamics in ponds. Oecologia 86: 170–6.

Shapiro, J., V. La Marra and M. Lynch, 1975. Biomanipulation: an ecosystem approach to lake restoration. In: Water Quality Management through Biological Control (eds P.L. Brezonik and J.L. Fox): 85–96. Dept. Environmental Eng. Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Sheldon, S.P., 1997. Ecological approaches for biological control of the aquatic weed Eurasian watermilfoil: resource and interference, competition, exotic and endemic herbivores and pathogens. In: Ecological Interactions and Biological Control (eds D.A. Andow, D.W. Ragsdale and R.F. Nyvall): 53–70. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Shireman, J.V., 1984. Control of aquatic weeds with exotic fishes. In: Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes (eds W.R. Courtenay Jr. and J.R. Staufer, Jr.): 302–312. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Shireman, J.V., D.E. Colle and D.F. DuRant, 1981. Efficiency of rotenone sampling with large and small block nets in vegetated and open-water habitats. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 110:77–80

Shireman, J.V., W.T. Haller, D.E. Cole and D.F. Durant, 1983. Effects of aquatic macrophytes on native sportfish populations in Florida. Proc. Int. Symp. Aquat. Macrophytes, Nijmegen, 18–23 Sept. 1983, pp.208–14.

Shireman, J.V. and C.R. Smith, 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844). FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 135. 86p.

Sidorkewicj, N.S., A.C. Lopez Cazorla, K.J. Murphy, M.R. Sabbatini, O.A. Fernandez and J.C.J. Domaniewski, 1998. Interaction of common carp with aquatic weeds in Argentine drainage channels. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 36: 5–10.

Slipke, J.W., M.J. Maceina and J.M. Grizzle, 1998. Analysis of the recreational fishery and angler attitudes toward Hydrilla in Lake Seminole, a southeastern reservoir. J. Aquat. Plant. Manage. 36: 101–7.

Sloey, D., T. Schenck and R. Narf, 1997. Distribution of aquatic invertebrates within a dense bed of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). J. Freshw. Ecol. 12: 303–13.

Slootweg, R., 1995. Snail control by fish: an explanation for its failure. Naga 18(4): 16–19.

Slootweg, R., F.S. McCullough, E.A. Malek, (undated). The use of fish for biological control of snail-transmitted diseases. A review. (Manuscript.).

Smart, R.M., R.D. Doyle, J.D. Madsen and G.O. Dick, 1996. Establishing native submersed aquatic plant communities for fish habitat. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 16: 347–56.

Smith, C.L., 1952. The effect of water hyacinth mats and their control by 2,4-D on fish population. Doctoral dissertation. Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Smith, C.S., 1991. Ecological perspectives in aquatic plant management. Procs. 25th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, 26–30 November 1990, Orlando, Florida. Final Report, pp.95–9. Environmental Laboratory, Waterways Experimental Station, Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Miss., USA.

Sondergaard, M., E. Jeppesen and S. Berg, 1997. Pike (Esox lucius L.) stocking as a biomanipulation tool. 2. Effects on lower trophic levels in Lake Lyng, Denmark. In: Shallow Lakes '95: Trophic Cascade in Shallow Freshwater and Brackish Lakes. Proc. Conf. Mikolajki, Poland, 20–26 August 1995 (eds L. Kufej, A. Prejs and J.I. Rybak). Hydrobiologia 342–343: 319–325.

Sondergaard, M., E. Jeppesen, E. Mortensen, E. Dall, P. Kristensen and O. Sortkjaer, 1990. Phytoplankton biomass reduction after planktivorous fish reduction in a shallow, eutrophic lake: a combined effect of reduced internal P-loading and increased zooplankton grazing. Hydrobiologia 200/201: 229–40.

Sondergaard, M., T.L. Lauridsen, E. Jeppesen and L. Bruun, 1998. Macrophyte-waterfowl interactions: tracking a variable resource and the impact of herbivory on plant growth. In: The Structuring Role of Submersed Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 298–306. Springer, New York.

Stansfield, J.H., M.R. Perrow, L.D. Tench, A.J.D. Jowitt and A.A.L. Taylor, 1997. Submerged macrophytes as refuges for grazing Cladocera against fish predation: observations on seasonal changes in relation to macrophyte cover and predation pressure. Hydrobiologia 342/343: 229–240.

Stephen, D., B. Moss and G. Phillips, 1998. The relative importance of top-down and bottom-up control of phytoplankton in a shallow macrophyte-dominated lake. Freshwater Biology 39:699–713.

Sukopp, H. and B. Markstein, 1981. Veranderungen von Rohrbestanden und -pflanzen als Indikatoren von Gewassernutzungen, dargestellt am Beispiel der Havel in Berlin. Limnologica 13: 459–71.

Sundar Raj, T.S.P., 1976. Some aspects of biological and chemical methods of controlling Hydrilla in nursery tanks used for fingerlings of Ophiocephalus punctatus. In: Aquatic Weeds in South East Asia (eds C.K. Varshney and J. Rzoska): 335–9. Dr. W. Junk b.v. Publishers, The Hague.

Sutter, T.J. and R.M. Newman, 1997. Is predation by sunfish (Lepomis spp.) an important source of mortality for the Eurasian watermilfoil biocontrol agent Euhrychiopsis lecontei? J. Freshw. Ecol. 12: 225–34.

Sutton, D.L., 1985. Management of Hydrilla with triploid grass carp. Aquatics 7(2): 11–13,16.

Swales, S., 1982. Impact of weed-cutting on fisheries: an experimental study in a small lowland river. Fish. Mgmt 13(4): 125–37.

Tanner, C.C., R.D.S. Wells and C.P. Mitchell, 1990. Re-establishment of native macrophytes in Lake Parkinson following weed control by grass carp. N.Z. J. Marine Freshw. Res. 24:181–6.

Tarver, D.P., 1986. Sonar: EPA approved! Aquatics 8(2): 25–6.

Thomas, K.J., 1979. The extent of Salvinia infestation in Kerala (S. India): its impact and suggested methods of control. Environmental Conservation 6: 63–9.

Thompson, K., 1976. Swamp development in the headwaters of the White Nile. In: The Nile. Biology of the Ancient River (ed. J. Rzoska): 177–96. Dr. W. Junk bv Publishers, The Hague.

Tilzer, M.M. and C. Serruya, 1990. Large Lakes: Ecological Structure and Function. Springer-Verlag, New York. 691p.

Timms, R.M and B. Moss, 1984. Prevention of growth of potentially dense phytoplankton populations by zooplankton grazing in the presence of zooplanktivorous fish in a shallow wetland ecosystem. Limnology and Oceanography 29: 472–86.

Tooby, T.E., J. Lucey and B. Stott, 1980. The tolerance of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Val., to aquatic herbicides. J. Fish Biol. 16: 591–7.

Townsend, P.F., 1979. Some dietary and ecological considerations of the common snapping turtle in Delaware. Bull. Md. Herpetol. Soc. 15: 65–69.

Trebitz, A., S. Carpenter, P. Cunningham, B. Johnson, R. Lillie, D. Marshall, T. Martin, R. Narf, T. Pellett, S. Stewart, C. Storlie and J. Unmuth, 1997. A model of bluegill-largemouth bass interactions in relation to aquatic vegetation and its management. Ecol. Modelling 94:139–56.

Twongo, T., 1995. Impact of fish species introductions on the tilapias of Lakes Victoria and Kyoga. In: The Impact of Species Changes in African Lakes (eds. T.J. Pitcher and P.J.B. Hart): 47–57. Chapman & Hall, London.

Ukkataweat, S.B.S., 1979. The taxonomic characters and biology of some important freshwater fishes in Thailand. In: The 2nd Aqaculture Course. Nat. Inland Fish. Inst., Freshwater Fish. Div., Bangkok, Thailand. Dept. Fish. Tech. Paper 1: 101–45.

UNDP/WHO, 1970. Master plans for water supply and sewage for the Greater Kampala/Jinja areas until the year 2000. UNDP/SF/WHO Project 28, Terminal Report.

Unmuth, J.M.L., D.J. Sloey and R.A. Lillie, 1998. An evaluation of close-cut mechanical harvesting of Eurasian watermilfoil. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 36: 93–100.

Van der Velde, G., L.A. van der Heijden, P.A.J. van Grunsven and P.M.M. Bexkens, 1982. Initial decomposition of Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze (Menyanthaceae), as studied by the leaf-marking method. Hydrobiological Bulletin 16: 51–60.

Van der Zweerde, W., 1990. Biological control of aquatic weeds by means of phytophagous fish. In: Aquatic Weeds. The Ecology and Management of Nuisance Aquatic Vegetation (eds O.H. Peterse and K.J. Murphy), pp.201–220. Oxford University Press.

Van Donk, E., 1998. Switches between clear and turbid water states in a biomanipulated lake (1986–1996): the role of herbivory on macrophytes. In: The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes (eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard and K. Christoffersen): 290–97. Springer, New York.

Van Donk, E., E. De Deckere, J.G.P. Klein Breteler and J.T. Meulemans, 1994. Herbivory by waterfowl and fish on macrophytes in a biomanipulated lake: effects on long-term recovery. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 25: 2139–43.

Van Donk, E., M.P. Grimm, R.D. Gulati and J.G.P. Klein Breteler, 1990. Whole-lake food-web biomanipulation as a means to study community interactions in a small ecosystem. Hydrobiologia 200/201: 275–89.

Van Donk, E. and A. Otte, 1996. Effects of grazing by fish and waterfowl on the biomass and species composition of submerged macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 340: 285–290.

Van Schayck, C.P., 1985. Preliminary results of an investigation to the effect of aquatic plant control on intermediate hosts of bilharzia, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, in the Mansuriya District, Egypt. (Mimeographed Report.).

Van Zon, J.C.J., 1976. Status of biotic agents, other than insects or pathogens, as biocontrols. In: Proceedings of the IV International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (ed. T.E. Freeman): 245–50. The Center for Environmental Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Van Zon, J.C.J., J.E. Blom and E.A. Huisman, 1982. Irrigation systems as protein source. 2nd Internat. Symp. on Herbivorous Fish: 133–38.

Vdovenko, N.E. and Kravchenko, Z.N., 1980. The optimal plant cover for fish spawning and production in water bodies of the lower Don. Rybnoe Khoziaistvo No. 4: 29–32. (In Russian)

Venter, A.J.A. and H.J. Schoonbee, 1991. The use of triploid grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.), in the control of submerged aquatic weeds in the Florida Lake, Roodepoort, Transvaal. Water SA 17: 321–26.

Venugopal, M.N. and I.J. Winfield, 1993. The distribution of juvenile fishes in a hypereutrophic pond: can macrophytes potentially offer a refuge for zooplankton? J. Freshwater Biology 8(4): 389–96.

Vincent, J.F.V. and F.A. Sibbing, 1992. How the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) chooses and chews its food: some clues. J. Zool. 226: 435–44.

Viner, A.B., 1970. Hydrobiology of the Volta Lake. I. Stratification and circulation of water. Hydrobiologia 35: 209–29.

Vymazal, J. (ed.), 1999. Nutrient Cycling and Retention in Natural and Constructed Wetlands. Backhuys Publishers. 198p.

Vymazal, J., H. Brix, P.F. Cooper. M.B. Green and R. Haberl (eds), 1998. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment in Europe. Backhuys Publishers. 356p.

Waldhoff, D., U. Saint-Paul and B. Furch, 1996. Value of fruits and seeds from the floodplain forests of Central Amazonia as food resource for fish. Ecotropica 2: 143–56.

Watkins, C.E., J.V. Shireman, R.W. Rottmann and E. Colle, 1981. Food habits of fingerling grass carp. Progr. Fish-Culturist 43: 95–7.

Weaver, M.J., J.J. Magnuson and M.K. Clayton, 1996. Habitat heterogeneity and fish community structure: interference from north temperate lakes. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 16: 335–46.

Weaver, M.J., J.J. Magnuson and M.K. Clayton, 1997. Distribution of littoral fishes in structurally complex macrophytes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 2277–89.

Weisner, S.E.B., J.A. Strand and H. Sandsten, 1997. Mechanisms regulating abundance of submerged vegetation in shallow eutrophic lakes. Oecologia 109: 592–99.

Welcomme, R.L., 1972. An evaluation of the acadja method of fishing as practised in the coastal lagoons of Dahomey (West Africa). J. Fish Biol. 4: 39–55.

Welcomme, R.L., 1979. Fisheries ecology of floodplain rivers. Longman, London. 317p.

Welcomme, R.L., 1985. River Fisheries. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 262. FAO, Rome. 330p.

Welcomme, R.L., 1989. Review of the present state of knowledge of fish stocks and fisheries of African rivers. In: Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium (ed. D.P. Dodge). Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 106: 515–32.

Welcomme, R.L. and J.McD. Kapetsky, 1981. Acadjas: the brush park fisheries of Benin, West Africa. ICLARM Newsletter 4(4)-3–4.

Wendo, C. and Ngatya, K., 2000. If I may ask, what happened to the water hyacinth? The New Vision, January 18, 2000, page 26.

Werner, E.E., G.G. Mittelbach and D.J. Hall, 1981. The role of foraging probability and experience in habitat use by the bluegill sunfish. Ecology 62: 116–25.

Werner, E.E., J.F. Gilliam, D.J. Hall and G.G. Mittelbach, 1983. An experimental test of the effects of predation risk on habitat use in fish. Ecology 64: 1525–99.

Whitfield, A.K., 1984. The effects of prolonged aquatic macrophyte senescence on the biology of the dominant fish species in a southern African coastal lake. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 18: 315–29.

WHO, 1981. Report of the International Seminar on Integrated Control of Mosquito Vectors, Adana, Turkey, 2–14 November 1981. 59p.

WHO, 1982. Report of the Sixth Meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Biological Control of Vectors, Geneva, 13–16 September 1982. 46p.

Whisson, G.J., 1997. Investigating polyculture of marron, Cherax tenuimanus, with silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus, and an aquatic macrophyte, Vallisneria sp. In: Freshwater Crayfish 11 (ed. W.T. Momot).

Wicker, A.M. and K.M. Endres, 1995. Relationship between waterfowl and American coot abundance with submersed macrophytic vegetation in Currituck Sound, North Carolina. Estuaries 18(2): 428–31.

Wiley, M.J., R.W. Gorden, S.W. Waite and T. Powless, 1984. The relationship between aquatic macrophytes and sport fishing production in Illinois ponds: a simple model. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 4: 111–19.

Wiley, M.J., S.M. Pescitelli and L.D Wike, 1986. The relationship between feeding preferences and consumption rates in grass carp and grass carp × bighead carp hybrids. J. Fish Biol. 29: 507–14.

Wiley, M.J. and L.D. Wike, 1986. Energy balances of diploid, triploid and hybrid grass carp. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 115: 853–63.

Willis, D.W. and L.D. Jones, 1984. Fish standing crops in wooded and non-wooded coves in Kansas reservoirs. Report FW-9-R-2, Kansas Fish Game Comm. 10p.

Winemiller, K.O. and B.J. Ponwith, 1998. Comparative ecology of eleotrid fishes in Central American coastal streams. Environ. Biol. Fishes 53: 373–84.

Winfield, D.K. and I.J. Winfield, 1994. Possible competitive interactions between overwintering tufted duck (Aythya fuligula (L.)) and fish populations of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland: evidence from diet studies. Hydrobiologia 279/280: 377–86.

Winfield, I.J., 1986. The influence of simulated aquatic macrophytes on the zooplankton consumption rate of juvenile roach, Rutilus rutilus, rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, and perch, Perca fluviatilis. J. Fish Biol. 29 (Suppl.A): 37–48.

Witte, F., T. Goldschmidt, J. Wanink, M. van Oijen, G. Goudswaard, E. Witte-Maas and N. Boulton, 1992. The destruction of an endemic species flock: quantitative data on the decline of the haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria. Environ. Biol. Fishes 23: 1–28.

Witte, F., T. Goldschmidt and J.H. Wanink, 1995. Dynamics of the haplochromine cichlid fauna and other ecological changes in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. In: The Impact of Species Changes in African Lakes (eds T.J. Pitcher and P.J.B. Hart): 83–110. Chapman & Hall, London.

Yount, J.L. and R.A. Crossman, Jr., 1970. Eutrophication control by plant harvesting. J. Water Poll. Contr. Fed. 42: 173–183.

Zalewski, M. and I.G. Cowx, 1990. Factors affecting the efficiency of electric fishing. In: Fishing with Electricity (eds I.G. Cowx and P. Lamarque): 89–111. Fishing News Books, Oxford.

Zhang, H. and W.Y.B. Chang, 1994. Management of inland fisheries in shallow eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic lakes in China. Mitt. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24: 225–9.

Zimbalevskaya, L.N., M.N. Dekhtyar, I.S. Legeida, Yu.V. Pligin, V.M. Sidorenko and L.A. Khoroshikh, 1984. Shallows in Dnieper reservoirs and how to use their resources. Vodnye Resursy No.2: 14–22. (In Russian)

Back Cover

Previous Page Top of Page