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Meeting documents


REPORT of the


Social, Economic and Cultural Perspectives of Inland Fisheries

held in connection with the


Twenty-first Session

Budapest, Hungary, 1-7 June 2000


Rome, 2000


The present text is the final version of the report adopted on 3 June 2000 by the participants in the Symposium and presented to the Twenty-first Session of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission.

A selection of papers presented at the Symposium will be published in a dedicated issue of the journal "Fisheries Management and Ecology".


EIFAC Member States
European Community
EIFAC Mailing List
FAO Fisheries Department
FAO Regional Fisheries Officers

European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission.
Report of the Symposium on Fisheries and Society. Social, Economic and Cultural Perspectives of Inland Fisheries held in connection with the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission twenty-first session. Budapest, Hungary, 1-7 June 2000.
FAO Fisheries Report. No. 625, Suppl. Rome, FAO. 2000. 46p.


The Symposium on Fisheries and Society (Social, Economic and Cultural Perspectives of Inland Fisheries) was held in Budapest, Hungary, from 1 to 3 June 2000, in concomitance with the Twenty-first Session of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC). Ninety-nine participants from 27 countries attended the Symposium; 35 experience papers and 15 posters were presented. The Symposium demonstrated that the value of the inland fisheries resources in member countries of EIFAC considerably exceeds previous estimates. Indications are that in coming years there will be an increased demand for inland fishery products including especially recreational use. Inland fisheries resources will not be able to sustain increased levels of production and alternative use without careful management. Members of EIFAC, therefore, should endeavour to encourage policies directed at increasing the capacity of the inland fisheries to sustainably meet the expectation that the public place upon them.







Appendix A - Participants in the Symposium

Appendix B - Abstracts of Contributions Submitted to the Symposium


1. A Symposium on Fisheries and Society was organized in conjunction with the Twenty-first Session of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC) in Budapest, Hungary from 1 to 3 June 2000. Mr M. Sipponen (Finland) convened the Symposium, which was chaired by Mr K. Pinter (Hungary). The Symposium was attended by 99 participants from 27 countries.



2. Inland fisheries management in most European and North American countries increasingly tends to emphasize recreation and conservation rather than the older function of food production. Many of the problems currently facing managers lie in the transition from commercial to recreational fishing. Recreational fishing is thought to have a greater socio-economic benefit to society, through increased rent and through the development of tourism.

3. The transition from commercial to recreational use has been the cause of conflict between commercial and recreational fishermen and between recreational fishermen and conservationists. Many of the misunderstandings underlying these conflicts lie in difficulties of communication between the disciplines for lack of a common language. However, the failure of dialogue between the two sectors of the fishing community more frequently arises through a lack of willingness on the part of the stronger group to discuss resource allocation with the minority group from a political perspective. Increasing demand for recreational fishing has put pressure on the natural, wild and the more remote fisheries. This has led to conflicts between local inhabitants and those who are not permanently resident in the locality.

4. The change in the political climate in Eastern Europe has resulted in a move away from a planned economy to one that is demand led. This has meant the development of new systems of management, which in shared water bodies can involve more than one country. Cultural problems still persist in particular regarding the lack of acceptance of laws that are aimed at safeguarding the stock. The extent to which laws aimed at protecting the fishery are violated depends largely on the perceived cost and benefit to the communities involved.

5. The growth in recreational fishing has generated a significant trade and illegal movements of fish intra- and inter-nationally. Such trade has been generated in order to meet angler’s expectations, which are often obtained in countries other than the one in which they are resident. The main species subject to such movements are carp (Cyprinus carpio), wels catfish (Siluris glanis) and a small number of sturgeon. The illegal movement of fish has led to the establishment of a number of non-native species in countries from which they were previously absent. It has also had implications for fish health as in the case of the co-introduction of a number of novel parasites (Ergasilids) which have been responsible for fish mortalities.

6. In many countries the legislation relating to fisheries has evolved over centuries but is largely inadequate for today’s conditions. It fails to take into account increased understanding of fish and their habitats and the change in the market.


7. Fisheries science has widened its remit by including studies of the social and economic aspects of fishing. It has thus enlarged its view from that of concern with only the fish and its habitat to take into account the human dimension including fishermen’s preferences, attitudes and choices.

8. Co-management is one possible mechanism to ensure that the human element is accounted for. It is an inclusive approach to management in that it brings together all aspects of the community, encouraging a sense of ownership of the process and of the resources. The advantages of the approach are:

9. Inclusion of all stakeholders in co-management systems ensures that decisions better reflect local, social, economic and environmental conditions. The success of co-management is very dependent on meeting short-term economic and social aspirations of stakeholders; otherwise enthusiasm for the system is difficult to sustain. Greater accountability and transparency can be achieved through incorporating these elements into fisheries action plans.

10. Co-management initiatives can arise from economic pressure. Where lakes are eutrophicating and fish stocks deteriorating, recreational angling assumes a greater importance in maintaining income levels. This results in increasing pressures for consultation among the interested parties with more attention being given to angler’s preferences and needs.

11. In order for the various user groups to engage in meaningful dialogue, communication needs to be established through a common technical language. This tends to be difficult as fishermen tend to rely on their own experience and on anecdotal information whereas scientists rely more on informed opinion based on quantitative information.

12. Cooperative management is a mechanism whereby two or more countries agree on an approach to management of a transboundary water body. Representatives of fishery administrations, surveillance organizations, ichthyologists and fishermen meet within a formal framework to reach decisions based on consensus. Rivers and lakes that have been managed cooperatively have proved more sustainable than those where individual efforts by riparian countries are contradictory and confusing.

13. Providing fishing opportunities closer to urban areas where most people live can reduce pressures on wild fisheries. There is, therefore, an urgent need to improve fishing sites in areas close to towns. Such urban fisheries need to be artificially maintained to produce higher catches than would otherwise be sustainable. Co-management approaches are needed to ensure that wild fisheries are managed sustainably and that they still generate angling tourism. Dialogue between local and tourism communities is needed, as is a commitment on the part of non-resident stakeholders.

14. Legislation needs to keep abreast of changes in socio-economic aspects of fishing, improvements in understanding of fish and their requirements and to the importance of biodiversity and sustainability. This can be achieved through review groups consisting of specialists with a wide variety of experiences. It is important that in any review there is an opportunity for user-groups to input into the process.



15. Although the symposium is intended to reflect the situation of the whole of the inland fishery sector, only one contribution considers aquaculture and only a few relate to commercial fisheries. Most contributions focus on problems related to recreational fisheries. This relative emphasis may be taken to be indicative of the relative knowledge of the three sectors. Knowledge of European aquaculture is rather detailed with regard to its component enterprises, production techniques, species reared, market structure and economics. Less is known about the more complicated structure of river and lake food fisheries where the overlap between subsistence and commerce is particularly ill defined. Recreational fisheries with their substantial numbers of active anglers, who are divided into sub-cultures and are often not formally organized, are even more difficult to study. Generally little is known about the motivations and expectations of anglers and the benefits that society may derive from their activities. This lack of knowledge is limiting in view of the increasing importance of recreational fisheries relative to commercial fisheries over most of Europe during recent years.

16. Two main approaches to management of recreational fisheries are common in Europe:

  1. The protection of the aquatic environment by using its natural productivity but limiting the number of anglers supported.

  2. Increasing angling opportunity through stocking and intensive management of the ecosystem.

17. Each of these management systems has social benefits and costs that should correspond to the goals of the society in which they are applied.

18. Fishery associations and fish-watch services can play a valuable role in the re-establishment and maintenance of fish stocks and nature protection particularly where war and other social and economic disruptions have damaged the resource.

19. It was noted that the catches of trout and cyprinids in Swiss waters have been falling over the last decade and that studies are being undertaken to identify the causes for the decline. These will include statistics of the number of anglers and their catches, analysis of electro-fishing data time series, and a survey of relevant angler related changes in behaviour, equipment etc.

20. Fisheries management is increasingly concerned with the management of people rather than the management of the fish stock. This has led to an increase in the number of studies aimed at determining the various human dimensions involved. Several different techniques have been elaborated to obtain relevant information. Studies were presented from many of the member countries on the social and economic value of recreational and commercial fisheries but despite these efforts a lack of basic information on recreational fisheries and fishermen persists in a number of European countries.

21. Special problems were encountered in attempting to set-up and run a unified survey on recreational fisheries management and socio-economics in the five Nordic countries Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway and Iceland. The different institutional backgrounds, and affiliations of the partners involved in the survey, caused difficulties as did their possibilities to fund for their continued participation in the project. Problems were also experienced in random sampling of population addresses from official registers, to differences in the definition of recreational fisheries and fishermen and to the fact that not all questions in questionnaires applied to the situation in a specific participating country. Most of these problems have now been overcome.

22. Governmental allocations to the fisheries administration in UK are now so low, that the necessary services for the management and protection of the fishery cannot be provided. This underlines the need for governments in Europe generally to make adequate provisions for the maintenance of the inland aquatic environment and its fisheries.

23. Fisheries in the rivers and lakes of Finland had been organized by statutory fishery associations in the past. These have not been effective especially with regard to commercial fisheries. At the same time the importance of recreational fisheries and aquaculture has increased although the commercial sector has remained static or even declined. There is still a lack of knowledge of the socio-economic role of the whole marine and inland fishery sector in Finland and its relative importance for the regions.

24. Several methods have been tried to obtain greater insight into recreational fisheries. In Switzerland a study based on replies to written questions supplemented by a telephone survey was used to obtain information on active anglers, their preferred angling habits, their expenditures, acceptance of fishing regulations, and environmental awareness.

25. Another survey was performed in the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. This was based partly on written answers to a multiple choice questionnaire and partly on direct responses and led to a better knowledge of the social structure and professional categories of anglers, the number of days anglers spend at the water, the duration of an average angling day, the anglers motivation, and species ranking by preference and yield. It also provided data on the expenses for angling relative to the value of the catch.

26. In the UK the whole structure and functioning of the inland fisheries sector has been studied to provide a basis for the recasting of relevant legislation. Further pilot studies on the economics of the sector have been carried out to justify increased funding of fisheries administrative services. A full survey will be carried out on the basis of these initial case studies that will be used to explain the benefits of fisheries to the public, thus raising public awareness.

27. Fishery biologists and social scientists must cooperate to link biological criteria and catch and effort data to social and economic data from anglers. Such combined surveys have been carried out successfully on several lakes in Texas, USA although a similar approach to the estimation of the total socio-economic value of recreational fisheries in Scandinavia have experienced difficulties.

28. Cost-benefit analysis of the ecological economics of a liming programme conducted on acidified Norwegian rivers and lakes demonstrates the usefulness of environmental valuation techniques for the development of policies that result in such restoration programmes and lead to increased freshwater fish stocks.

29. The efficiency of Finnish inland fisheries has been enhanced by a reorganization of the system, creating fisheries regions and introducing co-management schemes. Common goals were defined taking into account the interests of all parties involved, including owners of fishing rights, fishermen, administrators and researchers. These goals have helped in the implementation of the fishery policy. The coexistence of recreational and commercial fishing was regulated by a policy on access, which was based on market forces but also enabled participation at reasonable costs. In contrast to the priority given to recreation in private waters, commercial fisheries have been given priority in state-owned waters.

30. The contribution of fisheries to regional economics is looked at using basic data from the Finnish statistics yearbook and fishery statistics. Furthermore a location quotient is used to compare the relative importance of the fishery sector with the gross domestic product of the same area.



31. The next decade will be critical in ensuring the sustainable development of European inland fisheries and aquaculture. Increased pressures on the resource from recreation demand and environmental damage mean that all applicable methods should be used for planning and applied resource management. Models should be elaborated which give a macro-economic perspective. The socio-economic value of the fishery and of related activities should be established and the various needs of resource users, and new scientific and technical developments taken into account.

32. European aquaculture is focusing on a small number of high valued species. About 71% of the aquaculture production came from marine waters, while the shares of fresh- and brackish waters were 22% and 7%, respectively. Marine aquaculture for salmon has increased and Europe has become the leading producer of salmon. In inland aquaculture trout and common carp contribute 85% of the total production. The market demand for carp is decreasing and contraction of this industry seems likely. The socio-economic impacts of aquaculture differ between Western and Eastern Europe.

Definition of categories

  1. Aquaculture is directed at satisfying food requirements in general through improved supply, quality, price and marketing. Aquaculture should also satisfy needs related to the availability of fish for restocking water bodies for production, recreation and for the preservation of biodiversity. In view of the ongoing debate in Europe a position should eventually be developed by members of EIFAC with regard to Genetically Modified Organisms.

  2. Subsistence fisheries still constitute a significant socio-economic activity in some areas. These should be kept under review to assess changes occurring in the activity and required policy adjustments.

  3. Artisanal fisheries should be assessed separately from commercial fisheries, if only because the artisanal sector generally relies more on traditional methods and techniques that may be less destructive and more appropriate for meeting conservation objectives. These methods may also need to be preserved as a historical and cultural heritage that may further prove useful for defining improved exploitation and management methods.

  4. Commercial fishing is a priori the most important sector in terms of economic value, at least if one ignores non-market valuation. This sector is directly driven by market forces. It generates direct returns and employment benefit that can be substantial at the level of local economies. Increasing development of this sector may generate conflicts with other users and lead to serious resource overexploitation.

  5. Recreational fisheries have grown in importance throughout Europe in recent years and have been the object of increased research. Research and fisheries administrations have been especially involved in the assessment of the production and socio-economic value of this activity as compared with other more commercial uses. The role of recreational fisheries should be better recognized and recreational fishers should be involved more systematically in the management of fisheries.

33. The development of self-sustaining systems for inland aquaculture has reduced the causes of conflict between inland fisheries and aquaculture. Examples demonstrate that both of these sectors can benefit from Cupertino. Conflicts between resource users continue to occur, however, as a result of direct competition for the same fishery resource, or because resource and environmental degradation caused by one category of users is not acceptable by other users. In some cases these conflicts are resolved by limitations on access or by partitioning the resource in space or time to allow access to a greater range of users.

34. The future of the aquaculture will depend on the sector’s ability to face new challenges by using improved technology, market development and by active participation in integrated resource management. The main problems being experienced with European aquaculture at present include the development of new technologies for the treatment of effluents, achieving a better equilibrium among the different regions and particularly between Eastern and Western countries and greater adhesion to the principles of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.

35. Aquaculturists and professional fishermen in Europe were experiencing difficulties caused by rapid oscillations in the price of their products. It was suggested that some method should be sought to stabilize market prices for fish products.

36. The decline in eel fisheries was cause for concern and the Commission’s attention was drawn to the EU Concerted Action Plan, which identified methods and models to reverse the negative trend in catches. Eel fisheries are highly fragmented, the species breeds outside continental Europe and has a long life cycle. They are not, therefore, amenable to local management and development of the fishery must be the responsibility of public authorities and of international Cupertino in the case of major European river systems. An international management plan for eel is needed.

37. One of the main conclusions to be drawn from this session was the need to improve technical and scientific understanding of all types of fishery. The contribution to this through a professional training programme in Eastern Europe co-financed by the EU was acknowledged.


38. The Symposium demonstrated that the value of the inland fisheries resources in member countries of EIFAC considerably exceeds previous estimates albeit on the basis of preliminary studies. Indications are that in coming years there will be an increased demand for inland fishery products including especially recreational use. There will also be a continued demand on water and aquatic environments for purposes other than fisheries. Inland fisheries resources will not be able to sustain increased levels of production and alternative use without careful management of the fish, the aquatic environments and the human elements of the fisheries represented by the various stakeholders. In general the members of EIFAC should endeavour to encourage policies directed at increasing the capacity of the inland fisheries to sustainably meet the expectation that the public place upon them.


39. Co-management is a valuable tool for the sustainable management of fisheries. It should also facilitate the resolution of potential conflicts among user groups. Fisheries administrations need to better recognize the need for co-management and to support improved institutional and organizational mechanisms to facilitate the adoption of this mechanism. As part of co-management dialogue between local and tourism communities is needed, as is a commitment on the part of non-resident stakeholders.

40. There are clear indications that fisheries in international and shared rivers and lakes are better managed if collaborative mechanisms are in place. Mechanisms for collaborative management of trans-national lakes and rivers should therefore be established where they do not already exist.

41. The high degree of interactivity between the various users of inland waters and the impacts that can result from poor management practice within a watershed make it essential that appropriate linkages between fishery administrations and various user groups are maintained. These should serve as mechanisms for negotiations to ensure that at least the minimum requirements for the maintenance of healthy fish communities are established.

42. The growing importance of the human dimensions of inland fisheries means that social scientists should be more closely involved in research and management of the fishery. Their role should be to elucidate the complex linkages that underlie fishery policy formulation to ensure that all stakeholders are included in dialogues regarding the fishery and to resolve any possible conflicts.

Data base, statistics, science

43. Basic information on recreational fisheries is still incomplete in some parts of Europe. Efforts should be increased to better this situation. Techniques developed for the estimation of environmental goods that are so far been rarely applied to inland fisheries in Europe and should be further assessed and promoted.

44. Technical terms should be defined when starting joint projects, be it on the level of different disciplines or among neighbouring countries, on the same subject.

45. In view of the need for a better understanding of socio-economic issues surveys should be undertaken more systematically in EIFAC member countries. It is recommended that EIFAC organize an ad hoc workshop on methodologies for socio-economic surveys. This should build upon the existing experience as reflected in contributions to this Symposium to review concepts and methodologies and to ensure harmonized approaches to future studies.

Environmental issues

46. The fishing community should be prepared to meet the increasing concerns of the animal welfare movement particularly with regard to catch-and-release fisheries.

47. Prospective assessment and long-term projections should be carried out so as to facilitate and improve the management process. An integrated approach is required at this level and assessments should concern all key factors (resource, environment, and socio-economic variables such as population trends, etc.). This is all the more important if one considers that management should satisfy various socio-economic needs as well as the requirements for the protection of the resource and its environment.

48. The problem of illegal international movements of fish can best be achieved through a mechanism of EIFAC whereby national contacts can work closely together. Appropriate administrative mechanisms should be in a position to assess the extent of the problem of fish theft and illegal movements and to identify those persons responsible. The development of an international network across Europe and the development of awareness building programmes would be the first step in trying to reduce this problem.


49. In view of the demonstrated importance of the inland fisheries sector, the growing challenges for its sustainable management and the increasing international dimensions of tourism and environmental concerns, the Symposium felt that collaborative efforts and technical Cupertino among members should be strengthened. It urged EIFAC to intensify intersessional activities through cooperative programmes on key technical and management issues. Financing should be sought in support of such programmes.

50. In view of the important contribution of recreational fishing to society appropriate financing should be allocated to the sector by governments.

Education and communication

51. A system of education of commercial fishermen is a good basis for ensuring the future of inland fisheries. Programmes should also be developed for the education of anglers where not already in existence. Efficient communication projects should also be promoted to raise public awareness of the benefits of inland fisheries.

Management policy

52. Efforts should be increased to rehabilitate and improve the state of rivers, lakes and lagoons with a view to preserve sustainable fishing activities.

53. To conform to consumer preferences towards shorter fishing trips and to the growing urbanization of European societies there is an urgent need to improve fishing sites in areas close to towns.

54. Subject to management requirements access to fishing grounds should be maintained for commercial fishermen where traditional access rights already exist or where there are strong economic and social justifications.

Appendix A
Participants in the Symposium

ADÁMEK, Zdenek
Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology
University of South Bohemia
Laboratory Pohorelice
Videnska 717
691 23 Pohorelice,
Czech Republic
Fax: (+420-626) 424372
E-mail: [email protected]

ANICIC, Branca (Ms)
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Zagreb
Svetosimunska 25
HR-10000 Zagreb
Fax: (+385-1) 2315300
E-mail: [email protected]

Faculty of Agriculture
University of Zagreb
Svetosimunska 25
HR-10000 Zagreb
Fax: (+385-1) 2315300
E-mail: [email protected]

Department of Economic and Social Geography
Umeå University
902 87 Umeå
Fax: (+46-90) 7866359
E-mail: [email protected]

Environment Agency North West Region
Richard Fairclough House
Knutsford Road
Warrington, WA4 1HG
United Kingdom
Fax: (+44-1925) 415961
E-mail: [email protected] environment-

Commission Européenne
Direction générale de la pêche
200, rue de la Loi
B-1049 Bruxelles
Fax: (+32-2) 2963033
E-mail: [email protected]

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute
Saimaa Fisheries Research and Aquaculture
Laasalantie 9
FIN-58175 Enonkoski
Fax: (+358-205) 751609
E-mail: [email protected]

National Board of Fisheries
Dept. of Coastal and Freshwater Resources
P.O. Box 423
SE-40126 Göteborg
Fax: (+46-31) 743044
E-mail: [email protected]

BNINSKA, Maria (Ms)
Department of Fishery Bioeconomics
Inland Fisheries Institute
ul. Oczapowskiego 10
10-719 Olsztyn-Kortowo
Fax: (+48-89) 5240505
E-mail: [email protected]

Divisão de Pesca nas Águas Interiores
Direcção Geral das Florestas
Av. 5 Outubro 52-6ºD
1050-058 Lisboa
Fax: (+351-21) 3156188
E-mail: [email protected]

BOHN, Jørgen
The Danish Directorate of Fisheries
Stormgade 2
DK-1470 Copenhagen K.
Fax: (+45) 33963903
E-mail: [email protected]

BOISNEAU, Philippe
Secrétaire général de la coordination nationale de la pêche professionnelle en eau douce
La Bardoire
F-37150 Chisseaux
Fax: (+33-2) 47238609
E-mail: [email protected]

BOLGANN, Birgit (Ms)
The Danish Directorate of Fisheries
Stormgade 2
DK-1470 Copenhagen K.
Fax: (+45) 33963903
E-mail: [email protected]

Ministerium für Umwelt und Forsten
Kaiser-Friedrich-Strasse 1
D-55116 Mainz
Fax: (+49-6131) 165926
E-mail: [email protected]

BUCK, Patrick
South Western Regional Fisheries Board
1 Nevilles Tce, Masseytown
Macroom, Co Cork
Fax: (+353-26) 41223
E-mail: [email protected]

Cemagref Groupement de Bordeaux
50, av. de verdun, Gazinet
F-33612 Cestas CEDEX
Fax: (+33-5) 57890801
E-mail: [email protected]

Danube Delta National Institute for Research and Development
Str. Babadag 165
RO-8800 Tulcea
Fax: (+40-40) 533547
E-mail: [email protected]

Conseil supérieur de la pêche
Direction générale - Service technique
134, avenue de Malakoff
F-75116 Paris
Fax: (+33-1) 45012723
E-mail: [email protected]

CHEBANOV, Michail S.
Krasnodar Research Institute of Fisheries
12, Oktybrskaya Str.
Krasnodar, 350063
Fax: (+7-8612) 622707
E-mail: [email protected]

CINI, Vladimir
Faculty of Economics
7 Gajev trg
HR-31000 Osijek
Fax: (+385-31) 211604
E-mail: [email protected]

Centro de Biologia Ambiental
Dep. de Zoologia e Antropologia
Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa
Campo Grande, C2
P-1749-016 Lisboa
Fax: (+351-21) 7500028
E-mail: [email protected]

COURCOL, Christian
Ministère de l’agriculture et de la pêche
Direction des pêches maritimes et de l’aquaculture
Bureau de la pisciculture
3 Place de Fontenoy
F-75007 Paris
Fax: (+33-1) 49555984
E-mail: [email protected]

COWX, Ian G.
University of Hull
International Fisheries Institute
Hull HU6 7RX
United Kingdom
Fax: (+44-1482) 470129
E-mail: [email protected]

DITTON, Robert B.
Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-2258
Unites States of America
Fax: (+1-409) 8453786
E-mail: [email protected]

ECONOMIDIS, Panagiotis S.
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ichthyology
Box 134
GR-540 06 Thessaloniki
Fax: (+30-31) 998279
E-mail: [email protected]

Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata in Mare
300, Via Casalotti
00166 Rome
Fax: (+39) 0661570423
E-mail: [email protected]

Central Fisheries Board
Mobhi Boreen
Glasnevin, Dublin 9
Fax: (+353-1) 8360060

FRANK, Vincent G.
Service de la pêche
Division nature et forêts
Région Wallone
av. Gouverneur Bovesse 100
B-5100 Jambes
Fax: (+32-81) 327470
E-mail: [email protected]

FRANZ, Martin
Amt für ländliche Räume Kiel
Abteilung Fischerei
Wischhofstraße 1-3
D-24148 Kiel
Fax: (+49-431) 7208026
E-mail: [email protected]

GABOR, Janos
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
H-1055 Kossuth tér 11
Fax: (+36-1) 3014781
E-mail: [email protected]

Danish Institute for Fisheries Research
Department of Inland Fisheries
Vejlsoevej 39
DK-8600 Silkeborg
Fax: (+45) 89213150
E-mail: [email protected]

GERARD, Pierre
Ministére de la Region Wallonne
Avenue Maréchal Juin, 23
Fax: (+32-81) 615727
E-mail: [email protected]

Laboratoire d’hydrobiologie lacustre, INRA
BP 511
F-74203 Thonon Cedex
Fax: (+33-4) 50260760
E-mail: [email protected]

Environment Agency
Rio House, Waterside Drive
Bristol, BS32 4UD
United Kingdom
Fax: (+44-1454) 624033
E-mail: [email protected]

GREBOVAL, Dominique
Development Planning Service
Fishery Policy and Planning Division
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
00100 Rome
Fax: (+39) 0657056500
E-mail: [email protected]

Comité national des pêches maritimes et des élevages marins
51, rue Salvador Allende
F-92027 Nanterre
Fax: (+33-1) 49000602
E-mail: [email protected]

National Coarse Fish Centre
The Environment Agency
Hoo Farm Industrial Estate
Worcester Road
Kidderminster DY11 7RA
United Kingdom
Fax: (+44-1562) 69477
E-mail: [email protected]

HILGE, Volker
Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
Institut für Fischereiökologie
Wulfsdorfer Weg 204
D-22926 Ahrensburg
Fax: (+49-4102) 898207
E-mail: [email protected]

Employment and Economic Development Centre
Fisheries Services, South Savo
P.O.Box 164
FIN-50101 Mikkeli
Fax: (+358-15) 4664210
E-mail: [email protected]

JANOUŠOVÁ, Magdaléna (Ms)
Slovak Anglers Union
Kmetá 20
010 55 Žilina
Fax: (+421-89) 562906
E-mail: [email protected]

JENEY, Galina
Fish Culture Research Institute
P.O. Box 47
H-5541 Szarvas
Fax: (+36-66) 312142
E-mail: [email protected]

JENEY, Zsigmond
Fish Culture Research Institute
P.O. Box 47
H-5541 Szarvas
Fax: (+36-66) 312142
E-mail: [email protected]

KAINZ, Erich
Federal Agency for Water Management
Institute for Water Ecology, Fisheries and Lake Research
Scharfling 18
A-5310 Mondsee
Fax: (+43-6232) 384733
E-mail: [email protected]

University of Debrecen
Egyetem tér 1
4032 Debrecen
Fax: (+36-52) 512928
E-mail: [email protected]

MTA, Research Group of Animal Breeding
Pátér V. u.1
H-2103 Gödöllö
Fax: (+36) 28410804
E-mail: [email protected]

KOVÁCS, Norbert
Magyar Országos Horgász szóvetség
Korumpai u.17
H-1124 Budapest
Fax: (+36-1) 31999794

Administration des eaux et forêts
Service de la chasse et de la pêche
16, rue Eugène Ruppert
L-1025 Luxembourg
Fax: (+352) 402201-350
E-mail: [email protected]

Agricultural University
P.O. Box 470
1432 As
E-mail: [email protected]

KÚTASY, Gabriella (Ms)
National Federation of Hungarian Fish Producers
Vöröszö u. 4/B
H-1126 Budapest
Fax: (+36-1) 2142643

Department of Limnology and Environmental Protection
P.O. Box 27
FIN-00014 Helsinki
Fax: (+358-9) 708 5857
E-mail: [email protected]

MAHABIR, Gieta (Ms)
Fisheries Department
Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries
Postbus 20401
2500 The Hague
Fax: (+31-70) 3786153
E-mail: [email protected]

Weymouth Laboratory
Barrack Road
Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 8UB
United Kingdom
Fax: (+44-1305) 206602
E-mail: [email protected]

MARINI, Raffaele
Commissariato Italiano
Commissione italo-svizzera per la pesca
Viale G. Modugno 42
I-16156 Genova
Fax: (+39) 0106967647
E-mail: [email protected]

Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Service
Fishery Resources Division
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
00100 Rome
Fax: (+39) 0657053020
E-mail: [email protected]

MARTA, Patricia Sobral (Ms)
Centro de Biologia Ambiental
Dep. de Zoologia e Antropologia
Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa
Campo Grande, CZ
P-1749-016 Lisboa
Fax: (+35-1) 17500028

European Anglers Alliance (EAA)
Wasserwerkgasse 33
CH-3000 Bern
Fax: (+41-31) 3110901

MORIARTY, Christopher
University of Dublin
Zoology Department
Trinity College
Dublin 2
E-mail: [email protected]

Employment and Economic Development Centre for Häme
Raatihuoneenkatu 11
FIN-13101 Hämeenlinna
Fax: (+358-3) 8515759
E-mail: [email protected]

MUJE, Kari
Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute
Kauppakatu 4 B 49
FIN-40100 Jyväskylä
Fax: (+358-20) 5751609
E-mail: [email protected]

MUJE, Petri
University of Kuopio
Center for Training and Development
P.O.Box 1627
FIN-70211 Kuopio
Fax: (+358-17) 163903
E-mail: [email protected]

MÜLLER, Rudolf
EAWAG, Fisheries
CH-6047 Kastanienbaum
Fax: (+41-41) 3492162
E-mail: [email protected]

Organization for the Improvement of Inland Fisheries (OVB)
Buxtehudelaan 1
P.O. Box 433
NL-3430 AK Nieuwegein
Fax: (+31-30) 6039874
E-mail: [email protected]

NAEVE, Heiner
Secretary EIFAC
Fishery Resources Division
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
00100 Rome
Fax: (+39) 0657053020
E-mail: [email protected]

Danube Delta National Institute for Research and Development
Str. Babadag 165
RO-8800 Tulcea
Fax: (+40-40) 533547
E-mail: [email protected]

OPACAK, Andelko
Faculty of Agriculture
3 Trg Sv. Trojstva
HR-31000 Osijek
Fax: (+385-31) 224268
E-mail: [email protected]

OZOLINA, Gunta (Ms)
National Board of Fisheries
Ministry of Agiculture
2, Republikas laukums
LV-1010 Riga
Fax: (+371) 7334892
E-mail: [email protected]

National Coarse Fish Centre
Environment Agency
Hoo Farm Industrial Estate
Worcester Road
Kidderminster, DY11 7RA
United Kingdom
Fax: (+44-1562) 69477
E-mail: [email protected]

PERKOVIC, Anica (Ms)
Faculty of Agriculture
3 Trg Sv. Trojstva
HR-31000 Osijek
Fax: (+385-31) 224259
E-mail: [email protected]

PILKOVÁ, Zuzana (Ms)
Slovak Anlers Union
Kmetá 20
010 55 Žilina
Fax: (+421-89) 562906
E-mail: [email protected]

PINTÉR, Károly
Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Development
Kossuth L. tér 11
H-1055 Budapest
Fax: (+36-1) 3014781
E-mail: [email protected]

University of Kuopio
Center for Training and Development
P.O.Box 1627
FIN-70211 Kuopio
Fax: (+358-17) 163900
E-mail: [email protected]


RAAT, Lex (A.J.P.)
Organization for the Improvement of Inland Fisheries (OVB)
Buxtehudelaan 1
P.O. Box 433
NL-3430 AK Nieuwegein
Fax: (+31-30) 6058446
E-mail: [email protected]

RADONSKI, Gilbert C.
133 Sutton Drive,
Cape Carteret, NC 28254
United States of America
Fax: (+1-520) 3962092
E-mail: [email protected]

Danish Institute for Fisheries Research
Department of Inland Fisheries
Vejlsoevej 39
DK 8600 Silkeborg
Fax: (+45) 89213150
E-mail: [email protected]

National Board of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture
2, Republikas laukums
LV-1010 Riga
Fax: (+371) 7334892
E-mail: [email protected]

ROTH, Eva (Ms)
University of Southern Denmark
Nils Bohrs Vej 9
DK-6700 Esbjerg
Fax: (+45) 65501091
E-mail: [email protected]

SALMI, Juhani
Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute
Saimaa Fisheries Research and Aquaculture
Konttorikatu 1
FIN-28900 Pori
Fax: (+358-205) 751895
E-mail: [email protected]

SAVELYEVA, Emiliya A. (Ms)
Krasnodar Research Institute of Fisheries
12, Oktybrskaya Str.
Krasnodar, 350063
Fax: (+7-8612) 622707
E-mail: [email protected]

Employment and Economic Develop-ment Centre for Central Finland
P.O. Box 44
FIN-40101 Jyväskylä
Fax: (+358-14) 4104747
E-mail: [email protected]

Ministerstwo Rolnictwa I Rozwoju WSI
Department Rybolówstwa
Ul. Wspólna 30
00-930 Warszawa
Fax: (+22) 6232204
E-mail: [email protected]

STAUB, Erich
Office fédéral de  l'environnement, des forêts et du paysage
Division écologie et pêche
Hallwylstrasse 4
CH-3003 Berne
Fax: (+41-31) 3230371
E-mail: [email protected]

Deutscher Anglerverband e.V.
Eitelsdorfer Str. 32
D-12555 Berlin
Fax: (+49-30) 6561390
E-mail: [email protected]

STIGZELIUS, Johanna (Ms)
Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute
P.O. Box 6
FIN-00721 Helsinki
Fax: (+358-205) 751201
E-mail: [email protected]

STÜNDL, László
University of Debrecen
Egyetem tér 1
4032 Debrecen
Fax: (+36-52) 512928
E-mail: [email protected]

SUCHMAN, Jaroslav
Subregional Representative for Central and Eastern Europe
Benczúr utca 34
1068 Budapest
Fax: (+36-1) 3517029
E-mail: [email protected]

TOIVONEN, Anna-Liisa (Ms)
Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute
P.O. Box 6
FIN-00721 Helsinki
Fax: (+358-205) 751201
E-mail: [email protected]

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute
Saimaa Fisheries Research and Aquaculture
Laasalantie 9
FIN-58175 Enonkoski
Fax: (+358-205) 751609
E-mail: [email protected]

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute
Pukinmäenaukio 4
P.O.Box 6
FIN-00721 Helsinki
Fax: (+358-205) 751201
E-mail: [email protected]

VAINO, Vaïno
University of Tartu
Institute of Zoology and Hydrobiology
Vanemuise St. 46
Tartu 51014
Fax: (+372) 7374

VAMVAKAS, Constantin
Commission Européenne
Direction générale de la pêche
200, rue de la Loi
B-1049 Bruxelles
Fax: (+32-2) 2951940
E-mail: [email protected]

VÁRADI, Agnes (Ms)
Fish Culture Research Institute
P.O. Box 47
H-5541 Szarvas
Fax: (+36-66) 312142
E-mail: [email protected]

VÁRADI, László
Fish Culture Research Institute
P.O. Box 47
H-5541 Szarvas
Fax: (+36-66) 312142
E-mail: [email protected]

University of Tartu
Institute of Zoology and Hydrobiology
Vanemuise St. 46
Tartu 51014
Fax: (+372-7) 375830
E-mail: [email protected]

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute
PO Box 6
FIN-00721 Helsinki
Fax: (+358-205) 751201
E-mail: [email protected]

Comité national des pêches maritimes et des élevages marins
51 rue Salvador Allende
F-92027 Nanterre
Fax: (+33-1) 49000602
E-mail: [email protected]

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute
P.O. Box 6
FIN-00721 Helsinki
Fax: (+358-205) 751202
E-mail: [email protected]

Institute for Inland Fisheries
D-14476 Gross Glienicke
Fax: (+49-33201) 40640
E-mail: [email protected]

Renewable Resources Assessment Group, Room 403
T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering
Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine
Royal School of Mines
Prince Consort Road
London SW7 2BP
United Kingdom
Fax: (44-171) 5895319
E-mail: [email protected]

WINKEL, Michael
Deutscher Anglerverband e.V.
Weissenseer Weg 110
D-10369 Berlin
Fax: (+49-30) 97104389
E-mail: [email protected]

Appendix B
Abstracts of Contributions Submitted to the Symposium
(E- Experience Papers; P – Posters)
Selected papers will be published in "Fisheries Management and Ecology"


EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 03

What future for inland commercial fishing in the French legislative and socio-political context?
Progress in its recognition and obstacles to its continuation

Philippe Boisneau

Sécretaire Général de la Coordination nationale de la pêche professionnelle en eau douce,
La Bardoire, 37150 Chisseaux, France

France’s 800 inland commercial fishers are grouped into eleven recognized associations spread throughout the country (excluding overseas territories) that represent them at department, region and catchment level. Most of these fishers belong to the National Board of Freshwater Commercial Fisheries (CNAPPED: Coordination Nationale de la Pêche Professionnelle en Eau Douce) which coordinates the profession and represents it before the national bodies. Discussions and defence of this commercial fishery are very difficult at this level: there is only one professional fisher alongside the 12 recreational fishers on the administrative board of the Higher Fisheries Council (Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche) which is answerable to the Minister responsible for environment and is charged with examining all regulatory texts before approval. Similarly, at departmental level, the profession is represented by two members in the departments where we are present (and zero in the others, hence the impossibility of setting up new operations) compared to four recreational fishers on the fishery technical commissions that propose the modalities of fisheries regulatory management to the prefects. As a result, we have to use 19th Century means with 17th Century regulations, which makes it impossible for many to achieve the financial results that are needed to survive in the liberal global economy of the beginning of the 21st Century. Yet, the profession has been able to integrate the concept of sustainable management of capture fishery resources by putting in place the individual monitoring of fishing effort and catch at national level, by conducting large-scale technical operations such as lake ranching, by participating recently in the aquaculture
training given by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, and by publishing a quality journal for communication within the profession and with its partners. Democratic practices still need to be introduced into French inland fisheries, with representation among decision-making bodies so that the profession may finally evolve in step with society to bring about the harmonious and sustainable management of fish resources and the viable development of commercial fisheries.

Keywords: Commercial fisheries; Management; France

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 04

A holistic approach to fisheries development –

Preliminary results from the Kerry Blackwater Development Initiative, Ireland

Patrick J. Buck

South Western Regional Fisheries Board,1 Nevilles Tce, Masseytown, Macroom, Co Cork, Ireland

In 1996 the State acquired the Kerry Blackwater, a small, derelict, spate salmon river, rurally situated in the Southwest of Ireland. In 1997 the south-western Regional Fisheries Board, utilising both exchequer and European funding, commenced a five-year sustainable development initiative on the river. The goals were two fold – to create a top class sustainable salmon fishery and to create a model salmon fishery on which other Irish rivers could be developed. The project was sub divided into four primary units, environment, development, economic and social. Preliminary results indicate the importance of viewing the river catchment holistically and to recognise the interplay of all components. Certainly it is the interplay between community and development that ensures project success. The recognition that the catchment communities are all in their own way stakeholders in the resource and that their inclusion through catchment management is a prerequisite, is vital. Community endorsement, and project ownership are necessary to ensure long term support. Experience indicates that conflict resolution methodologies need to be formulated to suit individual resource and stakeholder requirements. Economic betterment is a significant component in ensuring long term support. Buy-in is seen to waver if primary social aspirations are not realised in the short term, the time frame of which varies from stakeholder to stakeholder. Similarly with relatively short angling seasons many stakeholders seek and demand alternative uses for the river catchment and income in these cases is often the sole driving force. The realisation must prevail that for many stakeholders environmental preservation needs to be learnt and that initially environmental integrity plays a secondary role to that of economics and increased earnings. Conflicts constantly arise between stakeholders, which need to be resolved at that time so as to avoid deep seated future difficulties. Social aspects were often found to be considerably more complex than those of the physical environment or development methodologies.

Keywords: Stakeholders; Recreational fisheries; Conflict resolution; Ireland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 05

Fisheries management in fresh and coastal waters in Denmark in the period 1987-1999

Peter Geertz-Hansen and Gorm Rasmussen

Department of Inland Fisheries, Vejlsoevej 39, DK 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark

The area of inland waters in Denmark (43,000 km²) consists of about 15,000 hectare of streams (30,000 km combined length) and about 45,000 hectare of lakes. The population of Denmark is approximately 5.2 million.

Denmark occupies a moraine formation formed during the penultimate and last Ice Ages. Generally speaking, all streams and lakes are influenced by human culture. Many lakes are highly eutrophic with fish faunas composed mostly of omnivore species (cyprinids). Less than 2% of the streams have never been physically regulated. The remainder (98%) of streams have been more or less regulated from canals to straightened watercourses although many have been restored over the last 10 years.

Many hydro-electric power plants and fish farms were established in the 20th century and these created problems for migratory salmonids both because of predation from pike and zander and because many of the fish ways did not function well. In the fjords commercial fishings for eel and herring interfered with smolt migration. Many streams were polluted with organic materials and suffered contamination from acid and iron-containing effluents due to drainage and lignite mining. These problems are less significant today.

Fishing is very important as a recreational activity in Denmark not only for citizens but also for tourists. Recreational fisheries are both coastal and inland. Anglers aged between 18 and 67 must hold a valid fishing license. The licence fees are used for the stocking, river restoration and for fishery biology research. According to Danish law, stocking can only take place after permission is obtained from the authorities.

All proposals for stocking in freshwater require stocking plans based on the carrying capacities of the habitats. All use hatchery reared fish which are either offspring from wild fish, which are caught in nature for later stripping, or from more or less domesticated fish stocks, that have been kept at the plants for several fish generations. When fish are released it is inevitable that disturbance to the present genetic structure in the fish stocks can occur. Therefore, stockings are based on genetically guidelines.

The paper gives general information about inland waters, legal aspects of the inland water fisheries, fisheries in inland waters, socio-economic aspects of inland water fisheries, research projects and main problems and development prospects.

Keywords: Inland fisheries; Recreational fisheries; Stocking; Policy; Denmark

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 06

The fisheries in alpine lakes in France,
interactions between recreational fisheries and commercial fisheries

Daniel Gerdeaux

Laboratoire d’hydrobiologie lacustre, INRA, BP 511, F 74203 Thonon Cedex, France

The development of fisheries on Lake Geneva and Lake Annecy is compared. Recreational fishing is now so widespread on Lake Annecy that commercial fishing has become marginalized. This development is linked to the relative growth in economic importance of recreational fisheries, to the arrival of anglers disappointed with the degradation of river fisheries and changes in rod fishing practices. Whitefish was only fished by net before the development of deep handlining, known as "sonde" fishing on Lake Annecy. It is only caught by commercial fishers on Lake Geneva and is an important resource without problems of sharing. Such problems are thus far more serious on Lake Annecy. Access to recreational fishing by boat is less expensive on Lake Annecy than on Lake Geneva, mainly for reasons of safety of navigation. The increase in fishing pressure is therefore very high on Lake Annecy. The future of commercial fisheries on Lake Annecy also depends on the region's market outlets for lake fish. The increase in whitefish catch in Lake Geneva has produced a situation where supply exceeds demand and where fish from Lake Geneva is sent to the market of Lake Annecy. All these circumstances serve to undermine commercial fisheries on Lake Annecy which will only survive if the authorities adopt a clear policy to this effect. Steps in this direction have been initiated with an integrated lake fisheries project which is however difficult to implement. It would seem more realistic to adopt an individual rather than comprehensive approach.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Commercial fisheries; France

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 07

Local fisheries and nature protection. A case study in Lake Saimaa, Finland

Mika Tonder and Juha Jurvelius

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Saimaa Fisheries Research and Aquaculture

Laasalantie 9, FIN-58175 Enonkoski, Finland

Fisheries in the Finnish lakes and rivers were important in the history of settlement in the country. At the moment the economic importance of inland fisheries is mostly local. Conservation has a very significant role in Finnish environmental policy, and the local viewpoint on restrictions caused by conservation of natural resources sometimes differs from that of the administration. Conservation and environmental policy in Finland have changed their role from conflict to power game. Conflicts between use and conservation have arisen through the different values and interests of the various groups at a local level. Statutory fishery associations are primarily responsible for local decision making for fisheries. Traditionally local attitudes have been negative towards non-local recreational and commercial fishermen and especially towards conservation.

Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis Nordq) is the only endemic mammal in Finland. It is a land-locked form of the Baltic ringed seal. Hunting of this animal was allowed until the mid 1970's because it eats fish and was itself a source of meat, leather etc. Because of hunting, accidental deaths in fishing nets and reduced living space the population of the ringed seal was reduced to about 120 seals by the beginning of 1980s. Subsequently protection of the species by a rigidly enforced conservation has allowed populations to increase to slightly over 200 individuals. Restrictions to fishing for the purpose of conservation of the seal have required changes in attitudes of local fishermen.

In this paper we present a case study of the interactions between the local fishery, the Saimaa ringed seal and the conservation acts in Lake Pihlajavesi, south-eastern Finland. About 50 seals live in the study area and about 20 000 people fish annually in the lake. Firstly local decision makers’ and fishermen’s perspectives towards the conservation of seal are analysed and related to the actions and standpoints of environmental and fisheries administration. Secondly we study the predatory role of the seal in the fish community and compare it with the impact of fishery in the area and the perspectives of local fishermen. We also discuss the impacts of conservation acts to the fishery and other use of natural resource in the area. The main material for this study consisted of personal thematic interviews conducted with local decision makers, fishermen and other stakeholders in the area.

Keywords: Conservation; Conflict resolution; Wildlife; Finland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 09

Illegal imports of live freshwater fish into the UK

Stephen Maidment

CEFAS, Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 8UB, UK

European and UK fisheries legislation was introduced to reduce the incidence of fish disease and prevent its spread across the continent. To this end various zones and sites are designated as ‘approved’ thus enabling fish originating from those places to be moved and exported freely, provided the appropriate notification is given and the necessary health certification accompanies the animals.

Notwithstanding the above it is apparent that live freshwater fish continue to be illegally imported into the UK and the threat, and indeed the incidence of disease is increasing. These animals, primarily carp, wels catfish and more recently sturgeon are likely to have been simply stolen, or purchased cheaply from sites on the continent and smuggled into the UK. The main source countries are France, Belgium and Holland, but it is known that fish from other countries, including Eastern Europe are also finding their way illegally into the UK.

The offences are committed by, or on behalf of UK fishery owners for the purpose of attracting anglers to pay large sums of money for the privilege of trying to catch larger, or different species of fish than would otherwise be available. To illustrate the sums involved it is known that a carp weighing 20 kg was recently sold in England for £5,000 having been purchased in Eastern Europe for £100. The fish in question was illegally imported but no further details are known. It is believed by the UK authorities and by those connected with the fish and fisheries trade that many of the recent disease outbreaks in the UK are attributable to illegally-imported fish.

It is also known that fish are being unlawfully moved in large numbers across the continent, not only to UK waters but also into France to satisfy the market created by the increasing numbers of British-owned lakes in that country to which UK anglers are invited to fish. It is also strongly suspected that fish are being stolen from French-owned lakes and introduced into waters that are owned, leased, operated or fished by the British. The fish are required, not only to sustain the dense stocking levels which are synonymous with such waters, but also to replace the large numbers of mortalities arising from the process.

The UK authorities are having only a minor impact on preventing illegal imports. This is due to the ease with which the offences may be committed and to the minimal resources available to combat the problem. The UK is therefore keen to involve the relevant authorities in Europe to address the issues of illegal activity committed by British nationals, and others that may be involved.

Keywords: Introductions; Trade; Recreational fishing; UK

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 10

User participation in fishery management:

The recreational fisher as co-manager of inland fishery resources,

socio-cultural aspect of the topic

Raffaele Marini

Viale G. Modugno 42, I-16156 Genova, Italy

The possibility that recreational fishers should be involved in the co-management of inland fishery resources is the subject of debate between users and the interested public administration agencies.

The fact that Italian recreational fishers are getting progressively older makes it essential to try involve young people not only in fishing but also in the co-management of fishery resources and in the protection of the aquatic environment.

In this way we think it will be possible to convince future generations of the importance of protecting inland fishery resources to guarantee the survival of the recreational fishery by improving the ecological environment in which fish are born, grow and reproduce.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Co-management; Italy

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 12

The challenge for sustainable use of the Danube delta fisheries, Romania

Ion Nãvodaru, Mircea Staras and Irina Cernisencu

Danube Delta National Institute for Research & Development, Str. Babadag 165, RO-8800 Tulcea, Romania

The fisheries of the Danube Delta have been famous since ancient times. Over their existence the fisheries have been transformed with regard to property rights, administration, catch size and species composition. The fisheries which are carried out over 580,000 of hectares of the delta and which produce between 5,000-10,000 tons per year worth about 6.3 million USD are still one of the most important inland fisheries of Europe.

Approximately 15,000 inhabitants within the delta and some 160,000 from the adjacent areas depend more or less entirely of the fish resource. The fisheries are very divers and complex, and can be split in the following categories: lake, river, marine-coastal and migratory. The Danube Delta was declared a Biosphere Reserve in 1990 although fishing continues to be allowed. Assuring sustainable use of the fish stocks has became a challenge for the triangle administrator, user and researcher.

After the command economy collapsed, the transitional period from communism to capitalism has involved a transfer from full state economic control through open access toward sustainable use governed by changing legislative frameworks. During this period, sustainable use regulations were implemented to counter the risk of fisheries collapse driven by open access. This process is still in progress and the success or failure of the different tools for ensuring of sustainability is under debate. The empirical principle of adaptive management was adopted. The basic regulations governing closed seasons and areas and minimum legal size of catch was retained as the core conservation tools. The first new regulation, introduced after 1990, was output control through catch quotas. In the mean time, the mesh size of all fishing gears has been increased from 28 to 32 mm knot to knot, in the Danube delta and to 40-50 in the Razim-Sinoie lakes complex. Quota management carries with it the risk of uncertainty in the assessment of Maximum Sustainable Yield, using Virtual Population Analysis or other methods. Errors in sustainable yield estimation and lowered efficiency of management arise through underestimated catches as a consequence of a thriving black market, lack of fishing effort statistic, and natural variations in fish population size. In spite of such criticisms this strategy continues to form the basis for the administration of fisheries of the Danube delta.

In addition to quota management, output controls limiting access to the fishery are now being applied. These are difficult to implement after almost 10 years of open access. Because of the high social pressure, licenses were issued to existing fishers including new entries to the fishery. This carried the risk of doubling the number of fishermen over those operating before 1990 although the number of requests for licenses exceeded by three times the pre 1990 number. To mitigate the effect of the increased effort each fisher is only allowed to fish with a limited number of fishing gears. These measures applied to complex artisanal and commercial, multi-species and multi-gear inland fisheries are only producing very slow results. The challenge to the sustainability of the Danube Delta fisheries can only be met through comprehensive research, better monitoring for accurate statistic data and adaptive management and enforcement, all of this within an adequate institutional and legislative framework.

Keywords: Commercial fisheries; River fisheries; Lake Fisheries; Danube Delta; Regulations; Romania

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 13

A review process for updating the fisheries legislation for England and Wales

Anne Powell

Environment Agency Board, Birkby Hall, Cark in Cartmel, Grange over Sands, Cumbria, LA11 7NP, UK

UK law pertaining to freshwater fisheries has evolved over a number of years, the main statutes being the Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act 1975 (with amendments), the Salmon Act 1986, the Water Resources Act 1991 and the Environment Act 1995. This miscellany is inadequate for modern conditions and fails to take account of the increasing scientific understanding of fish and their habitats.

The Labour Party manifesto included an Anglers’ charter that proposed a fundamental re-think of fisheries law for England and Wales.

In early 1998 the Salmon & Freshwater Fisheries Legislative Review Group was set up by Government, made up of individuals with knowledge of many areas of sport and commercial fisheries, environmental law, freshwater conservation and administration. The group was given wide-ranging terms of reference which instructed them to take account of:

The Review was instructed to consider other factors that may affect the development and sustainability of these fisheries and should examine the institutional arrangements for the regulation and management of these fisheries. The paper presents the process adopted by the Review and outlines the main recommendations made.

Keywords: Legislation; Conservation; Recreational fisheries; Commercial fisheries; UK

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 14

Evolution of recreational fisheries management and policy issues in the

United States, 1955-1999

Gilbert C. Radonski

Fisheries Consultant, 133 Sutton Drive, Cape Carteret, NC 28254, USA

The number of anglers in the United States, as measured by the National Survey of Fishing Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation, approximately doubled between 1955 and 1999. An increase in fishing opportunities, more leisure time, population increases, and greater disposable incomes all have been cited as factors contributing to this growth. However, most of the growth was in the period 1955 - 1975 and the reason for decline in the rate of growth after 1975 came into question.

In the closing years of the 1970s social scientists and economists, disciplines relatively new to recreational fisheries management, began probing old data and collecting new facts to determine what motivated people to fish in an effort to relate changing social and economic patterns to recreational fishing. Management and regulation of fishery resources, a common property resource in the United States, are directly affected by public policy. Prior to the 1980s recreational fisheries policies were crafted by fishery biologists who had little formal education or training in social or economic science. Public policies impacting angling opportunities and participation are reviewed with particular attention to the incorporation of social and economic disciplines into recreational fisheries management. Also, the tools of marketing and outreach, respectively to increase participation (in angling and the resource management process) and to educate/influence anglers are discussed.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Survey; USA

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 15

Local owner-based management of Finnish lake fisheries: social dimensions and power relations

Pekka Salmi and Kari Muje

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Saimaa Fisheries Research and Aquaculture, Laasalantie 9, FIN-58175 Enonkoski, Finland

Traditionally most inland water bodies in Finland have been privately owned as an extension of land ownership. Statutory fishery associations are responsible for the local decision making on most of the lakes. Recreational fishing is especially popular in lakes, but commercial and subsistence fisheries are also significant in them. Social dimensions have been tightly embedded in decision making by the local associations. Non-commercial values seem to be clearly present for both owners and users and thus economic rent from the owned capital seems to play a smaller role than other motives.

The local level of Finnish fisheries management has been exposed to a fundamental shift from locally-based subsistence fishing and wide local participation in fisheries associations to a wide range of non-local recreational demands and decreasing participation. These changes are largely generated by modernization and urbanisation processes, in which rural areas are more frequently considered as recreational resources for urban populations. In Finland this idea has taken shape in the summer-cottage culture, which in turn has non-localized a large part of the ownership of lakes. This development has brought about contradictions among the diversified groups of fishermen, owners and between the levels of the decision making regime.

In this paper we study the functionality of local resource management in the Finnish context of private ownership of fishing waters. We focus on the social significance of local decision making and on representation of user groups in the decision making process. Issues of scale and tasks in management, and options for a more cooperative management approach are also discussed. The main material for this study consists of personal thematic interviews in two lake areas. The interviews were conducted with a large range of fishermen, decision makers and other stakeholders. The findings will also be compared with preliminary results of a similar case study in the Finnish coastal area.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Survey; Finland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 16

Cooperative management of Lake Peipus, a transboundary lake

Markus Vetemaa1, Väino Vaino1 and Sergey Kuldin2

1 University of Tartu, Institute of Zoology and Hydrobiology, Vanemuise St. 46, Tartu 51014, Estonia
2 Volny University, Naberezhnaja rekij Velikoi 6, 18000 Pskov, Russia

This paper focuses on the system for management and the socio-economic principles of allocation of fish resources of L. Peipus (Estonian name grouping Lakes Peipsi, Pihkva and Lämmijärv). The resources of this international lake are very importance economically both for Russia and Estonia, More than 8000 tons of fish are caught annually. The changes in the Estonian and Russian economies and the appearance of the state border dividing the lake during the last decade have resulted in deep changes in the complex environmental, economic, social and legal issues connected to the fishery. Since the lake is now an international waterbody shared by the Republic of Estonia and the Russian Federation, a joint management program has been issued annually by the Intergovernmental Estonian-Russian Fishery Commission from 1994 onwards. The bilateral Commission is responsible for all general decisions on management strategies and technical measures used in fishery management, as well as decisions on the number of different gear licenses and total allowable catches. Since the state of the fish resources in L. Peipus is satisfactory the economical situation of the fishermen is good. In Estonia the lake fishermen are better-off than fishermen of the Baltic coastal fishery. As the economic situation of fishermen is also comparatively good in Russia the cooperative management of L. Peipus fishery has been a success. This is especially valuable and encouraging in the context of general calm political climate between Estonia and Russia.

Keywords: International Fishery Commission; Co-management: Lake Peipus; Estonia; Russia

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 17

Integrated management of commercial and recreational fisheries and its effect on lake ecosystems in selected Lake Fishery Enterprises

Maria Bninska and Arkadiusz Wolos

Department of Fishery Bioeconomics, Inland Fisheries Institute, ul. Oczapowskiego 10, 10-719 Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland

Integrated management of Polish inland waters, the main objective of which is to fulfil the needs of commercial as well as recreational fishermen, has developed only after political changes have taken place, so it is a fairly new phenomenon. Hence its effectiveness (in the economic as well as ecological sense) has never been studied.

In view of this, 6 Lake Fishery Enterprises engaged in such management were selected, two in each major lake district: Mazuria, Pomerania and the Great Poland Region. The two Mazurian enterprises manage a total of 13325 ha of lakes, the Pomeranian ones - 6130 ha, and those of Great Poland - 4156 ha. All relevant data on commercial fisheries were collected and questionnaire studies of anglers fishing in these lakes carried out. Altogether 550 questionnaires were collected. Two approaches were adopted in the analyses:

- Each fishery enterprise was treated as a whole and analyses performed of commercial fish landings and stocking practices in 1995-1998, and of anglers' catches in 1998;

- Seven characteristic lakes were selected: 3 from Mazuria (Szelment, Laszmiady, Juno), 2 from Pomerania (Lubie and Siecino) and 2 from Great Poland (Goplo and Slawskie), and more detailed analyses performed on the data as above.

It was estimated that an average Polish "lake" angler caught 59.2 kg of fish in 1998, and the overall fish landings by anglers amounted to 35 kg/ha. At the same time commercial fish landings yielded 14.0 kg/ha. So fish yield from Polish lakes amounted to some 50 kg/ha/year without taking into account any catches by poachers, and poaching is now very intense.

The paper discusses some ecological and social aspects of integrated lake management as well as its economic implications.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Commercial fisheries; Lakes; Survey; Poland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 01

Interactions between recreational fisheries and other forms of multipurpose use
of the Brno Reservoir (Czech Republic)

Zdenek Adámek

Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, University of South Bohemia, Laboratory Pohorelice,
Videnska 717, 691 23 Pohořelice, Czech Republic

Brno reservoir (220 ha) is located on the Svratka River close to Brno City. The reservoir provides a recreational facility including angling. It is also an important source of drinking water. Recently water quality in the reservoir has declined considerably and severe algal blooms occur every year. Several factors are considered to be fundamental causes of the deterioration in water quality – diffuse pollution from the watershed, municipal pollution from settlements upstream and extensive recreation representing many tens of thousands people in the warmest summer weekends. Any possible role of fisheries management in biomanipulation of the reservoir water quality is limited by the special requirements of the angling community. The existing fish stocking policy is defined by two decisive issues, a strong preference for common carp over the other fishes by anglers and insufficiency in production of predators (pike, zander and wels) by hatcheries for stocking. Whilst the numbers of predatory fish regularly stocked into the reservoir do not correspond to the obligatory stocking scheme, the numbers of common carp released into the reservoir are almost always exceeded by several tens of percent. Thus, the proportion of non-predatory to predatory fish species in the fish assemblage (F/C ratio) estimated from anglers´ catches has risen from 2,39 in 1980 to values about 20 at present. In addition, successful recent recruitment of cyprinids (roach, Rutilus rutilus, and common bream, Abramis brama) and small percids (perch, Perca fluviatilis, and ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernua) further distorts the ratio.

Field investigations were carried out to evaluate the possible utilization of seston-filtering silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) for biomanipulation purposes. Experiments to define their grazing pressure upon phytoplankton were conducted in situ using cages placed in the reservoir during the period of mass development of cyanobacterial blooms. Both species ingested cyanobacteria in proportions corresponding to their abundance in phytoplankton community, or even showed slight preference for this food item. However, the actual utilization of cyanobacteria during their digestive processes was very low because 60-70% of colonies of blue-greens in their excreta was determined to be alive or only slightly damaged.

Keywords: Multi purpose use; Biomanipulation; Stocking; Czech Republic

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 02

Family sport and recreational fish farms within the natural landscape

Branca Aničić, Ivica Aničić, Tomislav Treer and Roman Safner

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Springs and rivers flowing through flooded wetlands create a unique living space that is clearly differentiated from other parts of the landscape. The mosaic of different biotopes depends on location and includes rivers with rapid or slow flows, ponds, pits and areas with high and low vegetation. These ecological differences enable colonisation by a variety of plant and animal species.

Species adapted to particular types of aquatic habitat can survive only if the ecology remains intact. Human influences cause the formation of stagnant waters, such as reservoirs and small ponds. These secondary biotopes have lower biodiversity and are not as physically attractive as the original rivers. However, they also should be protected and properly managed.

Family fish farms resemble small lakes provided their position and associated vegetation are chosen carefully. Though one cannot expect intact natural systems where semi-natural elements interface with more or less cultivated landscapes, aesthetic value must be ensured by methods that are acceptable to natural processes. The protection of nature is rarely compatible with recreational fishing but pressures on small natural water bodies that do not lie within protected areas (natural parks, reserves etc.) are in fact relieved by sport and recreational family fish-farms.

For these reasons cultural landscapes should be evaluated before the plans for family fish farm are made. Such analyses are crucial for fitting a farm into the landscape and ensuring that the rules and regulations governing the creation of the reservoirs, slopes and water banks are respected. In this investigation such a procedure was followed in two family fresh-water fish farms (one cyprinid, one salmonid). In doing so, we present a model of a family sport and recreational fish farm that is adapted to the landscape and offers multiple choices for recreational activities.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Put-and-take fishery; Family fish farms; Aquaculture

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 03

Structures for salmonid restocking.
Changes in the 1990s in France

Florent Guyonnet1 and Christian Courcol2

1Cemagref Groupement de Bordeaux, 50 av. de Verdun, Gazinet, 33612 Cestas Cedex, France
2Ministère de l’agriculture et de la pêche, Bureau de la pisciculture, 3 place de Fontenoy, 75 007 Paris, France

Production structures, techniques and quantities have evolved extremely rapidly in France since the 1980s.

Two exhaustive studies commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries from the Central Office of Surveys and Statistical Studies (SCEES: Service central des enquêtes et des études statistiques) in 1991 and 1997 reveal and quantify this change.

A comparative study of these two surveys indicates that during the six-year period the total number of fish breeding establishments fell by 12% and sites in operation by 11%, while total production rose by 16%.

The figures also indicate a net change in types of operation: a 16% fall in number of non-commercial operations involved solely in restocking, a 10% fall in number of commercial enterprises dealing mainly with the market supply of fish for consumption.

The findings also indicate a fall in volume of production for restocking and a net increase in production for consumption.

There has also been a significant increase in fish farm production for watercourse recreational fishing.

This study seeks to determine the characteristics of production for restocking and those of the enterprises engaged in this activity.

The work is further refined by looking more specifically at the share of production from commercial enterprises directed towards restocking.

Finally, analysis of the enterprises supplying trout for recreational fishing watercourses completes the panorama of French salmon production not directly for consumption.

Keywords: Salmonids; Restocking; France

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 04

The prospects for fish-culture in rice fields

Olga A. Faraponova

Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Scienficica e Tecnologica Applicata in Mare, Rome, Italy

Rice fields represent a peculiar type of aquatic ecosystem that is characterised by shallow depth, a large surface area and good warming ability throughout the water column. The high mineral and organic content of the water confers a rich natural feeding base.

Interest in the rational development of rice fields, including the possibilities for alternative activities, has risen steeply in recent years. Fish culture has been practiced in rice fields throughout the world from ancient times. Analysis of global experiences in fish culture in rice fields shows that all the elements of the rice ecosystem are used. These include the inundated fields with rice, inundated fallow rice fields and drainage system. The fields are used for spawning and production of yearlings as well as for commercial fish reared in poly- and mono-culture.

This rice-fish farming provides the following:

Keywords: Aquaculture; Rice-fish culture

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 05

Catch and release in recreational fishing in Finland

Kalevi Leinonen, Jukka Mikkola and Rauno Yrjölä

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 6, FIN-00721 Finland

Catch and release recreational fishing has not been common in Finland as compared to Northern America. During recent years there has been increasing debate in Finland as to whether or not catch and release should be allowed in recreational fisheries. Many different arguments have been advanced, but fisherman usually defend their opinions by saying that this practice conserves fish stocks and results in better quality fishing. The opposing arguments are mainly based on the animal welfare views that fish are hurt and injured by fishing and that catch and release is purely for pleasure.

During 1990’s there have been some local field studies and experiments about catch and release. The poster shows the results of two surveys, where recreational fisherman were asked about different aspects of catch and release. The first survey is part of a larger recreational behaviour study conducted in close Cupertino with many institutes. The Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute conducted the other survey "the profile of recreational fisherman". In these surveys, fishermen were asked if they use catch and release technique themselves, if used in what kind of fisheries, do they find the practice acceptable, etc.

Our studies present the first nation wide results as to the extent of catch and release fisheries in Finland. We hope that our results will promote discussion as to the possibilities of increasing catch and release practices. Alternatively, should state and private owners develop other ways to develop and manage recreational fisheries while retaining strong fish stocks.

Keywords: Catch and release; Recreational fisheries; Finland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 10

Recent economic situation and developments in East German aquaculture

Helmut Wedekind1, Jörg Hiller 2 and Thorsten Wichmann2

1Institute for Inland Fisheries Potsdam-Sacrow, D-14476 Gross Glienicke, Germany
2LMS Landwirtschaftsberatung, D-17094 Tollenseheim, Germany

After reunification the aquaculture and fisheries sectors changed dramatically in East Germany. A survey studied a range of trout producers and carp farms in the Federal states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony, and Thuringae. Data were collected by interviewing managers of aquaculture companies. Topics explored included technology, practice and economics of rainbow trout production in net-cages and in raceway systems, and of carp production in ponds.

The data indicate the problematic situation of East German companies. For several reasons, including lack of capital and environmental legislation, aquaculture operations are generally low intensity. High labour costs and market structure limit the profitability of aquaculture in some areas. From the economic point of view the only prospect for the fish farms lies in increasing production efficiency. This might imply an increase in production intensity and investment in modern technology in some cases, and the improvement of fish marketing in others. However, such measures face specific limitations, which are discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Survey; Aquaculture; Economic viability; Germany


EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 02

Spatial and temporal characterization of angling competitions
in central and southern Portugal

Jorge Bochechas1, Marco Jorge Dias2, Maria Teresa Ferreira2 and Francisco Nunes Godinho3

1Divisão de Pesca nas Águas Interiores. Direcção Geral das Florestas, Av. 5 Outubro 52-6ºD 1050 Lisboa Portugal
2Departamento de Engenharia Florestal. Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda. 1399 Lisboa. Portugal
3Departamento de Conservação dos Recursos Naturais. Posto Apícola. Estação Florestal Nacional,
Tapada da Ajuda, 1300 Lisboa. Portugal

Angling competitions in inland waters of the Guadiana, Sado, Mira and Ribeiras do Alentejo basins were analysed using data from compulsory inquiries compiled by the Forest and Wildlife Administration.

Preferred angling sites and angling periods were analysed for each basin, as well as the anglers fishing effort (catch-per-unit-effort, cpue per weigth and number), period of the competition, organising entities and composition of fish assemblages. Cpue was assessed by angling site whenever the amount of data allowed it.

The River Guadiana was the most important site in the Guadiana basin, where 117 competitions took place during nine years with the particpation of more than 7000 competitors. The main angling site in the other basins, including the Sado, was the Vale do Gaio reservoir, with 101 competitions in twenty years. Competitions in the Guadiana basin where mainly organised by local angling clubs, whereas in the Sado basin the organisers were principally enterprises and non-angling clubs. Most competitions took place in May and June apart from river angling sites in the Guadiana basin, where angling competitions tended to be held earlier.

The fish community in Guadiana basin was composed of 13 species, 7 natives and 6 exotics. In the Sado basin, catches during competitions showed a total of 11 species, 6 natives and 5 exotics. The species most frequently captured in both basins was the carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Portugal

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 18

Commercial fisheries in French inland waters at the start of the 21st Century:
situation and outlook

Gérard Castelnaud1, Claudine Loste 2 and Loïc Champion 3

1Cemagref Groupement de Bordeaux, 50 av. de Verdun, Gazinet, 33612 Cestas Cedex, France
2 CEPRALMAR, Montpellier, France
3 Faculté des Sciences économiques et de gestion, Nantes, France

In France, relatively recent socio-economic assessments have been carried out of selected fisher and species categories. As these assessments are incomplete, there is a need to compile and summarize information from publications, grey literature and statistical monitoring of catches in certain catchment areas to determine the status of commercial net and gear fisheries on all inland waters, including estuaries, deltas and lagoons (in accordance with the EIFAC definition).

The findings regarding number of fishers per category, landings per species, seasons and practices are given by uniform fishery sector.

We found a total of 1500 marine fishers, including 900 to 1000 in the estuaries and 400 to 500 working the Mediterranean lagoons and the Arcachon Basin. We also found 500 commercial fishermen operating in rivers and lakes, 1450 non-professional commercial maritime operators and 1250 non-professional commercial river operators. The lower reaches of the Loire, Vilaine, Garonne, Dordogne, Adour and Rhône rivers, the Alpine lakes and the tributaries of the Rhône are the areas with the largest number of river and lake fishers.

Total production of diadromous species amounts to 2100 tonnes - eel, shad, lamprey, salmonids, mullet and flounder captured in the rivers, estuaries and lagoons; marine species 2470 tonnes - seabass, sole, silverside, meagre, seabream, ray and shrimp; molluscs 500 tonnes - flat oyster and clam; freshwater species 700 tonnes - carnivorous fish, cyprinids, salmonids and whitefish.

This production has been valued at FRF 632 million: FRF 487.7 million for diadromous species, FRF 98.8 million for marine species, FRF 24 million for molluscs and FRF 21.5 million for freshwater species.

The production of eel (all stages) predominates, with 410 tonnes of elver and 1200 tonnes of subadult, its supremacy determined in particular by the economic importance of this species and the market price of elver.

In 1981, the corrected value of elver caught mainly along the Atlantic coast placed it fourth among Gulf of Gascony resources, after whiting, Norway lobster and sole; in 1989, it ranked third, after whiting and sole, with 520 tonnes and a value of FRF 208 million; then an estimated production of 410 tonnes and value of FRF 410 million in 1997 broke all records and placed elver first, with a value two-thirds higher than sole.

A species breakdown of commercial fisheries turnover confirms the economic supremacy of eel: accounting for over 50% of turnover in lower river reaches, estuaries and Mediterranean lagoons. Only in the Alpine lakes, in the Rhine, Saône and Doubs and in the upstream Loire and Allier is turnover dominated by other species such as cyprinids, carnivorous fish and whitefish. This makes fishery concerns very vulnerable and many have lost their artisanal characteristics.

The main results and characteristics of commercial fishing in French inland waters are discussed and compared with extensive freshwater fish culture and brackish water aquaculture, from which they cannot be dissociated in many countries of Europe.

Keywords: Commercial fisheries; Production; France

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 19

Social viability of management plans

Thomas Changeux1, François Bonnieux2 et Caroline Armand2

1Conseil Supérieur de la pêche, Direction Générale, Service Technique 134, avenue de Malakoff, F-75116 Paris, France
2Institut National de la recherche agronomique, Unité économie et sociologie rurales, rue Adolphe Bobierre,
CS 61103, F-35011 Rennes Cedex, France

The management of freshwater fisheries in France is generally entrusted to fishing associations which, grouped into departmental federations, act under State supervision to protect the aquatic environment and develop fisheries. The Higher Fisheries Council (CSP- Conseil Supérier de la Pêche) has developed a general method for formulation of a fishery management plan. Since 1995, more than half the departments of France have been involved in this programme, with technical and financial help from the CSP.

The approach focuses on the natural production potential of capture fish. The work needed to restore the functionalities of a fisheries habitat and place it under generative management is costed. A cost-benefit analysis, taking into account the specific value of capture fish in relation to cultivated fish, helps determine the social viability of management plans in the Indre and Hérault, two departments with contrasting ecological and fishery situations.

Keywords: Social viability; Management; France

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 20

Social aspects of recreational fishing in the Croatian Danube basin

Vladimir Cini1; Anđelko Opačak2 and Anica Perković2

1 Faculty of Economics, 7 Gajev trg, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
2 Faculty of Agriculture, 3 Trg Sv. Trojstva, 31000 Osijek, Croatia

The Croatian sector of the Danube basin with its large rivers, Danube, Drava and Sava, their floodplains and swamps, including the Kopački rit nature reserve, offers a unique habitat for numerous animal species, including fish.

This vast fishing area (ca. 10,000 ha) has preserved its wilderness status and conserves a great number of biocenoses typical for such habitats in the face of various anthropogenic influences including the 1991-1997 war.

This markedly cyprinid fishing region is inhabited by 54 fresh-water fish species. There are 14,500 anglers in the region, organized in 75 sport angling clubs.

The growing development of recreational fishing based on increasing leisure time and improved material conditions is accompanied by a number of problems including environmental pollution, habitats degradation, excessive fishing supported by efficient modern fishing equipment, poaching, etc.

The aim of this paper is to examine the new interactive relationship between man and nature through the analysis of the current situation. It also attempts to identify possibilities for the collaborative development of recreational fishing as an integral activity within the field of conservation and sustainable exploitation.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Integrated development; Co-management; Croatia

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 21

Combining creel intercept and mail survey techniques
to understand the human dimensions of local freshwater fisheries

Robert B. Ditton

Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 USA

Whereas existing federal and state angler population surveys provide estimates of the number of anglers using lakes and reservoirs in Texas, they do not provide social and economic insight to anglers using any particular water body. Likewise, creel intercept surveys typically do not afford the time for additional follow-up questions beyond the traditional catch per unit of effort (CPUE) focus. At five reservoirs in Texas (Lake Fork, Lake Texoma, Toledo Bend Reservoir, Lake Braunig, and Lake Calaveras), we have built upon creel survey sampling designs conducted by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department as a means to sample anglers with follow-up mail surveys. After the collection of fisheries dependent data from fishing parties on randomly-selected days, randomly-selected anglers are given flyers about the forthcoming mail survey, told they will receive one by first class mail within the next 90 days, encouraged to participate, and asked to provide their names and addresses on a confidential basis. This approach links often mutually-exclusive biological and social science study components using a common sampling effort and provides managers with a cost-effective means for collecting a substantial amount of social and economic data from anglers who use particular lakes. This approach results in data collection that otherwise would not be possible using either one survey technique or the other. The mail survey provides detailed coverage of anglers intercepted at each lake (e.g., their social and demographic characteristics, level of fishing experience and involvement, experience preferences, consumptive orientation, management preferences, attitudes, satisfaction levels among others), characteristics of the trip when they were intercepted (i.e., trip length, party size, and composition, and expenditures by location), or of lake-specific issues of concern to management. Mail surveys are conducted on a quarterly basis to reduce the possible effects of recall bias and according to the protocol advocated by Salant and Dillman (1994) to enhance the response rate. Response rates have averaged 75% across two completed studies or about 12 percentage points higher than achieved with 9 state-wide angler surveys. The approach will be described overall with particular attention to sample size considerations, creel intercept procedures, mail survey procedures, recall bias, response rates, administrative concerns, and cost considerations.

Keywords: Recreation fisheries; Angler surveys; Mail surveys; USA

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 22

Present status and socio-economic significance of inland fisheries in Germany
A short review

Volker Hilge1 and Werner Steffens2

1 BFA f. Fischerei, Institut für Fischereiökologie, Wulfsdorfer Weg 204, 22926 Ahrensburg, Germany
2 Deutscher Angler Verband, Weißenseer Weg 110, 10368 Berlin, Germany

The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in the central part of Europe and covers an area of 358,000 km2. Its climate is maritime in the north and more continental in the south with precipitation varying between 800 - 2,000 mm/y from the lowlands to the alpine regions. Most of the larger rivers, Rhine, Weser, Elbe and Oder, flow northwards to drain into the seas adjacent to the North-East Atlantic. The Danube River drains towards the Black Sea. The length of these water-courses and their tributaries amount to 7,467 km. Lakes dominate in the northern and eastern part of the country and in the alpine and pre-alpine regions of the south. Trout and carp farm ponds have a similar distribution.. In addition a great number of small natural and artificial water bodies are distributed over the country. The total inland water surface of nearly 780,000 ha forms 2.2% of the country's surface. About 80 Million people at a mean density of 230 inhabitants/m2 are concentrated around a number of larger agglomerations that developed around predominantly heavy industries over the last 150 years. The industrialisation process made intensive use of the existing water sources for drainage of communal and industrial waste water, ship transport, cooling and other purposes. The resulting pollution led to a severe decline in river and lake fisheries. By the early 1990's only 587 fishing enterprises still existed. These relied predominantly or exclusively on fishing activities in running waters and/or in still waters with a total water area of 230,000 ha. The low number of 113 purely river fisheries as compared to 268 lake fisheries indicates the lesser importance this activity has today. The remaining enterprises possess fishing rights in both rivers and lakes. Recent catch statistics reveal a total of 2,800 t (12 kg/ha) as having been caught in 1997. The statistics are incomplete and may not be used reasonably. The Lake Constance fishery, which is well managed is an exception to the general trend and amounted to 732 t in 1997. The commercial fishery is under strong competition for the aquatic resources. This contrasts to the development of the recreational fishery, which has gained more and more importance during the last decades. Fish for stocking from both commercial catches and from culture have led to the establishment of strong links between the two fisheries and aquaculture. The combined efforts of the three sectors helps to withstand conflicts. Pressures on the fisheries are exerted by industry and by conservation movements. There is little political attention devoted to fisheries issues, which is, at least in part, due to the federal organization of the political and administrative system. However, at a regional level there are attempts to support and develop fisheries as the water quality in numerous water-courses improves and the quality of fish flesh increases. There are even attempts to re-establish abandoned fisheries. A chance for future survival and development may be to cooperate with those conservationists respecting the existence of the fishery.

Keywords: River fisheries; Lake fisheries; Germany

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 23

Preliminary assessment of recreational fisheries in the Guadiana river basin in Portugal

Patricia Sobral Marta1, Jorge Bochechas2 and Maria João Collares-Pereira1

1 Centro de Biologia Ambiental/Dep. de Zoologia e Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa,
1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
2 Divisão de Pesca nas Águas Interiores, Direcção-Geral das Florestas, Av. João Crisóstomo, 26, 1000 Lisboa, Portugal

Inland fisheries management in Portugal is the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries, through the Direction General of Forest and the Regional Agriculture Administrations.

Recreational fishing has increased greatly in Portugal in the last twenty years. In Portugal, studies in this sector are still not sufficient to allow for a proper administration of the resource and the many other pressures on inland waters make it urgent to gain an understanding of the value of fish and fisheries. In 1999 the Science Faculty of Lisbon University, supported by the Direction General of Forests, carried out a regional survey of freshwater recreational fishing in the various municipalities of the Guadiana river basin by direct questionnaire. The Guadiana is a typical Mediterranean river flowing 810 km from its headwaters in Spain to its mouth in southern Portugal. One hundred and fifty kilometres of the main river and many of the tributaries lie in Portugal, and the river forms the border between the two countries for 110 km.. The choice of this basin to carry out this pilot-study, was due to the increasing pressure for exploitation of water resources and the importance of its native fish community.

Recreational fishing is practised by at least 43 thousand people in the Guadiana basin. These are drawn from all social classes and fish chiefly as a sport not for food. The survey gives information on the anglers’ preferences regarding the reservoirs and the rivers, the frequency of their fishing trips during 1998, their motivation and expenditure, the fish species caught, an estimation of their total catch, destination, preferences, participation in competitions, supervision and personal opinions related to the subject. The results of the survey will be presented and discussed, in order to contribute to a better management of national fisheries.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Survey; Portugal

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 24

Angling in Switzerland - a socio-economic study

Kurt Meyer

President, Swiss Federation of Anglers
Wasserwerkgasse 33, CH-3000 Bern 13, Switzerland

The European Anglers Alliance (EAA) requested the Swiss Federation of Anglers (SFV) to undertake a socio-economic pilot study about the views and habits of anglers in Switzerland. The study was sponsored by the Swiss Federal Office of Environment, Forests and Landscape and was carried out by the "Alpenburo jks Klosters". The study is based on a written opinion survey of 2,737 anglers and a telephone survey of 1,000 people interviewed from the overall population. The telephone survey focused on questions as to the number of anglers. The written questionnaire comprised 5 pages, containing questions on personal data and fishing habits. It also dealt with such topics as economics, acceptance of the official fishery policy and environmental awareness.

According to the 1997 telephone survey, 6 percent of the Swiss population between the ages of 15 and 74 years had been fishing in that year. This indicates that in Switzerland some 240,000 persons had fished at least once. However, only about 80,000 anglers possess a fishing licence for a duration of one month or longer; this survey is based on these anglers.

The majority of anglers interviewed were men (96%) between the ages of 30 and 60 years. With an income of over EUR 31,400, the anglers have an income above the Swiss average of EUR 26,400. The cost of angling for anglers with an annual or monthly permit was EUR 2,000. The 80,000 anglers spend over EUR 170 million. The anglers agree to a great extent with government policies regarding recreational fishing. However, it was felt that fish stocks should be increased. The anglers are environmentally aware and generally have a positive attitude to the management of nature reserves.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Survey; Management policy; Switzerland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 25

Economic valuation of inland recreational fisheries.
Empirical studies and their policy use in Norway

Ståle Navrud

Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway,
P.O.Box 5033, N-1432 As, Norway

Cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) of liming programs in acidified rivers and lakes in Southern Norway, show that the social benefits in terms of increased recreational value (use value) and non-use value of the fish stocks are 1.2 - 4.4 times the costs of liming and restocking. Thus, liming is very profitable. Environmental valuation techniques i.e. Contingent Valuation (CV) and Travel (TC) methods were used successfully to estimate the social benefits from increased freshwater fish stocks.

The results from these CBAs were used by the Norwegian Fishing and Hunting Association (NJFF) to advocate the need for increased governmental funds for liming. This resulted in a 300 % increase in the annual Norwegian governmental budget for freshwater liming from about NOK 35 million in 1993 to about NOK 105 million in 1995, and has remained constant since then. However, this is still less than the NOK 340-130 million needed annually to neutralize the total acid deposition in Norway (i.e. the amount of lime needed decrease over time based on the assumption of reduced acid depositions in 2010 due to the fulfilment of the second sulphur protocol). A recent nation-wide CV survey of 1,000 Norwegian households showed that their mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) to lime water courses to get the same increments in fish stocks as fulfilment of the Second Sulphur Protocol was NOK 400 per household and year; i.e. a total of NOK 800 million annually. This shows that the benefits of such large scale liming by far exceed the costs. Thus, it seems optimal to increase the current liming budget in Norway.

Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis; Contingent valuation; Recreational value

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 26

Economic evaluation of inland fisheries in England and Wales

Graeme Peirson,1 Diana Tingley,2 James Spurgeon 3 and Alan Radford 4

1 National Coarse Fisheries Centre, Environment Agency, Arthur Drive, Hoo Farm Industrial Estate, Worcester Road,
Kidderminster, DY11 7RA, UK
2 McAllister Elliott & Partners, 56 High Street, Lymington, Hampshire, SO41 9AH, UK
3 GIBB Environmental, Gibb House, London Road, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 1BL, UK
4 Department of Economics, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, G4 0BA, UK

Recreational and commercial inland fisheries of all types are recognised to have considerable socio-economic benefits not only for individuals participating directly, but for others in both local and wider communities.

The problems of economic evaluation of fisheries have been recognised in North America for a number of years and there has been a growing awareness in Europe that the importance of socio-economic considerations in fishery management has until recently been overlooked.

Responsibility for maintaining, improving and developing inland fisheries in England and Wales lies with the Environment Agency. Many fisheries are perceived to be in serious decline due to a variety of impacts, and work to investigate and manage these has been seriously compromised due to long-term under-funding.

At present, there are no recent economic evaluations covering the whole range of UK inland fisheries for the Agency to refer to when confronted with resource allocation decisions. There is a particular need to explore the benefits of fisheries to the wider community, in order to secure more resources for management and protection of fisheries.

Around 600 salmon net licences and 5000 eel net licences are issued annually by the Environment Agency but the primary users of inland fisheries are recreational anglers whose numbers are estimated at 2.3 million. The economic basis of the commercial inland fisheries sector is moderately well understood but the recreational sector is much more complex, as it includes a number of sub-cultures whose values and perceptions of the resource are very varied.

The results from a multi-modular project to study the economics values associated with recreational fisheries in England and Wales are presented. The study utilised three pilot case studies to refine subsequent, and more extensive, national contingent valuation surveys of anglers and the general public. A questionnaire survey of owners and managers of fishing rights was also undertaken. Topics examined included recreational anglers’ consumer surplus, general public non-use values of fisheries, social benefits of recreational fishing, impacts of fisheries on local communities and modelling the determinants of values of fishing rights.

Keywords: Survey; Recreational fisheries; Valuation; UK

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 27

Methodological, conceptual and sampling practices in surveying recreational fishery
in the Nordic countries - experiences of a valuation survey

Eva Roth1, Anna-Liisa Toivonen2, Ståle Navrud3, Bo Bengtsson4, Gudni Gudbergsson5,
Pekka Tuunainen2, Håkan Appelblad6 and Gösta Weissglas6

1 Department of Environmental and Business Economics, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9,
DK-6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
2 Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O.Box 6, FIN-00721 Helsinki, Finland
3 Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway,
P.O. Box 5033, N-1432 As, Norway
4 National Board of Fisheries, P.O.Box 423, S-401 26 Göteborg, Sweden
5 Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, Vagnhofda 7, 112 Reykjavik, Iceland
6 Department of Social and Economic Geography, University of Umeå, S-901 87 Umeå, Sweden

This paper describes the planning and initial phase of a joint Nordic project for valuation of recreational fishery. It also discusses the practical problems encountered in connection with setting-up the survey.

The aim of the project is to estimate the total socio-economic value of recreational fisheries in the five Nordic countries by simultaneously executing an identical mail survey in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. To calculate the cost versus the benefits of recovering or environmentally upgrading a sustainable fishing resort, it is important to be able to economically argue all benefits of the investment. The economic value of a recreational fishery includes a considerable non-market value in addition to the traditional market value. Scandinavian Cupertino was chosen because of the common cultural background in recreational fisheries and in valuing the wilderness as a part of everyday life.

From the methodological point of view, the questionnaire has several options. For determining the consumer surplus respondents are first asked to reveal their expenditures on recreational fishing. Secondly, they are asked to state their preferences by estimating their maximum willingness to pay for the same commodity. An orthodox contingent valuation approach was adopted by creating scenarios. Willingness to pay is elicited by a multiple bounded discrete choice pattern.

National population registers were used as the sampling frames. The effects of sampling frame type on the results of a valuation survey are discussed in the paper. The accessibility to population register data varies by country as do possibilities for random sampling. Legal constraints were faced when a centralised mailing system was implemented.

The contents of the survey must be similar in each country to facilitate future comparative studies. There were, however, already discrepancies in defining the segments of recreational fishermen. Other background information also had to be adapted to national circumstances. The most difficult cultural differences were already included when the scenarios were designed.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Survey; Scandinavia

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 28

The development of the Finnish inland fisheries system

Matti Sipponen

Employment and Economic Development Centre for Central Finland, P.O. Box 44, FIN-40101 Jyväskylä, Finland

The efficiency of the administration of Finnish inland fisheries has been improved due to changes in fisheries legislation during the past 15 years. The establishment of regional management units particularly has improved the practice of co-management, which has provided for the participation of many relevant interest groups in the decision-making process. An appropriate scale for management within fisheries regions has been found that will enable managerial responsibilities to be increasingly vested in them in the future. The outcomes of the fisheries system depend more on political-administrative institutions than on biological productivity. Consequently the improvement of the system has owed much to political initiatives. Access to fishing grounds is of vital importance in both commercial and recreational fishing. The long-run private market equilibrium supply for recreational fishing with active types of gear accounted for 50% of the Finnish lake surface area. Presently the public sector has become involved in the supply of recreational fishing licences. The price mechanisms provided the owners with insufficient information as to which direction to take to improve the management and supply of fishing grounds. Locality is a dominant feature of recreational fishing. As regards commercial fishing, state-ownership of fishing grounds is channel for recruitment into the occupation. It also facilitates effective operations contrary to that of private ownership. The social environment and the patters of behaviour of commercial fishermen have remained largely unchanged in spite of the rapid technological development in the industry. Private ownership has led to a sub-optimal allocation of fisheries resources, particularly in the commercial branch of the industry. However, by giving priority to social goals instead of economic ones the statutory fishery associations will help to maintain social and community values, which are locally important.

Keywords: Fisheries organizations; Co-management; Inland fisheries; Legislation; Management regimes; Finland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 29

Strongly reduced angling catches in Switzerland -
can it be explained by a decreased fishing activity

Erich Staub

Office fédéral de l'environnement, des forêts et du paysage, Division écologie et pêche,
Hallwylstrasse 4, CH-3003 Berne, Switzerland

The catch by anglers from running waters has decreased by about 50 % over the past 10 years. A national task force started to study the causes of this phenomenon. One of a dozen hypotheses under discussion is decreased angling activity. This presentation will show the extent of the decrease using time series for trout and other species. The age structure of anglers, the probable causes for the fluctuations that have been noted in issuing angling licences, etc. will be analysed to check the hypothesis that there is an angler effect.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Time series analysis; Motivation of fishermen; Switzerland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 30

Regional socio-economic importance of fisheries in Finland

Jarno Virtanen, Anssi Ahvonen and Asmo Honkanen

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O.Box 6, FIN-00721 Helsinki, Finland

The total value of Finnish professional fish production was some FIM 200 million in 1997. Inland fishing accounted for about FIM 40 million. The number of professional fishermen exceeded 4000. Some 1000 fished inland waters almost two-thirds of whom were part-time or seasonal fishermen. The total value of aquaculture production in 1997 was about FIM 370 million and employment 650 FTE. Inland fish farming accounted for one-third of the total value. In addition, there were about 250 processing and wholesale companies whose total turnover approached FIM 1.2 billion and employment 1000 FTE. The value-added by fisheries accounts for only 0.1 per cent of the GDP. There are, however, some Finnish areas that still depend on fishing. This paper examines the structure of Finnish fisheries in terms of production value and employment. The link between fisheries and value added along the production chain is also studied. The focus is on trends in these sectors in the 1990's, but an effort is also made to highlight the total regional dependency of fisheries. The regional approach allows us to look at the meaning of inland fisheries in the total context.

Keywords: Fish production; Value added; Finland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 31

Investigations on recreational fisheries in Saxony-Anhalt/Germany

Helmut Wedekind

Institute for Inland Fisheries Potsdam-Sacrow, D-14476 Gross Glienicke, Germany

Recreational fisheries are growing rapidly in Germany. About 1.2 million anglers are registered. However, only a small amount of information is available on their angling habits, social structure, economic significance and their impacts on the aquatic ecosystem.

A survey was carried out in the Federal state of Saxony-Anhalt where about 2 % of the population are considered to be active anglers. The following were included in a questionnaire:

1,200 questionnaires were distributed in 22 districts, resulting in a 35,6 % response rate. The data indicated an average anglers age of 44 years (8 – 80). Angling behaviour is characterized by high intensity and mobility. Preferred species are common Carp, Pike and Eel, followed by pikeperch and tench. The economic significance of recreational fishing is underlined by data on angling behaviour, e.g. expenditures per fishing day (average DEM 48 per day). Sixty seven percent of anglers spend between DEM 500 and DEM 1,000 per year for their equipment.

A profile of the organized anglers, their practices, and wishes are outlined in the paper. The nature of anglers catches and the economic significance of recreational fisheries in the area are also discusses.

Keywords: Survey; Recreational fisheries; Germany

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 11

Recreational fishing in Sweden 2000

Bo Bengtsson1, Håkan Appelblad2 and Gösta Weissglas2

1 National Board of Fisheries, Department of Coastal and Freshwater Resources, Box 426, S-Göteborg, Sweden
2 University of Umeå, Dept. of Social and Economic Geography, S- 901 87 Umeå, Sweden

The poster describes the present situation of the Swedish recreational fishery. The results of three similar national surveys (1990, 1995 and 2000) are discussed and comparisons are made over time.

The data were analysed for number of fishermen, number of fishing days, total catch and by target species i.e. cod, salmon, trout and arctic char. The distribution of the fishermen in the major types of fishing area; coastal waters, lakes and running waters is also of interest for the allocation of resources. Managerial criteria such as the fishermen’s reasons for choosing a specific fishing site/area including accessibility, water quality, quality of the surroundings, catchability, fishing rules etc are of importance to Governmental and Regional administrators as well as the fishing tourism entrepreneurs.

The use of different types of gear are studied and the differences between sports fisherman, subsistence fisherman and "generalists" are discussed.

Total expenditure on fishing is estimated as is the volume and relative importance of the growing national and international fishing tourism.

Parallels are drawn between the habits and patterns of recreational fishing in the other Nordic countries with reference to preferences, accessibility to fishing waters, total economic value and the willingness to pay for good and sustained fish stocks for recreational fishing.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Survey; Sweden

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 12

The value of catch and total expenditures in the recreational fisheries in Finland

Kalevi Leinonen, Johanna Stigzelius and Rauno Yrjölä

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O.Box 6, FIN-00721 Helsinki, Finland

Recreational fishing is among the most popular spare time activities in Scandinavia and it is especially important to the Finns. About 2 million people in Finland go fishing at least once a year. This is more than 40 % of the population. Recreational fisheries can be very important at a regional level in the utilisation of fish resources and in some areas in Finland, the services connected to the recreational fisheries are also essential for the local economy.

In the beginning of the year 1998 the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute conducted an extensive survey which yielded detailed regional data. The respondents were asked about their recreational fishing areas, catches, fishing methods and opinions concerning common problems in their fishery. The total catch of 1997 was calculated from the survey data which consisting of replies by over 25,000 fishing Finns.

The total catch of recreational fisheries in 1997 was 54 million kilograms of fish and almost 4 million of crayfish. The most important species by catch were perch (17 million kg), pike (12 million kg) and roach (6 million kg).

The total value of this catch was FIM 340 million (fish species) and FIM 34 million for the crayfish catch. Most important fish species by value were perch (FIM 80 million), pike (FIM 80 million) and white fish (FIM 43 million).

The Finnish Game and Fisheries Institute also keeps the official fishing statistics on the Finnish recreational fisheries. Statistics are compiled every second year. The statistics of 1996 included estimates of the total expenditures of Finnish recreational fishermen. The total expenditures were FIM 1 574 million. The most important expenditure groups were travel costs (FIM 395 million), purchase of fishing equipment (FIM 340 million), and accommodation and food during the fishing trips (FIM 287 million). The average expenditure for a Finnish recreational fisherman was FIM 738.

The regional differences in the value of the catch and total expenditures in the recreational fisheries in Finland will also be presented.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Participant survey; Finland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 13

Presentation of the results of statistical data
relating to the survey on recreational fisheries in Italian freshwaters

Raffaele Marini

Viale G. Modugno 42, I-16156 Genova, Italy

A statistical survey of recreational fisheries in Italian freshwaters was carried out over 12 months from June 1997 to the end of May 1998 and covered most of the country. Thirty thousand questionnaires were handed out and of these 18 000 were returned correctly completed.

The distribution was carried out by regional coordinators and interviews took place directly at the fishing sites. A team of 800 people carried out the survey.

The main data obtained are:

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; Survey; Italy

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 14

The use of a geographic information system (GIS)
in recreational fisheries research in Finland

Johanna Stigzelius, Rauno Yrjölä and Kalevi Leinonen

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 6, FIN-00721 Helsinki, Finland

In 1998 the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute conducted an extensive survey of recreational fishing which yielded detailed regional data on fishing areas, catches and fishing methods. A Geographic information system (GIS) was one of the tools used in the process of analysing the data.

Geographic information systems are computer-based systems used to store and manipulate geographic information. The ability to link spatial and descriptive data and to perform spatial analysis makes GIS a powerful tool. The capabilities of GIS range from simple and purely descriptive tasks like creating maps and map measurements such as length, distance and area, to more sophisticated tasks like buffering, modelling, network analysis and overlay analysis.

More and more research material is geographically referenced nowadays and as a result data from different sources can be compiled into the same map-layer and subsequently analysed.

With the aid of GIS we found new aspects in the research on recreational fisheries. Thematic maps, which also allowed us to efficiently sum up complex tables, were a valuable help to us when perceiving the data. Overlay-analysis and buffering were also used when analysing the data. One of the studies aimed to detect possible behavioural differences of recreational fishermen living in the different types of domiciles in the study.

Keywords: GIS; Survey; Recreational fisheries; Finland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 15

Regional review of commercial freshwater fishery in Finland

Pirkko Söderkultalahti and Anna-Liisa Tuunainen

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, PO Box 6, FIN-00721 Helsinki, Finland

There are 3000 marine and 1000 inland water commercial fishermen in Finland. For most of them fishing is a secondary occupation. Commercial fishing is concentrated in areas where fish resources, fish processing and markets provide the conditions for economically viable business operations. Commercial fishery may have an important impact as a source of employment in some regions.

Finnish waters support some 60 fish species, but only about 20 of these are caught by commercial fishermen. The salinity of the Baltic Sea is particularly low on the coast of Finland, and thus the bulk of the Baltic fish stocks consist of freshwater species.

Finnish commercial fishermen take about 120 million kg of fish a year. At 90 million kg Baltic herring (Clupea harengus ) is the main species in the catch. Freshwater species account for 10 million kg of the total. Although the freshwater catch makes up no more than a tenth of the total commercial catch by weight, it contributes about one half of the total value. In the 1980s and 1990s, the catch value of freshwater species ranged from 14 to 26 million EUR. The value of the marine catch was highest when salmon catches were at their largest.

Vendace (Coregonus albula) is the main freshwater species in both volume and value, and is caught mainly in inland waters. A characteristic feature of vendace stocks is their large temporal and regional fluctuations. In the 1980s and 1990s the commercial catch amounted to 1-4 million kg a year.

The second most important freshwater species in the commercial fishery is whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) with annual catches amounting to some 2 million kg. Whitefish is the main freshwater species in the marine area. Other commercial freshwater species of note are salmon (Salmo salar), pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) and perch (Perca fluviatilis).

Figure. Catches and values of freshwater species in Finnish commercial fishery in 1990-1998.

Keywords: Commercial fisheries; Catch composition; Finland



EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 33

Urban fisheries in France, or the difficulty of transferring know-how (fishing schools)

Bernard Breton

Fédération du Val d’Oise pour la pêche et la protection du milieu aquatique 48 rue de Gisors, 95 300 Pontoise, France

Between 1964 and 1998 the number of anglers (with a fishing licence) halved from 2.8 to 1.4 million. The main reason has been the way society has changed, especially urbanization (rural-urban migration), the car permitting distance travel and television which keeps people at home.

The other aspects, which may or may not relate to quality of water and environment (pollution, access to riverbanks, complexity of regulations, etc.) are just further aggravating factors of this decline.

In addition, fishing is no longer practised for consumption but rather for recreation, as the fish are usually released.

Traditional rural anglers fishing all year round have been joined or partly replaced by consumers who pay to fish as they pay to engage in any other leisure. The carp and fly fishing specialists are the precursors of this type of fishery.

Fishing is learned when young (before the age of 16), but the transfer of know-how primarily in the home no longer takes place. Other ways of learning therefore have to be found. Books and magazines have limited readership and word of mouth is the best means of transferring this know-how.

Fishing schools have therefore been set up along the lines of other sports and leisure schools.

Run by volunteers from fishing associations these schools are becoming more professional and "fishing school instructor" has now become a genuine profession.

Keywords: Education; Sports fishing; France

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 34

Estimated demands on water resources for sustainable inland fisheries in southern Russia

Michail S. Chebanov1, Valentina G. Dubinina2 and Emiliya A. Savelyeva1

1Krasnodar Research Institute of Fisheries, 12, Oktybrskaya Str., Krasnodar, 350063, Russia
2 Interdepartmental Ichthyological Commission, 27, Tverskaya Str., Moscow, 103009, Russia

In their natural state the Southern rivers of Russia played an important role in supporting fish. They provided spawning places for the most valuable anadromous and semi–anadromous fish species, especially the sturgeons and the Azov, Black and Caspian Seas into which they flowed supported highly productive fisheries.

Large–scale water management projects in the dry areas of the basins of these rivers have reduced discharges into the sea and changed negatively the season water regimes at the river mouths and in the deltaic lakes.

This paper reviews the continuing trends in the human induced changes in the water regimes of the Don, Kuban and Volga rivers. The discussion will touch upon the problems of falling fish productivity in the context of the various levels of economic development of the regions.

Systems analysis, and simulation and regression modeling have been used to establish the ecological basis for the optimization of natural fish propagation. On this basis economic policies have been worked out to increase sustainability of the inland fisheries of Russia. These involves greater regulation of run-off, strategies for controlling water resources using perspective planning of water, and the setting-aside of reserves.

Keywords: Flow criteria; conservation of anadromous species; water abstraction; Russia

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 35

A development programme for urban fisheries in England and Wales

Mark Diamond, Miran Aprahamian and Mark Atherton

Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, WA4 1HG, UK

Traditionally the majority of recreational fishing has been carried out in rural areas and on rivers. In recent years, however, the trend has been towards anglers preferring to fish stillwaters and to attempt to travel less distance from home. The provision of fishing opportunities close to urban areas is thus a very important component of managing the overall fisheries resource of England and Wales. Consequently a development programme for urban fisheries, both stillwaters and rehabilitated urban rivers has been instigated.

The programme has its foundations in scientific analysis of the distribution of population, waters and anglers and relates to the overall Coarse Fisheries Strategy of the Environment Agency. As part of a campaign to market the fishing licence, analysis of sales was carried out by postcode. This analysis highlighted areas of high population density but low sales of the fishing licence. Focus groups were also set up as part of the licence marketing initiative and indicated the lack of access to local good quality fishing as a barrier to people, especially the young, moving into the sport.

This has led to a number of initiatives; provision of information to anglers on where to fish, promotional campaigns such as take a friend fishing and to the development of fisheries in urban areas. The success of the urban fisheries programme is through close liaison with the planning and development authorities, through support of the local angling clubs and from the publicity generated by the programme. The development programme is shown to increase the socio-economic value of fisheries and to improve the quality of life for a maximum number of people.

Keywords: Recreational fisheries; UK

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 36

Development of full spectrum training programme in aquaculture and fisheries
(from secondary to Ph.D. level) in Hungary via Pan-European Cupertino

Zoltán Karácsonyi 1 and László Stündl 2

1 Kossuth Lajos University Debrecen, Hungary
2 Debrecen Agricultural University, Debrecen, Hungary

New or renewed training structures and programmes are being developed and launched in Hungarian aquaculture and fisheries education to satisfy the changed needs for Hungarian freshwater fish production after the reorganisation of the economy. Such programmes must satisfy the expectations of the various professional levels, be practically oriented, harmonise with similar EU curricula and provide adequate scientific background in Ph.D. level.

Secondary and higher education and research institutions, production enterprises and the Regional Chamber of Agriculture joined efforts to realise a comprehensive training structure in Eastern Hungary, where the majority of the fish production can be found.

This paper presents the training structure and the unified system of vertically inter-connected levels (secondary, under- and postgraduate, Ph.D.). Production enterprises provide technical facilities for training through the transfer of a part of their production capacity to educational functions. Postgraduate modules integrate with Western European through development of common teaching material, staff and student exchange and joint teaching. Ph.D. education is harmonised with the general European level in both structure and scientific aims. The consortium relies on the Cupertino of Western European institutions including Kuopio University, Finland, Udine University, Italy, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.

Key worlds: Education; Hungary

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 37

Eel fisheries: economic and social aspects

Christopher Moriarty

Marine Institute, Fisheries Research Centre, Abbotstown, Dublin 15, Ireland

Based on the results of the EU Concerted Action Enhancement of the European eel and conservation of the species the paper examines the distribution and intensity of eel fisheries throughout Europe. Due to the seasonal activity and migratory behaviour of the species, fisheries for the most part are part-time and widely scattered. Their contribution to the economy of countries or large regions is therefore small.

However, the eel is amongst the most valuable species of fish in terms of the price paid per kg. Processing is labour-intensive and results in a very highly-priced product. The fishery is also labour-intensive, with the catch per fisher lying between 1 and 4 tonne per annum. Capital costs are low and the fishery can therefor be carried out by members of poor communities. While its regional value is limited, its local impact is of great importance

At present the eel fishery is contracting in most regions, following a dramatic decrease in recruitment. Artificial propagation is impossible. Therefore the capture fishery of juvenile eel is the only source of stock for the very successful intensive culture industry. The desirability of reducing the capture fishery to increase spawning escapement is under consideration at international level. At the same time, there are possibilities for ranching which, with proper management, would lead to increases both in catch and in spawning escapement.

Keywords: Eel; Commercial fisheries; Ranching; Europe

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 38

Review of development trends in European aquaculture
with regard to its linkage with fisheries

László Váradi

Fish Culture Research Institute, 5541 Szarvas, P.O.B. 47, Hungary

European aquaculture production (excluding the states of the former Soviet Union) represented 4.6 % of total world aquaculture production in quantity and 7.5% in value in 1997. The most significant producers in terms of volume are Norway (23%), France (17%), Spain (14%), Italy (13%), which countries give 67 % of the total European production. The majority of aquaculture production (72.5%) came from marine waters, while the shares of fresh- and brackish waters were only 20.4% and 7.1% respectively in 1997. Total aquaculture production in 1995 in the countries of the former USSR (first of all the Russian Federation and Ukraine) amounted to 161,000 t, valued at USD 395 million. The contribution of this region to world total aquaculture production was 0.6% in volume, and 0.9% in value in 1995. The total production in the region has decreased since 1984, when total aquaculture production was 271,000 t. Most aquaculture production in this region is derived from freshwater aquaculture.

The leading countries in Europe in capture fisheries are the Russian Federation, Norway and Iceland. The share of these countries in global capture fisheries production in 1996 was 5, 3, and 2 % respectively. The fisheries production in the Commonwealth of Independent Countries (CIS) declined from 9.6 million t to 5.2 million t between 1988 and 1996, which is a 46 % decrease in eight years. Marine capture fisheries have a dominant role in fisheries production in CIS countries accounting for about 94 % of the total production. In the countries of the European Union (EU) the total fisheries production was about 6.4 million t in 1996, which is about 6.8 % of the global fisheries production. Marine capture fisheries account about 98 % of the total fisheries production in these countries. Fisheries production also shows a declining trend in EU countries, however the decrease was only about 10 % between 1988 and 1996.

This paper analyses trends in aquaculture and fisheries production in Europe, with regard to the interdependence of the two aquatic production sectors, and to their role in the development of European societies. The outlook for future development of aquaculture and fisheries in Europe is also discussed.

Keywords: Aquaculture; Capture fisheries; Production; Europe

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. E 39

Socio-economic aspects of Finnish fisheries:
Are commercial fishermen powerless in fixing prices?

Kari Vesala1, Asmo Honkanen2, Pekka Salmi2, Juhani Salmi2 and Juha Jurvelius2

1 University of Helsinki, Finland
2 Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Saimaa Fisheries Research and Aquaculture,
Laasalantie 9, FIN-58175 Enonkoski, Finland

In many studies of their motivational orientation, fishermen are portrayed as lacking entrepreneurial spirit and as aiming primarily at earning a living for themselves and their families. Fishermen are said to appreciate traditional community values more than the economic values of the market system. A shift towards more market-based governance of fisheries presents a challenge which fishermen are forced to face whether they like it or not. Their livelihood is directly dependent on the price they get for their products.

In this article we study price satisfaction among commercial fishermen in the lake and coastal areas of Finland. We focus on variations in the fishermen’s expressions of price satisfaction and dissatisfaction, which are closely related to the division between production and the market as strategic arenas. We will also show how the strategic centrality of the market arena for fishermen can be revealed by a qualitative analysis of unstructured interview material collected from commercial fishermen.

Focusing only on the production arena, price dissatisfaction seems dominant. In the market arena satisfaction is a realistic alternative. For a fisherman, production is always involved. According to our data, strategic variation in production, for example, does not determine price satisfaction. It would seem worthwhile to keep the market arena in focus while considering questions concerning production.

Keywords: Commercial fishing; Pricing structures; Finland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 16

Structural changes in sturgeon culture in the Sea of Azov: ecological, economic and social aspects

Michail S. Chebanov and Emiliya A. Savelyeva

Krasnodar Research Institute of Fisheries, 12, Oktyabrskaya Str., Krasnodar, 350063, Russia

Sturgeons catches in the Sea of Azov basin decreased from 1200 tonnes in 1993 to 280 tonnes in 1998. Commercial fishing will be banned in the Sea of Azov, as from January 2000. Fishing for scientific purposes and for brood fish for stocking will continue to be allowed. The dramatic decline in yields has been traced to a number of factors including: Regulation of river flows resulting in a lack of natural reproduction by sturgeons, irrational fishery practices and poaching.

The sturgeons were the last valuable target species for the fishery. Therefore the ban on fishing will have significant economic and social consequences for the riparian populations.

The prospects for the development of commercial production for sturgeon meat and caviar under the conditions of southern Russian are discussed. At present there are many unprofitable pond and warm water farms which were earlier employed for carp culture. Experiments have shown that production from deltaic lakes and brackish lagoons can be highly efficient economically and could yield up to 300 tonnes of sturgeon annually.

The Federal South Live Gene Bank (Krasnodar) is the basic element in a new structure for sturgeon culture of the basin. It houses domestic brood stocks of eight species and various fast growing hybrids of sturgeons. It has been already used to preserve biodiversity and to provide high quality stocking material for sturgeon farms of different types.

Keywords: Sturgeon culture; Azov Sea; Live gene bank; Russia

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 17

New trends in sport fishing in Wallonia, Belgium

Vincent C. Frank1 and Xavier Rollin2

1 Service de la pêche, Direction Générale des ressources naturelles et de l’environnement,
Ministère de la Région wallonne, avenue Gouverneur Bovesse, 100, 5100 Jambes, Belgium
2 Laboratoire de pisciculture Marcel Huet, Faculté des Sciences agronomiques, Université catholique de Louvain,
route de Blocry, 2 B, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

We have observed a continuous decline over several years in the number of sport fishermen in the Walloon Region. The number of fishing licences issued has fallen from a peak of 114,484 in 1986 to only 77,709 in 1998. There are no subsidies to fishing nor is there any commercial fishing in the public waters of Wallonia.

The improvement in water quality of some important tributaries of the Meuse, such as the Vesdre and the Amblève, and the restocking of these waters with brown trout, minnow, gudgeon, etc., will allow some very fine new fishing sectors to be opened to fishermen in the next few years. We have also observed new trends in the techniques used by the fishermen, such as nymph fly fishing in the Ardennes or night fishing for carp, which is authorised in a few public waters.

The Region supports new approaches to the education of fishermen and the promotion of fishing through a mobile school, a new teaching module and substantial new financial aid for the Fishing Federations. A new system and format, similar to bank cards, is also proposed for regional fishing licences.

The current fishing authorities are taking the lead in the different "river contracts" that are being issued throughout the Region. A new digitized mapping system has been initiated by the Water Division responsible for Walloon waters to assist in the establishment of a new permanent fish species network.

The Walloon Region has started to build a new fish farm on the River Aisnes at Erezée, in support of the international "Meuse Salmon 2000" project. This will produce 250,000 smolts per year, originating from the eggs of wild anadromous broodstock from the Meuse in Holland.

New trends in fishing legislation deal mainly with limitations on fish captures and authorisations for night carp fishing. Severe sanitary regulations were implemented a few months ago for the restocking of salmonids in response to the new European measures.

Key words: Recreational fisheries; Fishermen; Walloon Region; Belgium

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 18

EU fisheries investment subsidies in South Savo region, Finland:
A case study from inland fisheries

Petri Muje1 Juha Pursiainen1 Lasse Hyytinen2 and Hannu Mölsä3

1 University of Kuopio, Center for Training and Development, P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland
2 Employment and Economic Development Centre for South Savo, Fisheries Services,
P.O.Box 164, FIN-50101 Mikkeli, Finland
3 University of Kuopio, Institute of Applied Biotechnology, P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland

The EU structural fund for fisheries was originally developed for marine fisheries. In Finland, however, small-scale commercial inland fisheries, fish processing and aquaculture has a considerable regional importance and therefore these funds have also been focused on the inland sector.

EU investment subsidies for fisheries have been used in Finland since 1995. In South Savo 54 projects financed by combined EU fisheries investment subsidies and national and private money were finalized by July 1999. A total of about EUR 440,000 (combined EU and national funds) has been used to support the projects. These are moderately small with an average subsidy of about EUR 8,000 for a project. Most of the subsidies have been devoted to developing fishing harbour infrastructure and to support small-scale fish processing industry.

The problems and suitability of using EU structural funds for commercial inland fisheries and the economic value obtained from fisheries investment subsidies in South Savo region are discussed.

Keywords: Commercial fisheries; Subsidies; EU; Finland

EIFAC/XXI/2000/Symp. P 19

The processing of freshwater fish in Finland

Aune Vihervuori and Eija Nylander

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, PO Box 6, FIN-00721 Helsinki, Finland

Some 200 companies are engaged in fish processing in Finland. The majority of these are small, diversified family businesses. The fish-processing industry is centered on coastal areas and the bulk of its raw material comes from sea fisheries and fish farming. Domestic freshwater species come from fisheries in the coastal brackish water area as well as from lakes and rivers in the inland area.

In 1997, the total volume of fish processed in Finland was 39 million kg, with domestic Finnish catches and farmed fish accounting for about 33 million kg and imported fish about 6 million kg. Of the domestic fish processed, the volume of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) and rainbow trout far exceeded that of any other species. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) excluded, domestic freshwater species accounted for about 3 million kg, or only 8% of the total volume of fish processed. The main freshwater species were whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), perch (Perca fluviatilis), pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) and vendace (Coregonus albula).

Figure. Domestic freshwater fish processed in 1997 by species

Freshwater species are important for fish processing enterprises in northern and eastern Finland. In the province of Eastern Finland, for example, more than half of the fish processed were freshwater species. The degree of processing is rather low on the whole, the most common processing methods being filleting and smoking. Even so, the degree of processing is markedly higher than for domestic fish in general, and most of Finland’s small canning enterprises are located inland. The species commonly used for canning are vendace, whitefish and roach (Rutilus rutilus). Vendace and pikeperch are also used as an ingredient of the traditional Finnish fish pie, kalakukko, and vendace, whitefish and burbot (Lota lota) for making roe preserves. Most of the products of the Finnish fish-processing industry are sold in Finland.

Keywords: Inland waters; Processing; Finland