Havana, Cuba, 22 to 26 April 2002


Table of Contents





A. The Second Generation Reforms

1. One inherent feature of Latin America is that whenever it goes into recession or stagnation, it experiences higher poverty and greater inequality of income distribution. Yet, when the Region subsequently resumes economic growth, the level of poverty and inequality of income do not then decrease in the same converse proportion. Clearly, therefore, lower but stable growth is preferable to economic boom followed by recession or stagnation, if poverty and social inequality are to be overcome. The search for mechanisms that will provide a degree of economic armour is undoubtedly determined by the need for institutional arrangements that will help soften the abrupt economic cycles.

2. Assurance and guarantees are vital ingredients for sustainable change and an enabling environment for growth and wellbeing. However, the two key features that are inherent in any development strategy in the Region are continuous change and risk.

3. The so-called second generation reforms constitute a broad agenda of change: on the political level, to consolidate democracy; on the administrative level, to professionalize the career civil service and deal effectively with corruption; on the legal level, to introduce changes that will strengthen the rule of law; and on the operational level, to enable the markets to function properly, especially the labour and financial markets, with the promotion of people's participation and the elimination of various forms of discrimination, notably relating to ethnic minorities and gender. Their central concern is to generate an environment for the confidence that is needed for economic and social progress.

4. Throughout the world, there has traditionally been heavy intervention in the agricultural sector. However, the new concept of agriculture and rural development, and the context in which this concept is unfolding, have rendered many traditional policy instruments obsolete and have changed the structure of incentives for rural production. Many of the instruments that lost their utility under the relative withdrawal of State intervention have not been properly replaced, at the very time of increasing demands for competitiveness. There is a stronger need for new rules and procedures in areas such as rural markets and financing, rights linked to land and intellectual property, the provision of infrastructure, new institutional requirements resulting from international trade agreements, such as those relating to plant and animal health, and food safety.

5. A central element in these new institutional arrangements is the emphasis placed on people's participation and demand-driven programmes. The increased exercise of local democracy and the greater legitimacy of a wide range of social and economic actors have generated expectations and demands that require a new definition of public and private functions. Impact assessment of government programmes, democratic control and required stability of public policy suggest the need for a public arena that, while not directly linked to government activity, is a definite constituent of democratic government centred on consensus building and the formation of social partnerships.

6. Associations and partnerships play a crucial role in the new institutional architecture of the rural sector, helping to correct unequal access to information and the existence of incomplete markets. It is therefore not surprising to find that each of the seven commitments in the Rome Declaration and Plan of Action that emerged from the World Food Summit in 1996 should specifically mention the joint role of governments and society in ensuring that the commitments are put into effect. Partnerships and associations are in fact crucial to successful delivery of basic agreements, as is being increasingly recognized by national and international players.

B. The Basic Agreements

7. These strategic partnerships, which are above all productive partnerships in the broadest sense as they produce public and private goods, are constituents of a new institutional architecture of society, serving to overcome limits and restrictions. They provide scope for interactions among people, nature, markets and the very rules under which societies function.

8. But the process of consensus building and creating partnerships is in itself a powerful mechanism for modulating change. There is now growing recognition that changes never spring from nothing, that it is therefore important to ensure a degree of continuity. Historical processes provide us with legacies and frameworks of comprehension. They supply us with points of departure and determine clear restrictions. Building or strengthening the social fabric means interweaving threads of continuity with threads of change. We can state this with greater certainty than ten years ago, because there is now greater awareness that, to be sustainable, change needs to be blended into substantial elements of historical continuity. We could refer to this as the basic agreements of a society.

9. In 1996, FAO convened the World Food Summit (WFS) in Rome, which expressed the political will and moral commitment to halve- by the year 2015 - the number of persons suffering from hunger for whom the right to food is but a mere illusion.

10. The signatory countries (186) adopted a Plan of Action that has seven commitments covering all areas in which work is required to eliminate poverty, the main cause of hunger: from international trade to the equitable participation of men and women in the achievement of food security. Effective follow-up to the Summit means translating the Plan of Action's commitments into reality in each signatory country1.

11. The Rome Declaration and Plan of Action must therefore be our framework of reference as we review implementation of the recommendations made at the 26th FAO Regional Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean.


A. General Debate on Trends and Challenges in Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Food Security in the Region

"For the attention of FAO"

The Conference:

6. Requested technical support to continue to update food legislation, food safety standards and plant and animal health standards; protect plant and animal genetic resources; draw up inventories of water resources available for agricultural activity; establish systems for the prevention, mitigation of and recovery from the impact of adverse climatic events; and boost rural development. (Paras 35 and 45)."

12. FAO has implemented regional and subregional projects to strengthen management, update food legislation and harmonize national food standards with those of the Codex Alimentarius; it has supported the Inter-American Network of Food Analysis Laboratories (RILAA) and provided technical assistance to the countries of Central America and the Caribbean.

13. See text on the main activities carried out by the Food and Nutrition Division (ESN)

14. The Animal Production and Health Division (AGA) has helped in the control of transboundary diseases in Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republici and Cubaii, given that FAO is the depository of the Technical Secretariat of the Continental Plan for Classical Swine Fever Eradication in the Americas.

15. With regard to plant health, pest control projects have been implemented in Chileiii, Boliviaiv, Peruv and Venezuelavi; support projects have been conducted in the Andean countriesvii to modernize their agricultural health services; and a workshop held on limitations and outlook for development of the beef sector.

16. Work has continued for regional implementation of the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Rotterdam Convention.

17. The Forestry Department (FO) has continued to provide its technical support to national projects in countries that decided to change their forestry legislation, and to regional forestry projects implemented by the Regional Office.

18. The Rural Development Division (SDA) has provided technical assistance to projects on improving access to land by the landless and the land poor, as well as on strengthening the household economy of poor rural familiesviii and has established channels of dialogue and review of experiences on the role of small farmer organizations in promoting rural development in the Region ( Studies have been conducted with ECLAC and the IDB on selected countries of Latin America and the Caribbean ( on experiences of programmes to control rural poverty and institutional reforms in the rural development sector.

19. The Gender and Population Division (SDW) has continued to support projects to introduce the gender dimension into policies and strategies for sustainable rural development in Nicaraguaix, Mexicox, Brazilxi, El Salvadorxii, Colombiaxiii, and Chile.

B. Impact of Technical and Non-Tariff Barriers on Agricultural Trade in Latin America and the Caribbean

"For the attention of FAO

The Conference:

7. Requested that FAO continue with the regional programme of technical assistance to countries in agricultural trade negotiations and the exchange of experiences through the organization of technical meetings. (Para. 46)."

20. In follow-up to the subregional training workshop organized in 1999 for the countries of Central America, Cuba, Dominican Republic and Panama, the Policy Assistance Division (TCA), in collaboration with seven other divisions (ESC, ESN, AGA, AGP, LEG, FII, FOP), supported the organization and delivery of two similar workshops in 2000 to strengthen the negotiating skills of officials involved in multilateral trade negotiations on agriculture: one in Santa Cruz, Boliviaxiv, for the countries of South America and Mexico; the other in Kingston, Jamaicaxv, for the countries of the Caribbean and Haiti.

21. Studies have been carried out on beef trade and activities conducted on linkages between international trade and genetically modified organisms. A project on developing trade in the Caribbean has also been initiated with the intention of promoting food standards and helping preparation for the agricultural trade negotiationsxvi.

22. FAO has continued its work with the Joint Informal Consultative Group for Agricultural Negotiators of the Americas (GINA), whose Technical Secretariat it operates together with the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA).

23. The Forestry Department (FO) has published a study on trade restrictions affecting international trade in forest products (Spanish only).

24. See text on the main activities carried out by ESC and activities carried out by TCA.

C. Effects of Adverse Climatological Conditions on Food Production and Trade

"For the attention of FAO

The Conference:

9. Requested that FAO continue providing technical support to raise the awareness of decision makers in the development of information, education, training, modernization and organization programmes aimed at reducing the negative impact of adverse climatic events. (Para. 52)."

25. A study has been completed on the medium-term impact of Hurricane Mitch on food security and its implications for improving the anticipation and mitigation of natural disasters; FAO has also supported contingency planning for hurricanes in the Caribbean. In response to disaster situations caused by adverse weather events, FAO has implemented emergency projects in Argentinaxvii, Brazilxviii, Peruxix, Nicaraguaxx, Bahamasxxi, Belizexxii and Dominicaxxiii.

26. The Fisheries Department has supported the implementation of the project on contingency planning for hurricanes and their impact on agriculturexxiv.

27. The Forestry Department has been involved in the preparation of a draft project on a Central American forestry strategy to mitigate climate change and strengthen national and regional capacities as well as in the implementation of a regional project on information and analysis for sustainable forest management in Latin Americaxxv.

D. Follow-Up to the World Food Summit

"For the attention of FAO

The Conference:

12. Requested that FAO continue to help the countries fulfil the commitments made at the World Food Summit and support the exchange of know-how and experience in the Region. It expressed its concern at the lack of resources from the international community for implementation of the World Food Summit Plan of Action. (Paras 60 and 61)."

28. Special attention has been given to the development of plans of action and nutritional profiles; food and nutrition surveillance; household food security, food guides; nutrition education and food composition tables. Support has been given to the activities of the Technical Cooperation Network on Food and Nutrition Surveillance Systems and the Latin American Network on Food Composition.

29. See text on the activities conducted by the Food and Nutrition Division.

30. The concept of the Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) has been promoted in seven countries of the Caribbean and Central America (El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Guyana, Suriname and Belize)xxvi.

31. Projects in support of the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) are under way in Bolivia, Ecuadorxxvii, Haitixxviii, Guatemalaxxix, Hondurasxxx and Nicaraguaxxxi. Similar programmes are under preparation for Cuba, with the inclusion of the gender perspective and a communication and information component to promote the exchange of know-how and experiences. Initiation of SPFS project activities under Unilateral Trust Fund format has been programmed for 2002 in Venezuela, Mexico and the Dominican Republic, whose involvement in this Programme is all the more significant since these are intermediate developing countries participating with their own resources.


"For the attention of FAO

The Conference:

14. Requested technical assistance to countries to review their legal framework, suggest institutional reforms, disseminate understanding of water resources and educate the population accordingly, improve the administration and management of water, control water contamination, establish systems for the treatment of poor-quality water, develop drainage systems, modernize hydrometric and meteorological stations, stimulate the participation of the private sector in irrigation and promote the harvesting of rainwater. (Para 69)."

32. With regard to changes in legislation, the Forestry Department has given special attention to provisions relating directly to the protection of watersheds and sources of water. FAO's Regional Office is also helping organize the III Latin American Congress on Watershed Management which will be held in the second half of 2002 in Colombia as part of the celebrations of the International Year of Mountains.

33. Communication and information features have been included to promote user participation in projects for the modernization of irrigation systemsxxxii, and there has been active participation in projects promoting the rational and viable use of natural resources with a special emphasis on protecting watersheds through curriculum changes at technical collegesxxxiii.

34. Bolivia is promoting the integration of rural women in activities on the protection of watersheds and sources of water through a projectxxxiv on conservation and participatory development in the highlands. A project has been initiated in Mexico to develop two pilot plants for the treatment of wastewaters from pig farms, which will serve as a model for farmers to replicate on their holdingsxxxv. Under this recommendation, FAO has also conducted technical cooperation projects in Antigua and Barbudaxxxvi, Boliviaxxxvii, and Cubaxxxviiii , as well as another project on a regional scalexxxix.


"For the attention of FAO"

The Conference:

17. Requested technical assistance in the planning of strategies for research and technology transfer. (Para 72)."

35. The countries of the Region have been provided with assistance in the transfer of integrated pest management technology to reduce the use of pesticides and to increase food production in the Region, mainly through projects implemented in Peruxl and Panamaxli. Training courses and workshops have been held in Bolivia, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, and field guides produced on subjects that include food hygiene and handling, meat production, transport of livestock and deployment of extension agents.

36. Activities on biotechnology and transgenic crops have been carried out in coordination with the Technical Cooperation Network on Plant Biotechnology (REDBIO), which held its IV Latin American Meeting on Plant Biotechnology in Brazil. Special support was given to the national chapters of Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile, and to the organization of training and dissemination activities on intellectual property of genetic resources and biotechnology; biosafety; public perception; molecular biology and genetic transformation.

37. Support has been given to a working group developing biopesticides through native strains as an alternative to using synthetic pesticides in agriculture, an area also related to public health. An FAO technical cooperation project has transferred technology for the hydroponic production of vegetables in Ecuadorxlii helping consolidate eight production plants linked to the National Institute for Children and the Family (INNFA).

38. See text on the main activities carried out by the Animal Production and Health Division (AGA).

39. FAO has supported specific training and transfer of technology and research activities in El Salvador, Bolivia and Ecuador ( aimed at promoting gender equality of opportunity. It has also been involved in building capacities of local governments, grassroots organizations and NGOs, in their role as development agents, through training in information and communication to reinforce their management and technology transfer capacitiesxliii.

40. See text on the main activities carried out by the Gender and Population Division (SDW).

G. Demonstration of the World Agriculture Information Centre (WAICENT)

"For the attention of FAO

The Conference:

18. Requested support for the implementation and strengthening of national agricultural information systems in the Region, including necessary technical training (Para 77)."

41. The main activity thrust during the period under consideration has been to strengthen FIVIMS in the Region, especially Central Americaxliv and the Caribbean.

42. In coordination with WAICENT, the Research, Extension and Training Division (SDR) has held a consultation workshop on information systems (Honduras) ) to explain the concepts of rural networks and management of agricultural information to meet rural communication needs. An officer will be placed at the Regional Office in the next months to provide technical support in the field of information (WAICENT).

43. The Statistics Division (ESS) has provided the countries of the Region with technical assistance in the field of statistics and the agricultural census.

44. See text on the main activities carried out by the Statistics Division (ESS).

45. FAO has provided technical assistance to Panama, Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic to introduce a gender perspective into the preparation of the agricultural census and to Costa Rica for the preparation of gender indicators ( the overall aim is to improve the systems for collecting and analyzing information on the contribution and participation of women in rural development. Publications have been issued on the role of rural women in the management of biodiversity and genetic resources in Guatemala and in the Andean Region (, studies have been conducted on the participation of women in land reform in Brazilxlv and a web page has been produced for the region (

46. A study has been initiated on public expenditure in agriculture and rural development between 1995 and 2000 in 12 countries of the Region. A further 10 country studies will also have been completed by 2002 in collaboration with the Inter-American Development Bank. These studies are being updated by the Ministries of Agriculture and the Economy in each country, so that the member countries of the Region can have a reliable database on this vital subject related to the mobilization of resources to combat hunger and poverty.


"For the attention of FAO

The Conference:

19. Advocated the strengthening of the Regional Commissions and the continued regularity of their meetings. It also recommended that the reports of the Commissions be submitted to the Council and the Conference of FAO to achieve a regional perspective in the focus of its programmes. (Para. 20)."

47. The Twenty-first Session of the Latin American and Caribbean Forestry Commission (LAFC) was held in Santa Fe de Bogotá in September 2000 and the Executive Committee of the LAFC met in Santiago in June 2001. A meeting of the bureaus of the Regional Forestry Commissions was held in Rome in March 2001 to determine how these could be strengthened.

48. The meeting of the Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission (WECAFC) and of the Commission on Livestock Development for Latin America and the Caribbean (CODEGALAC) were held in late 2001 and their reports summarized in LARC/02/INF/6 and LARC/02/INF/8.

49. A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Commission for Inland Fisheries of Latin America and the Caribbean (COPESCAL) was held in November 2001 where the status of inland fisheries and aquaculture in the Region was reviewed and the IX Session of COPESCAL decided.

50. See text on the main activities of the Fisheries Department.


"For the attention of FAO

The Conference:

21. Requested that FAO place greater emphasis on its studies and documents on the state of food and agriculture in the small island developing states of the Caribbean (Para. 80)."

51. FAO has provided technical assistance to many countries in the Region in support of agricultural statistics, research and census activities (Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, Grenada, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela).

52. A technical meeting was held on the agricultural census as the basis for a research system on agricultural statistics, in Santo Domingo, February 2001, with the participation of representatives of Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago.

53. The basic statistics and census information will serve as the basis for the preparation of studies on the agricultural situation in the countries referred to in this recommendation.

54. See text on the main activities carried out by the Statistics Division (ESS)

55. Studies conducted in Cuba on dendroenergy, forest legislation and wildlifexlvi, and on the design of an effective strategy against forest firesxlvii, and on the conservation of natural resources in the swamplands of Zapataxlviii, have provided greater insight into the legal and institutional provisions needed to improve the use of natural resources on the island, for the special benefit of its rural communities.


A. Main Changes in the Rural Sector of the Region

56. The Latin American rural sector has experienced four major changes in recent years.

57. One of these changes concerns its form of economic development. Starting in the 1950s, the process of modernization in Latin America and the Caribbean gave a prominent role to the agricultural and livestock sectors as a source of foreign currency and inexpensive food and primary goods. They were also considered a source of labour for industry. This caused serious disinvestment in rural areas and widespread poverty, apart from flourishing pockets of modern agriculture, highly dependent on state subsidies. This development model came to close in the late 1970s and its main characteristic - the closed economy - practically disappeared.

58. The first major change, the move from a closed to an open economy is also the first great challenge facing rural society today: What is the best way of integrating the agricultural sector into a new model of development that is able to guarantee balanced sectoral growth?

59. The second change concerns the technological framework. Perceiving the rural sector as a uniform entity was a serious misconception. This was reflected in policies that failed to take into account the different strategies employed at household level and that only exacerbated disparities, without providing countervailing benefits in terms of production. Concentration on technical packages directed towards large-scale irrigation systems and commercial holdings created an expensive form of agriculture that was dependent on government subsidies and environmentally irresponsible. Under this model, research, technology development, technical assistance and agricultural extension to small farms were abandoned to their fate. The demise of this form of development and the new technological revolution - especially in the fields of information technology and biotechnology - generated renewed interest in analysis of different production systems. This change also represents a challenge: How to deploy new technology frameworks that are compatible with production disparity, that favour small-scale production and that ensure sustainable development? How to reinforce the technological base derived from the Green Revolution without affecting - on the contrary, stimulating - the level of productivity of areas with the greatest potential?

60. The third change refers to the social structure that has been radically transformed by the fact that Latin American countries are now more urban than rural. This is a change that needs to be recounted, as the expected industrial panacea was never achieved. Industry was unable to absorb surplus rural labour; the services sector expanded but without leading to a highly productive modern sector with high salaries. On the contrary, it created an informal sector of individuals oppressed by poverty; rural-urban migration became a survival strategy for rural communities and only resulted in the urbanization of rural poverty. This all changed the social structure of the rural sector. Today's concept of the farming community covers many realities: small agricultural owner, agricultural or livestock entrepreneur, settler, woman farmer and inhabitant of rural town. This change carries a third challenge: How to build an organizational structure that can reflect the social plurality of the rural sector, without generating an oligarchy of associations?

61. The fourth and last change refers to the public sector. It is not so much a question of how large or small the government should be, but rather a question of the limits between intervention and public and private activities, and of the interplay between State and civil society. Bureaucracies have been established in the rural sector between local communities and the State, and these bureaucracies have derived their authority from their role of mediation between the community and the government. Black markets have evolved to circumvent mediation and the system of patronage, but bureaucracy has developed into agencies and state enterprises that are not accountable. The new wind of change and the emphasis on people's participation that are now sweeping through many regions call for clear rules of involvement. This fourth change therefore poses another challenge for rural society: How to advance the process of rural democratization, creating innovative institutions that will link the community, the market, the associations and the State among themselves?

B. A Minimum Programme of Promotion of Agriculture and Rural Development

62. Bearing these challenges in mind, certain basic components of a minimum programme of promotion of rural development and family-scale farming can be extracted from past experiences in Latin America.

63. Reflection on the new role of the State, and in particular on public intervention in agricultural and rural development, has centred on four fundamental aspects: new policy instruments, legal framework, rural participation and institutional reform. A basic strategy to encourage a new definition of State action in the rural sector presumes - as has been demonstrated by numerous national experiences in the Region - the building of consensus over the objectives, terms and cost of key policies for rural promotion, especially those relating to support, and the conversion of such consensus into legal reforms that will ensure the fulfilment of commitments and will generate confidence in the continuity of policy.

64. Another important aspect is decentralization, that is, the redistribution of the authority of the State which - within a general democratic context - means the shared devolution of authority to local governments, civil society organizations and trade associations. Previous experience in the Region, however, tells us that it is important to avoid the simplistic idea that decentralization alone will resolve some of the most pressing problems of the rural world. As in any process of institutional building, what is required is a proper combination of national and local interventions, and a deliberate effort to consolidate local capacities.

65. A rural income policy whose continuity should be guaranteed by law and which should be periodically open to review could function as the central strand of this minimum programme. In some countries, direct cash transfers - not linked to specific products and aimed at strengthening rural incomes - have been the basis for a variety of interventions, taking into account the characteristics of individual producers and their production strategies, regional imbalances and adjustment to market liberalization. If the objective of a rural income policy is to be consolidated, interventions need to promote multiple skills in the rural sector and adjustments at farm level, particularly if linked to sustainable policies such as soil and water conservation.

66. Recent experience with this type of untied income support reveals a variety of objectives: (i) improving competitiveness vis-à-vis main commercial partners of the country and thus achieving better symmetry of direct support services to farmers at national level; (ii) compensating in a selective, direct or temporary manner those producers whose incomes and economic strategies have been adversely affected by structural reform, in other words, helping them to adapt to the new conditions; (iii) providing direct assistance and service to households in underprivileged areas, and thus serving as an element of capitalization and alternatives for the generation for income generation.

67. This direct support policy can be adopted as a point of departure for a whole set of policy instruments which, if properly designed, can help reinforce new linkages among policy makers, producers and other economic agents.

68. In addition to rural incomes policy, four policy instruments have been prioritized by governments and civil society in the design of this minimum programme for the Region:

  1. A system of rural financing that will mobilize savings, especially within the context of small-scale family farming. This system seeks to combine the different characteristics of farmers, while at the same time trying to set up bridges to insurance mechanisms. Emphasis should be placed on the mobilization of savings and on the creation of capital. The institutional components of this system can be second tier institutions charged with regulating strategies; regional banks acting as nodes in a broad network of local banks; small formal savings and credit groups and/or other such groups formed by regional associations, including cooperatives, that would occupy an intermediary position between the regional bank and the credit groups; and a network of local - public or private - entrepreneurs, who would take care of the marketing, technical assistance and insurance services. This is basically a programme for the development of the private sector, while the public sector should concentrate on the normative aspects.

  2. Without neglecting certain major strategic irrigation projects, infrastructure policy should be directed towards boosting the small productive infrastructure (irrigation and conservation of aquifers, conservation of soil) and the market infrastructure, including roads, warehouses, cold storage facilities and transport systems.

  3. The different initiatives that have been taken in the Region need to be taken further, and the scientific and technological institutions re-engineered as an integrated circuit of agricultural technology to improve the transfer of technology and the training of human resources. This means integrating universities and technology institutes into a programme for the distribution and massive transfer of skills and know-how, supported by new interlinkages with the farmers. In addition, reform of the information dissemination and research institutions should include the launching of a technical training strategy, based on the premise that human capital is fundamental to intrinsic competitiveness, by boosting education activities and quality. New strategies should be identified that will combine the processes of productive reorganization and economic restructuring.

  4. A policy of sustainable development to stimulate and strengthen the various forms of ownership of natural resources, including social responsibility for their use. In contrast to the dispersed efforts of straightfoward conservation strategy, this calls for productive ecological policy to help farmers develop appropriate mechanisms to manage the natural resources available to them.

69. These four policy instruments constitute a minimum programme of support to agriculture and rural development. They would probably be all the more effective if treated as an integrated package of policy instruments.


1 One conclusion of the Plan of Action is that "Poverty eradication is essential to improve access to food. The vast majority of those who are undernourished, either cannot produce or cannot afford to buy enough food. Although food assistance may be provided to ease their plight, it is not a long term solution to the underlying causes of food security". The Plan of Action then goes on to state that "A peaceful and stable environment in every country is a fundamental condition for the attainment of sustainable food security". It then adds "Availability of enough food for all can be attained. Yet, further large increases in world food production, through the sustainable management of natural resources, are required to feed a growing population, and achieve improved diets". The goal set by the Plan of Action envisages an ongoing effort to eliminate hunger from all countries, with the immediate objective of reducing by half the number of undernourished persons by the year 2015.


i Control of new world screwworm (TCP/RLA/8927)

ii Fortalecimiento para Prevenir, Controlar y Erradicar la Peste Porcina Clásica (PPC) en Cuba (TCP/CUB/8926)

iii Erradicación de la Mosca del Mediterráneo en Chile (TCP/CHI/0066)

iv Exclusión del Picudo Mexicano y Capacitación sobre Manejo Integrado de Plagas del Algodón (TCP/BOL/8922)

v Apoyo al Control de Langostas (TCP/PER/0065)

vi Programa Fitosanitario para la Detección de la Mosca de la Carambola (TCP/VEN/8925)

vii Plan de acción para la modernización de los servicios de sanidad agropecuaria y control de alimentos de los países andinos (TCP/RLA/8929)

viii Desarrollo rural del sur de Lempira, Fase II (GCP/HON/021/NET),

Establecimiento y funcionamiento del Programa de Acceso a la Tierra PACTA (UTF/HON/025/HON)

Cooperación para el desarrollo sustentable de áreas de reforma agraria y de agricultura familiar (UTF/BRA/051/BRA)

ix Creación de un Programa de la Mujer Rural (TCP/NIC/8923)

x Reforzamiento del Programa Mujeres en el Desarrollo Rural (TCP/MEX/8924)

xi Integration of Gender Perspective in the Agrarian Reform Sector (TCP/BRA/8922)

xii Agricultura sostenible en zona de ladera (GCP/ELS/004/NET)

xiii Desarrollo de la participación comunitaria en el sector forestal- PACOFOR (GCP/COL/022/NET)

xiv Los Acuerdos de la Ronda Uruguay y las negociaciones comerciales multilaterales sobre la agricultura (TCP/RLA/8934)

xv Training on Uruguay Round and Future Negotiations in Agriculture for the Caribbean Region (GCP/INT/736/EC)

xvi TCP/RLA/0174 Regional Special Programme for Food Security - Formulation Assistance on Trade Facilitation.

xvii Rehabilitacion de la Infrastructura Rural Extrapredial en las Areas Afectadas por las Inundaciones Causada por el Nino (TCP/ARG/8822)

xviii Capacitación Participativa para Pequeños Productores de Algodón en los Estados de Pernambuco, Paraiba, Río Grande do Norte y Ceará (TCP/BRA/8924)

xix Rehabilitacion de la Produccion Agricola y Actividad Pesquera Afectadas por el Terremoto y el Maremoto en los Departamentos de Arequpa Moquegua y Tacna (TCP/PER/0170)

xx Asistencia de Emergencia a Pequeños Productores Afectados por la Sequía en los Departamentos de León y Chinandega (TCP/NIC/0167)

Rehabilitación de Cuatro Microcuencas Afectadas por el Huracán Mitch en los Municipios de Posoltega, Quezalquaque y Telica (UTF/NIC/028/NIC)

xxi Emergency Supply of Agricultural Inputs to the Population Affected by Hurricane "Floyd" (TCP/BHA/0065)
xxii Emergency Assistance for Small Farmars Affected by Hurricane Keith (Advance Allocation) TCP/BZE/0166
xxiii Emergency Assistance to Farmers and Fishermen Affected by Hurricane "Lenny" (TCP/DMI/0065)

xxiv Emergency Assistance for the Formulation of National Hurricane Disaster Preparedness and Impact Mitigation Plans for the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Sectors (TCP/RLA/8932)

xxv Información y análisis para el manejo forestal sostenible: integrando esfuerzos nacionales e internacionales en 13 países tropicales de América Latina (GCP/RLA/133/EC)

xxvi Sistema de Información para el Seguimiento de la Seguridad Alimentaria (SISSA) en el Marco de la Iniciativa del SICIAV (TCP/NIC/0165)

xxvii Programa Especial de Seguridad Alimentaria en Ecuador - Fase piloto (SPFP/ECU/6701)

Apoyo al Programa Especial de Seguridad Alimentaria en Ecuador (TCP/ECU/8922)

xxviii Programme spécial pour la production vivrière en appui à la sécurité alimentaire (SPEP/HAI/4501)

Assistance au Programme spécial de production vivriere en appui a la securité alimentaire (GCPS/HAI/014/FRA)

xxix Asistencia para la puesta en marcha del Programa Especial de Seguridad Alimentaria en Guatemala (GCP/GUA/009/SPA)

xxx Asistencia para la puesta en marcha del Programa Especial de Seguridad Alimentaria en Honduras - Primera fase (GCSP/HON/022/SPA)

xxxi Modelo de atención al sector de los pequeños de escasos recursos en apoyo al desarrollo de Nicaragua como fase piloto en el marco del Programa Especial de Seguridad Alimentaria - PESA (GCP/NIC/027/SPA)

xxxii Programa de riego y drenaje para la provincia de Mendoza (ARG/00/008)

xxxiii Readecuación curricular del sistema de enseñanza de los institutos del sur de Lempira (GCP/HON/020/NET)

xxxiv Inter-regional project for participatory upland conservation and development (GCP/INT/542/ITA )

xxxv Tratamiento de aguas residuales de agro-industrias (TCP/MEX/8922)

xxxvi Enhancement of agricultural water supply and catchment protection (TCP/ANT 0067)

xxxvii Manejo del Agua y del Suelo en Apoyo a la Seguridad Alimentaria en Tarija (TCP/BOL/0065)

xxxviii Natural Resources Conservation in the Cienaga Zapata Watershed (GCP/CUB/011/NET)

xxxix Información sobre tierras agrícolas y aguas para un desarrollo agrícola sostenible (GCP/RLA/126/JPN)

xl Manejo Integrado de Plagas Agrícolas en los Principales Cultivos Alimenticios en el Perú (GCP/PER/036/NET)

xli Transferencia de Tecnología en Manejo de Plagas de Hortalizas con Enfasis en la Mosca Blanca (TCP/PAN/8922)

xlii Mejoramiento de la Disponibilidad de Alimentos en los Cnetros de Desarrollo Infantil del INNFA (TCP/ECU/0066)

xliii Desarrollo rural del sur de Lempira, Fase II (GCP/HON/021/NET)

Agricultura sostenible en zona de ladera - Fase II (GCP/ELS/005/NET)

Apoyo al manejo, conservación y explotación de los recursos forestales en el trópico de Cochabamba, Fase II (UNO/BOL/723/DCP)

Apoyo al Desarrollo Forestal Comunal en los Andes del Ecuador (GCP/ECU/070/NET)

Componente Centroamericano del Programa Bosques, Arboles y Comunidades Rurales (GCP/RLA/134/NET)

Inter-regional project for participatory upland conservation and development - Phase III (Bolivia) (GCP/INT/542/ITA)

Pedagogía masiva Multimedial para la Capacitación de Campesinos (TCP/MEX/0065)

Control of New World Screwworm (TCP/RLA/8927)

xliv Sistema de Información para el Seguimiento de la Seguridad Alimentaria en el Marco de la Iniciativa del SICIAV (TCP/NIC/0165)

xlv Integration of Gender Perspective in the Agrarian Reform Sector (TCP/BRA/8922)

xlvi La dendroenergía, una alternativa para el desarrollo energético sostenible en Cuba (TCP/CUB/8925)

xlvii Diseño de una Estrategia para el Combate de los incendios forestales (TCP/CUB/0066)

xlviii Apoyo a la conservación integral de los recursos naturales de la Ciénaga de Zapata (GCP/CUB/011/NET)