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This document was written by John A. Beardmore and Joanne S. Porter, under the supervision of Devin Bartley (FIRI), as part of an overall presentation on the role of genetically modified organisms in aquaculture at a special session organized by FAO and the World Aquaculture Society on April 27 2002.

Beardmore, J.A.; Porter, J.S.
Genetically modified organisms and aquaculture.
FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 989. Rome, FAO. 2003. 35p.


The production of appropriate genetically modified organisms or (GMOs) offers considerable opportunities for more efficient and more effective aquaculture across a wide range of species. Although this potential is being realized in crop production with over 60 million hectares under cultivation, there has been no commercial use of GMOs in aquaculture. Here we review the nature of GMOs, the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. We conclude with a set of recommendations aimed at best practice.

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