Animal Production Based on Crop Residues - Chinese Experiences


ISSN 0254-6019
FAO
ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PAPER
149

Edited by
Guo Tingshuang
Former Vice-Director
Animal Health and Production Bureau
Ministry of Agriculture,
People's Republic of China

Manuel D. Sánchez
Animal Production Officer
Animal Production and Health Division
FAO, Rome, Italy

and

Guo Pei Yu
Researcher
China Agricultural University
East Campus
People's Republic of China

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome 2002

Table of Contents


The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-104639-5

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© FAO 2002


Table of Contents


PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

AUTHORS

GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND UNITS

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

A grain-saving strategy to develop animal production in China
Arguments for a strategy for herbivores in China
Methods for improving the feeding value of crop residues

Physical methods
Biological methods
Chemical methods

Extension of technology and herbivore development

Sheep and goat raising
Buffalo production
Dairy production
Deer rearing

Economic, social, agronomic and environmental benefits of developing animal production based on crop residues

APCR can save large amounts of feed grain.
APCR favours agriculture
Reducing environmental pollution
Benefits in terms of meat availability
Helping farmers to leave poverty

The main successful extension experiences

Highly relevant theme for national conditions
Practical work was essential for rapid success
Equal emphasis on all benefits
A complete project

CHAPTER 2 - COMPOSITION, NUTRITIVE VALUE AND UPGRADING OF CROP RESIDUES

Introduction
Botanical structure and cell wall chemical composition

Botanical structure and digestion differences
Chemical composition of cell walls

Nutritive value of crop residues
Factors affecting the nutritive value of crop residues

Plant factors
Animal factors
Environmental factors

Improving feed value by processing or treatment

Traditional processing and feeding methods
Physical treatment
Chemical treatment
Biological approach

CHAPTER 3 - AMMONIATION OF CROP RESIDUES

Introduction
The principle and effects of straw ammoniation
Ammonia sources for straw ammoniation

Anhydrous ammonia
Urea
Ammonium bicarbonate
Aqueous ammonia
Other sources

Methods for ammonia treatment of straw

Stack method
Silo or bunker method
Oven method
Other options

Factors influencing effectiveness of ammoniation

Ammonia dosage
Moisture content of straw
Temperature and treatment time
Quality of material being treated
Pressure

Quality evaluation of ammoniated straw

Sensory evaluation
Chemical analysis
Biological tests

Animal experiments with ammoniated straw

Feeding experiments with beef cattle
Feeding dairy cows
Feeding sheep

CHAPTER 4 - ENSILING CROP RESIDUES

Types of silos

Tower silo
Cellar silo
Trench silo
Stack silo
Plastic silo

Silage making

Control of moisture content in raw materials
Chopping, compaction and sealing
Factors influencing silage quality

Silage additives

Bacterial cultures
Mineral or organic acids
Inhibitors of aerobic deterioration
Nutrients

Evaluation of silage quality

Subjective methods of evaluation
Chemical methods of evaluation (laboratory methods)

Feeding silage

CHAPTER 5 - FEEDING AND INDIVIDUAL SUPPLEMENTATION

Quantity of straw offered to ruminants

Meat type (beef cattle, heifers, sheep and goats)
Dairy cows

Supplementation with concentrate and protein

Effectiveness of protein supplementation
Response of supplementation with untreated and treated straw

Supplementation with green forages and readily digestible fibrous feeds

Effects of supplementation with green forage
Supplementation with readily digestible fibre

Use of multinutrient blocks

MNB manufacture
Results of blocks with animals

Concluding remarks

CHAPTER 6 - MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT FOR UTILIZATION OF CROP RESIDUES AS FEED

Technology flow and equipment
Collection, loading and transport equipment

Collection, loading and transport equipment for long and loose straw
Balers
Harvesting machine for maize silage

Crop residue processing machines

Choppers
Grinders
Kneading machines
Kneading and cutting machines
Pelleting equipment
Wafering machinery for roughage

Straw treatment equipment

Ammoniation equipment for ambient conditions
Heating equipment for ammoniation

Ammoniation with anhydrous ammonia

Injection equipment
Construction of an ammoniation station

Safety operation of anhydrous ammonia equipment

Physical and chemical characteristics of ammonia, and safe operation
Safety supervision of ammonia containers
Regulations for safety in straw ammoniation

CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION BASED ON CROP RESIDES

Introduction
Status of the utilization of crop residues in China
Progress on development of Straw for ruminant feed in China
Economics of cattle production on ammoniated crop residues

Basic factors influencing the economic benefits
Implications of major input and output elements and their value
Estimation of economic benefits of use of crop residues for ruminants
Cases influencing input/output ratio

Comments on production studies

Design of the study
Economic analysis of different ammonia sources

Case study on the economics of crop residues for ruminants at household level

Introduction to the household survey
Situation of straw utilization and the cost of processing and treatment
Overall economics at household level
Economics of different feeding scales at household level
Economics of different straw treatment techniques

CHAPTER 8 - THE FUTURE CHALLENGE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANNEX - NATIONAL SCHEME FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF "ANIMAL PRODUCTION BASED ON CROP RESIDUES" 2001-2010

A. Targets of project development
B. Regional layout of APCR project
C. Relevant policies for the 2001-2010 APCR project
D. Strengthening the management of APCR project.

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