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1 See for example, Alfonso Gumucio Dagron, Making Waves: Stories of Particpatory Communication for Social Change (The Rockefeller Foundation) 2001. Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, M. Taghi Farvar, Jean Claude Nguinguiri, Vincent Awa Ndangang, Co-management of Natural Resources: Organizing, Negotiating and Learning-by-Doing. (Heidelberg, Germany) 2001. Chike Anyaegbunam, Paolo Mefalopulos, Titus Moetsabi, Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal: Starting with the people (Harare) 1998. A concise article on this was prepared for SD Dimensions by Phillippe Van der Stichele which can be viewed at:

Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, Dianne Buchan ed., Beyond Fences: Seeking Social Sustainability in Conservation Vol 1 and 2 (IUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge UK) 1997. Thomas Barton, Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, Alex de Sherbinin, Patricio Warren, Our People, Our Resources (IUCN Gland Switzerland) 1997.

2 Claude Martin, "How Big is Your Footprint?" World Wildlife Fund Global Network Newsroom, October 2000

3 "Trends Point to Gains in Human Development, While Many Negative Human Impacts on Vital Ecosystems are Increasing", Sustainable Development Information Service Global Trends, World Resource Institute 2000

4 "Solutions for a Water Short World", Population Reports: Volume XXVI, Number 1 The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, September 1998

5 "Footprints and Milestones: Population and Environmental Change," UNFPA State of World Population 2001

6 "FAO Fact Sheet: AIDS A Threat to Rural Africa"

7 Freedom Nyamubaya, "A Career for Life," Dusk of Dawn. College Press Publishers, Zimbabwe 1995. p. 29.

8 Borrini-Feyeraband op. cit. pp. 1,2.

9 Freedom Nyamubaya, "Shanty town beauty," op. cit. p. 34.

10 Anyaegbunam op. cit. See also Brenda Dervin and Robert Huesca, "Reaching for the communicating in participatory communication: A meta-theoretical analysis" The Journal of International Communication 4:2 December 1997. and Gary Coldevin, "Participatory communication and adult learning for rural development" SD Dimensions November 2001

11 Borrini-Feyerabend 2001 op. cit.

12 Denise Gray-Felder & James Dean, Communication For Social Change: A Position Paper and Conference Report. (New York.: The Rockefeller Foundation, 1999) and Silvio Waisbord Family Tree of Theories, Methodologies and Strategies in Development Communication: Convergences and Differences. Prepared for the Rockefeller Foundation 2001. Available on The Communication Initiative website at

13 Denise Gray-Felder & James Dean op. cit. p. 11.

14 ibid.

15 ibid.

16 ibid. p. 12.

17 Sabine Isabel Michiels & L. Van Crowder, "Discovering the "Magic Box": Local appropriation of information and communication technologies (ICTs)." SD Dimensions (FAO Communication for Development Group June 2001). P. 4.

18 See the Making Waves Chat Forum on The Communication Initiative .19 Base Line on The Communication Initiative

20 Making Waves Chat Forum op. cit.

21 Sabine Isabel Michiels & L. Van Crowder, op. cit.

22 Denise Gray-Felder & James Dean op. cit. quotation from Manuel Castells, p. 24.

23 Communication News and

24 Base Line Archives

25 Thomas Tufte. Living with the Rubbish Queen - Telenovelas, Culture and Modernity in Brazil, University of Luton Press - 2001 p. 11

26 Phyllis Tilson Piotrow, D. Lawrence Kincaid, Jose G. II Rimon, & Ward Rinehart, Health Communication - Lessons from Family Planning and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs 1997 p. 23.

27 Silvio Waisbord, op. cit.

28 ibid.

29 ibid.

30 Anyaegbunam, Mefalopulos, & Moetsabi. Participatory Rural CommunicatIon Appraisal - Starting with the People. SADC Center of Communication for Development and FAO Regional Project.

31 A Buddhist Approach to Development. Communications Systems for Planning Change. Pp. 48 and 49.

32 M. Fishbein Summarising Fishbein & Ajzen (1975), Ajzen & Fishbein (1980), Fishbein, Middlestadt & Hitchcock (1991) in Developing Effective Behavior Change Interventions. University Of Illinois. p. 4.33 Robert Hornick. Alternative Models of Behavior Change. Working Paper 131. Annenburg School for Communication 1990 p. 3 and 4.

34 Bugday means "wheat" in Turkish.

35 Silvio Waisbord, op. cit.

36 Thomas Tufte op cit. p. 16 for excerpt only see:

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