Modernizing National Agricultural Extension Systems

A Practical Guide for Policy-Makers of Developing Countries

M. Kalim Qamar
Senior Officer (Agricultural Training & Extension)

Research, Extension and Training Division
Sustainable Development Department
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Table of Contents

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Executive summary


Extension – An essential pillar for agricultural research and development
Formal introduction of extension in developing countries
Extension function vs. extension organization
Increasing diversity of extension function players
Challenges to traditional extension practices

II. Global developments necessitating reforms in extension

Globalization and market liberalization
Decentralization and devolution
Client participation in decision-making
Natural and man-made disasters
Information technology revolution
Rural poverty, food insecurity and HIV/AIDS epidemic
Integrated, multi-disciplinary, holistic and sustainable development

III. Framework for determining the need for extension reform (FDNER)

Framework (FDNER)
Policy and organizational structure
Field operations

IV. Guidelines for modernizing national extension systems


V. Normative framework for extension review and reform (NFERR)

Rationale and purpose of NFERR
Basics of extension
Extension Reform Principles and Interventions and their Application
How to use NFERR
Normative Terms of Reference (TOR) for conducting studies
Suggested duration


Some recent literature on extension