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1. Secondary: 1 a : of second rank, importance, or value b : of, relating to, or constituting the second strongest of the three or four degrees of stress recognized by most linguists <the fourth syllable of basketball team carries secondary stress c of a tense : expressive of past time 2 a : immediately derived from something original, primary, or basic (

2. (Europe) -Forest land where there has been a period of complete clearance by humans with or without a period of conversion to another land use. Forest cover has regenerated naturally or artificially through planting.

3. (Nicaragua) - Draft - Bosque Secundario: Area boscosa que se desarrolla una vez que la vegetación original ha sido eliminada por actividades humanas y/o fenómenos naturales y se encuentra en período de sucesión secundaria. (see Borrador de la ley, CAPITULO II DEFINICIONES) Harrie <[email protected]>

4. (syn. pioneer forest) Forest which has developed by secondary succession on deforested land, such as land abandoned after shifting or settled agriculture, or after pasture.

5. (Thailand) secondary forest: forest which have been logged or cleared for other purposes, and are regrowing but not fully regrown. These forests would be expected to have significantly lower biomass densities than undisturbed forests of the same type. The report of Thailand's National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 1990. "Wilailak Pangtawaong" [email protected] .

6. A forest that has been logged and has recovered naturally or artificially. Not all secondary forests provide the same value to sustaining biological diversity, or goods and services, as did primary forest in the same location.

7. A new forest no more than 50 years or so claiming back disturbed areas, either by human intervention or natural causes, such as fires, floods.

8. A woodland occupying a site that has not been wooded continuously throughout history [in Britain since the last ice advance]. It may be the product of natural succession or of planting on formerly unwooded land. In the tropics, secondary woodland [forest] is pure or regrowing following clear-felling; it contains fewer species than primary forest (Allaby 1994). Helene M Cleveland CCMAIL [email protected]

9. Forests regenerating largely through natural processes after significant human and/or natural disturbance of the original forest vegetation at a single point in time or over an extended period, and displaying a major difference in forest structure and/or canopy species composition with respect to nearby primary forests on similar sites. (Chokkalingam and De Jong 2001).

10. Forest regenerating naturally after intense/drastic human and/or natural disturbance of the original forest vegetation, and involving a major change in canopy species composition from that of primary forests growing on similar site conditions in the area. Secondary forest can be said to have reverted to primary forest when canopy species composition approaches that of primary forest growing on similar site conditions in the area.

11. Forest that has been subject to a light cycle of shifting cultivation or to various intensities of logging, but which still contains indigenous trees and shrubs.

12. Forest that has regenerated naturally after clearcutting, burning or other land clearing activities. from the Glossary of Terms pp200 - 204 of Indigenous Forestry - Sustainable Management (Ministry of Forestry and the New Zealand Farm Forestry Association Inc., January 1998).

13. Forest that is subject to various intensities of logging, or to a long cycle of shifting cultivation, but that still contains indigenous trees and shrubs.

14. Forest which, after destruction of the original vegetation (primary forest) as a result of human activities (e.g. land clearing, anthropogenic fire), regenerates naturally, and is thus composed mainly of natural vegetation in early successional stages. Though often associated specifically with the tropics, the term is not limited to these: boreal and temperate forests left to natural regeneration after clearcutting are also secondary forests.

15. second growth -- (a second growth of trees covering an area where the original stand was destroyed by fire or cutting)

16. The ecosystems that regenerate from a substantial disturbance (flood, fire, land clearing or extensive and intensive logging) characterized by a scarcity of mature trees and an abundance of pioneer species and a dense understory of saplings and herbaceous plants. Although secondary forests frequently peak in terms of biomass accumulation well-within one felling cycle, the transition to primary forests usually requires several rotation lengths, depending upon the severity of the original disturbance. Irreversible transformation of the underlying soil and nutrient cycle brought about by chronic or intense use may render it impossible for the original, primary forest type to return. (further details will be addressed by FSC-approved national and regional standards of forest stewardship). PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA FOR FOREST STEWARDSHIP. Revised March 1996, edited October 1996.

17. Woodland formed on sites since 1600 AD which have formerly been under farmland, moorland or some other non woodland use.

18. Woodland growing on a site that has either formerly been woodland or has been cleared at some time

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