Assessment of freshwater fish seed resources for sustainable aquaculture

FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 501

Assessment of freshwater
fish seed resources for
sustainable aquaculture

edited by
Melba G. Bondad-Reantaso
Fishery Resources Officer (Aquaculture)
Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service
Fisheries and Aquaculture Management Division
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department

Rome, 2007

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ISBN 978-92-5-105895-4

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© FAO 2007

Bondad-Reantaso, M.G. (ed.)
Assessment of freshwater fish seed resources for sustainable aquaculture.
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 501. Rome, FAO. 2007. 628p.


Four of the most important resources to aquaculture, outside human and technological resources, are land, water, seed and feed. Efficient use of these resources are necessary to guarantee optimum production from aquaculture. A number of regional and international events highlighted some of the most pressing issues concerning seed in global aquaculture development. These include inadequate and unreliable supply of quality seed, genetic quality, inadequate hatchery technology and facilities for rearing fry/fingerlings, distribution mechanisms, impacts of releases of cultured seed stocks, the need for more hatcheries with business orientation and others. In order to secure stable seed supply for major freshwater aquaculture species, factors affecting seed availability, seed quality, seed production technologies and support services, seed distribution networks, breeding technologies, genetic improvement and domestication need to be understood well if resources are best to be targeted and policy decisions on future investment and management options improved.

Recognizing these issues, a project Study and Analysis of Seed Production in Small-scale Rural Aquaculture was undertaken by the Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service of FAO抯 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture. The project was implemented through a desk study and an expert workshop to assess the status of freshwater fish seed resources and supply and its contribution to sustainable aquatic production. The desk study, undertaken between July 2005 and April 2006, consisted of: (i) country-level assessment, (ii) regional syntheses and (iii) thematic reviews. The FAO Expert Workshop on Freshwater Seed as Global Resource for Aquaculture, held in Wuxi, China, from 23 to 26 March 2006 and hosted by the Wuxi Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fisheries Sciences, was aimed at analysing the current status of the freshwater seed sector used in aquaculture with special emphasis on rural aquaculture and evaluating the current constraints and challenges as basis for identifying measures and generating action that will contribute to the sustainable development of this sector.

This publication is presented in two parts. Part 1 contains the proceedings and major recommendations of the expert workshop which tackled three major themes: (1) seed quality, genetics, technology and certification; (2) seed networking, distribution, entrepreneurship and certification; and (3) how rural fish farmers can benefit from the freshwater aquaseed sector. Part 2 contains the detailed outcomes of the desk study consisting of three regional syntheses (Africa, Asia and Latin America) based on 21 country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uganda, Viet Nam and Zimbabwe), five thematic reviews (seed quality, genetics and breeding in seed supply for inland aquaculture, seed networks and entrepreneurship, role of seed supply in rural aquaculture, farmer innovations and women involvement in seed production) and three invited papers (selfrecruiting species, decentralized seed networking in Bangladesh and establishment of national broodstock centres in Viet Nam).


Preparation of this document  (395 kb)
Executive summary
Acronyms and abbreviations
Fish and other species
Annexes, boxes, figures, plates and tables


Summary of what is known about the effect of dragged
fishing gears on the seabed

(343 kb)
1.  Background

2.  Technical workshop
2.1  Objectives
2.2  Structure and process
2.3  Working Group guidelines
3.  Working Group findings and recommendations
3.1  Working Group 1: Key issues concerning seed duality, genetics,
       technology and certification
3.2  Working Group 2: Key issues concerning seed networking,
       distribution, entrepreneurship and certification
3.3  Working Group 3: Key issues pertaining to development of the
       freshwater fish seed production sector that will benefit rural
4.  Annexes
4.1  Expert workshop program
4.2  List of participants
4.3  Welcome remarks of Prof. Xu Pao, Director of the Freshwater
       Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery
4.4  Welcome remarks of Madam Wei Shaofeng, Bureau Director,
       Jiangsu Provincial Marine and Fishery Bureau
5.  Country case study template


6.  Regional syntheses
6.1  Fish seed supply in Africa: a regional synthesis  (304 kb)
       Randall Brummett
6.2  Fish seed supply and resources in Asia: a regional synthesis  (394 kb)
       Sunil Siriwardena
6.3  Aquaculture seed resources in Latin America: a regional synthesis  (378 kb)
       Alex Flores Nava
7.  Country case studies
7.1  Freshwater fish seed resources in Bangladesh  (392 kb)
       Md. Rafiqul Islam Sarder
7.2   Freshwater fish seed resources in Brazil  (344 kb)
        Felipe Matarazzo Suplicy
7.3   Freshwater fish seed resources in Cambodia  (651 kb)
        So Nam and Haing Leap
7.4   Freshwater fish seed resources in Cameroon  (434 kb)
        Randall Brumett
7.5   Freshwater fish seed resources in China  (766 kb)
        Hu Honglang
7.6   Freshwater fish seed resources in Colombia  (233 kb)
        Abraham Alberto Villaneda, Jr.
7.7   Freshwater fish seed resources in Cuba  (310 kb)
        Magaly Coto and Wilfredo Acuna
7.8   Freshwater fish seed resources in Ecuador  (199 kb)
        Maria Lorena Gilbert Schwarz
7.9   Freshwater fish seed resources in Egypt  (259 kb)
        Magdy Saleh
7.10 Freshwater fish seed resources in Ghana  (148 kb)
        Patricia Safo
7.11 Freshwater fish seed resources in India  (1,240 kb)
        Nagappa Basavaraja
7.12 Freshwater fish seed resources in Indonesia  (175 kb)
        Agus Budhiman
7.13 Freshwater fish seed resources in Mexico  (375 kb)
        Ana Bertha Montero Rocha
7.14 Freshwater fish seed resources in Nigeria  (608 kb)
        Akintunde Nujreni Atanda
7.15 Freshwater fish seed resources in Pakistan  (330 kb)
        Muhammad Ayub
7.16 Freshwater fish seed resources in the Philippines  (216 kb)
        Melchor Tayamen
7.17 Freshwater fish seed resources in Sri Lanka  (390 kb)
        Elmo Weerakoon
7.18 Freshwater fish seed resources in Thailand  (304 kb)
        Kamchai Lawonyawut
7.19 Freshwater fish seed resources in Uganda  (250 kb)
        Wilson Waiswa Mwanja
7.20 Freshwater fish seed resources in Viet Nam (458 kb)
        Pham Anh Tuan
7.21 Freshwater fish seed resources in Zimbabwe (166 kb)
        Patrick Blow and Shivaun Leonard

8.  Thematic reviews and contributed papers

8.1  Seed quality freshwater aquaculture production  (177kb)
       C.V. Mohan
8.2  Genetics and breeding in seed supply for inland aquaculture  (339 kb)
       Graham C. Mair
8.3  Seed networks and entrepreneurship  (311 kb)
       David C. Little, Arlene Nietes-Satapornvanit and Benoy Kumar Barman
8.4  Role of freshwater fish seed supply in rural aquaculture  (226 kb)
       Sunil Siriwardena
8.5  Farmer innovations and women involvement in seed production  (485 kb)
       M.C. Nandeesha
8.6  Self-recruiting species (SRS) from farmer-managed aquatic system  (377 kb)
       (FMAS) the contribution of non-stocked species to household
       Ernesto Jack Morales and David C. Little
8.7  Decentralized seed poorer farmers producing large size  (224 kb)
       fingerlings in irrigated rice fields in Bangladesh
       Benoy Berman, David C. Little and Mahfujul Haque
8.8  Establishment of national broodstock centres in Viet Nam  (594 kb)
       Nguyen Cong Dan and Don Griffiths

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