Agricultural Extension, Rural Development and the Food Security Challenge

William McLeod Rivera
in collaboration with
M. Kalim Qamar
Table of Contents

Extension, Education and Communication Service
Research, Extension and Training Division
Sustainable Development Department

Rome, 2003

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ISBN 92-5-105035-X

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© FAO 2003

Table of Contents




Executive Summary


I. Public Sector Agricultural Extension

1.1 Diversified Strategies

1.1.1 Pressures to change: a critical turning point
1.1.2 The pendulum swings back
1.1.3 Extension as a function
1.1.4 Agricultural extension reform strategies
1.1.5 A consensus on lessons learned

1.2 Extension for Poor Rural Families to Improve Production and Income Generation

1.2.1 The poverty issue
1.2.2 FAO Special Programme for Food Security
1.2.3 Enhancing food security and income generation
1.2.4 Programme development and future expectations

II. Rural Development

2.1 Different Pathways out of Poverty

2.1.1 Pathways out of poverty
2.1.2 Differentiated strategies to reduce poverty and food insecurity

2.2 Agricultural Extension and Rural Extension

2.2.1 Distinguishing between agricultural extension and rural extension
2.2.2 Communication for rural development
2.2.3 Blurring between agricultural and rural extension

III. Food Security

3.1 Food security is a public good

3.1.1 Government's first task
3.1.2 Why the poor are food-insecure

3.2 Food security is a social and economic good

3.2.1 Investment in extension
3.2.2 Investment in extension for women in agriculture
3.2.3 Observations from the field

IV. Conclusions and Recommendations

4.1 Conclusions

4.1.1 New vision of agricultural extension
4.1.2 New vision of rural development
4.1.3 New vision of food security
4.1.4 New vision of the public sector role

4.2 Recommendations

4.2.1 It is recommended that governments develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor.
4.2.2 It is recommended that governments build a platform to promote dialogue and cooperation among relevant institutions and programmes in all sectors with the aim of developing an extension and information services network for food security and income generation.
4.2.3 It is recommended that governments activate institutional change within the public sector, aimed at supporting and promoting the new and expanded policy on extension and food security and the determinations instituted by the nationwide platform.

V. Final Comments

Appendix 1: Selected Listing of Extension Approaches (Alex, Zijp and Byerlee 2001)

Appendix 2: A Strategic Management Paradigm



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