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An extension program in aquaculture is a written plan with goals and objectives for the development of the fishery resource. It is an embodiment of the teaching activities which will effect a planned change. The goals are long-range in nature, about 5–25 years and the specific objectives are short-range, usually attainable in a year's time. The aquaculture extension program is an integral part of the overall Fisheries Extension Program which is committed to the upliftment of the socio-economic status of the people dependent on fishfarming and fishing as a livelihood. The extension program is for these people and for qualified extension workers to assist and guide them in the development of the fishery resource. The extension program is carried out through the work plan which shows how the extension worker proposes to attain the program objectives. The work plan states when, where, and how extension activities will be carried out.

5.1 Program Planning

Writing and implementing an extension program requires planning. Extension program planning involves a process of selecting the best course of action to accomplish an objective. It deals with an individual extension worker's decision. The precise patterns vary considerably as situations differ from one another, however, the following steps in planning should be taken into consideration:

5.1.1 Data gathering

The first step is to collect the facts. These can be divided into three groups:

Natural resources - These are the soil, rivers, streams, bays, forest, vegetation and the climate. Data are gathered by means of ocular survey, interview of respondents.

Human resources - Data are about population, e.g., census on the number of fishing households. It also includes social and cultural factors like social structure, composition of the community, prejudices and taboos, attitude and preferences, etc.

Farming business - This concerns data on the size of farms in the area, production, management practices, availability of inputs, market, etc.

5.1.2 Situation analysis

Next to collection of facts, is the analysis of the situation. With the available important and useful facts, the prevailing situation is related to the desired situation. On the other hand, the relative importance of each need is also analyzed. One problem might deserve more consideration than the others.

5.1.3 Problem identification

Problems are identified after data are gathered and the prevailing situation is analyzed. Problems are then prioritized according to relevance and meaning. They are also stated from the standpoint of the community, the home, and the farm. And it should be emphasized that problems without adequate or practical solution should never be included in the plan but, instead, be referred to research.

5.1.4 Objective setting

Each general objective will be analyzed. This is breaking down the general objective into a series of simple steps which can be understood and applied by all concerned.

5.2 Program Implementation

5.2.1 Action plan development

“Plan your work and work your plan” is the guiding principle of an extension program. After setting the objective, it is necessary to plan in detail on how to work toward attaining it. Problems are identified and prioritized and a course of action is determined. An action plan is thus developed to serve as a guide in implementing activities which are geared towards solving the identified problems.

It should be emphasized that in an action plan problems must be realistic, measurable, and specific while the activities to be conducted will be measurable, specific and realistic.

Various methods are used in carrying out a plan. Choosing the methods to use is a function of the extension worker.

Extension methods - With a plan of work, the extension worker buckles down to work. It is the task of the extension worker to:

  1. Provide people with an opportunity to learn

  2. Stimulate mental and physical activities that produce the desired learning16

Effective extension methods are classified into three categories on the basis of the number of people they have targetted to reach. In situations where the extension worker deals with one person, it is an individual method. In a group of farmers, it is group method. And where a large number of people is reached, it is mass method. Methods that are most effective in our situation will be discussed in detail while the less effective methods will be briefly discussed.

Individual method - The personal influence of the extension worker is a vital force in securing cooperation and participation in extension activities and adoption of improved practices. People will listen to advice and suggestion of an extension worker whom they feel they know. Integrity on the part of the extension worker is indispensable.17 Further information or help should be done as soon as possible so as not to disappoint the fishfarmer and lessen his confidence to the extension worker. Learning is an individual process. Although extension workers must use group and mass method to reach large number of people and to stimulate joint action in planning and carrying out projects of common interest, personal contacts serve many essential purposes. The individual method is as follows:

16 Maunder, A.H., op. cit., p. 151

17 Ibid.

1) Field/farm and home visits are essential elements of extension education. They provide means of personal communication between the clientele and the extension worker in an environment where they can discuss matters of common interest without the distractions and interruptions commonly experienced in group activities.18 In other words, farm and home visits are means to provide or to secure first-hand information about farm situation.

Advantages and limitations: The extension worker develops goodwill and gains confidence of the fishfarmers by giving a solution to an actual farm problem. Individual teaching of this nature is most effective.19 The limitations are that it takes a lot of time and the small number of people who can be reached. It is costly and also there is a tendency to visit some fishfarmers repeatedly.

18 Ibid.
19 Bradfield, D.J., op. cit., p. 38

Pointers for farm/home visits

  1. Determine the place of the visit

  2. Define purpose of the visit - is it intended to:

  3. Plan the visit

  4. Make the visit

  5. Record the visit

  6. Follow-up visit

2) Calls and inquiries are expressionf of interest on the part of the visitor in something he thinks the extension worker has to offer. The clientele will make a call or inquiry for additional information or to clarify on something heard in the radio or meeting, observed in demonstration, or read in the newspaper.

Farmers and leaders should know where the extension worker's office or house is located. If possible, a small signboard should be prepared with the extension worker's name on it.20 Publications such as bulletins, circulars and handouts should be readily available. An office should be kept neat and orderly and callers at a house or office should have the opportunity to discuss their affairs without interruption or being overheard by other people.21

As the extension worker will spend a lot of time away from his house or office, it may be worthwhile setting aside a definite period each week for receiving calls and inquiries.22

3) Telephone calls are useful in soliciting and giving specific information such as stocking rate, dosage of certain pesticide, or to request a copy of fisheries administrative order. They provide a means of follow-up and evaluation of the effectiveness of radio/television broadcasts or results of demonstrations. Telephones are not always available in all our remote fishing villages.

4) Personal letters are useful in answering requests for information, as follow-up after visits and office calls and in contacting local volunteer leaders.23 Care should be considered in the preparation of letters by making it simple, understandable and complete without being wordy and by including unnecessary information.

5) Informal contacts provide opportunities for effective extension work.24 Often, by just seeing an extension worker will remind a rural folk of a problem which he would like to discuss, and consequently ask for advice. Events in the community like fiestas, market days and parties bring people together and they talk about current problems. By attending such events, the extension worker will become better acquainted with the people, learn their wants, needs, and problems and be able to impart information on informal basis.25

Group method

The group method includes meetings, demonstrations, tours and field trips, group discussions, extension schools, training centers, associations and group projects.

20 Ibid, p. 41
21 Ibid.
22 Ibid.
23 Maunder, A.H., op.cit., pp. 153–154
24 Ibid.
25 Ibid.

Group activities are organized for a variety of purposes. It may be to give and receive information about a program; to encourage, advise and train leaders; to create awareness and interest in a new practice, or to focus attention on group problems and possible solutions.26

Group methods are especially effective in moving people from the interest stage to the trial stage of learning. When the reaction of the group is favorable, the majority of the members may proceed to the adoption stage.27

Group extension methods, effectively arranged and conducted, take full advantage of the external and internal forces of group dynamics.28 In these methods people are stimulated and directed. And these forces can lead to changes in practice by a large number of people.

Advantages and limitations: Group decisions usually carry more weight in a community than the decision of an individual.29 A group of people have similar interests and experiences and they are able to exchange information and knowledge based on common experiences, thus strengthening the learning process.

It may take a long time to convince a group of people to come to a decision. Group teaching of farm practices cannot be related to the actual problem situation affecting each individual member of the group.30 However, the advantages of group activities outweigh their limitations and they play a most important role in all extension programs.

1) Meetings are held to introduce and discuss new ideas or practices, to obtain the opinions of a community and, if possible, gain their support on local problems and extension programs. Meetings should be carefully planned in order to be effective. The purpose of the meeting should be decided upon and then discussed with the local leaders. Meetings should not be conducted unless they are of necessary importance. Unnecessary meetings are just a waste of everybody's time. If a farmer or local leader feels that he will not benefit from it, he may not attend subsequent meetings which may be essential to the success of the program. Before embarking on a meeting, the purpose and the result hoped to be achieved must be set down. A question can be asked, is the meeting purposely to change an attitude, increase people's knowledge or teach them some fish culture practices? Having decided on the purpose of the meeting, the extension worker should review all available information on the subject matter. This includes records of experiments on demonstration conducted locally. This is important in order to make certain that the facts are correct, up-to-date and applicable in the area.

26 Bradfield, D.J., op. cit., p. 42
27 Maunder, A.H., op. cit., p. 155
28 Ibid.
29 Bradfield, D.J., op. cit. p. 41
30 Ibid, p. 42

Steps in planning a meeting

  1. Decide kind of meeting - is it a lecture, discussion, small or large meeting, a formal or informal meeting?

  2. Decide date and time - the convenience of people attending the meeting should be considered uppermost. The schedule should not run conflict with popular events in the locality.

  3. Decide place - the meeting place should be accessible and comfortable to the participants and appropriate to the type of meeting to be held.

  4. Arrangements - sitting, resource speaker, public address, sanitation, visual aids, handouts, food and drink and publicity should be worked out in detail. A chairman other than the extension worker is necessary for large and formal meetings and local leaders should be consulted in the selection of such.

Steps in holding a meeting

  1. Start on time

  2. Welcome audience

  3. Introduce guests

  4. State purpose and agenda of meeting

  5. Start program

  6. Encourage questions and discussions

  7. Summarize important points

  8. Note important decisions

  9. Distribute literatures and handouts at the end of the meeting

  10. Close the meeting (thank host, speakers, guests and audience)

Things to be done after meeting

  1. Clean up meeting place

  2. Send letters of thanks to host and speakers

  3. Record decision and take prompt action

  4. Publicize meeting, decision taken and principal views expressed.

2) Demonstrations are showing how to do a new job or showing how to do an old job better. The strength of a demonstration lies in its appeal to logic and reason; it is there before the eyes and so it creates awareness and interest. The two types of demonstrations are:

Result demonstration- The main purpose is to show to the farmers that new techniques in fish culture are practicable and viable in local conditions. This is the common adage “to see is to believe” - to convince them is to show them with results.

Result demonstration is one one in which farmers gain confidence in the extension worker. As a matter of fact, extension workers newly assigned in a certain area should arrange and conduct a result demonstration to gain the confidence of the farmer. Moreover, it also established confidence in scientific and modern techniques as opposed to traditional methods. As a matter of fact, a characteristic of result demonstration is a comparison between new and introduced methods and existing methods.

Limitations: A result demonstration is a costly extension method as it takes time to plan and carry out. It needs considerable time to show results. As confidence in the extension worker grows there will be less need for result demonstration.

The UNDP-BFAR brackishwater aquaculture centers being established in the four (4) climatic zones of the country and other farms of BFAR will serve best this type of extension teaching method. Among other things, this is where the recommended methods will be demonstrated as against the usual practices.

A result demonstration is a costly extension method as it takes time to plan, to implement and to show results. However, as confidence grows in the extension worker and his advice, there will be less need for a full-scale demonstration. Farmers could be grouped together to see results and hear explanations from operators already using the recommended practices.

Planning and carrying out the demonstration

  1. Decide purpose of demonstration and exactly what is to be accomplished. Simple and clear cut comparison are easier to understand than complex practices.

  2. Gather information on data and latest results of studies. This includes possible barriers existing to the adoption of new practices and ways of overcoming them.

  3. Develop a complete plan of work bearing in mind the Who, What, Where, When and How? Consult local leaders to assist in the preparation of the demonstration.

  4. Announce demonstration through local leaders, word of mouth and radio broadcast.

  5. Start demonstration emphasizing purpose and value to the audience. Answer questions from the farmers and supplement it with handouts and publications.

  6. Supervise the demonstration at all stages and check on progress. See to it that activities as planned are carried out. Keep records for later use.

  7. Complete the demonstration by calling a meeting of barangay leaders and farmers to see for themselves the result of the demonstration. Summarize steps taken and the information gathered.

  8. Report to supervisors the results and impact on farmers and publicize results through the press, radio and meetings. Use photographs or other visual aids as evidences to other interested parties.

Method demonstration is showing how to do a job step by step like digging mud blocks for diking, applying fertilizers, transferring stocks from one compartment to another, etc. It differs from result demonstration in that it teaches people HOW to do something rather than WHY to do it.

In a method demonstration, the extension worker deals with farmers who already accepted an introduced practice by means of result demonstration. He now shows how to carry it out. For example, the steps in the application of inorganic fertilizer to produce lab-lab. On the other hand, it paves the way for a result demonstration. This is true in cases where modern technology has still to see its dawn. Fishfarmers will be convinced only when they see the abundance of lab-lab in the pond.

Method demonstration is very advantageous especially in teaching simple fish culture techniques like proper use of the digging blade, sorting bangus fry from other species considered as predators, etc. Seeing, hearing, discussing, and participating in the demonstration results in more complete learning than when listening to a lecture in a meeting. However, method demonstration has certain limitations. Other participants might not be able to see and participate in the demonstration when there is a big crowd. It also requires showmanship on the part of extension worker to fully impart information and knowledge to the farmers.

Planning the demonstration

  1. Decide what to be accomplished. Test objective against such factors as whether or not the practice is really important; whether or not the people can afford to follow it; whether or not supplies and equipment are available in sufficient quantities to permit its widespread use.

  2. Gather all information about the practice. Become thoroughly familiar with the subject matter and if possible with the results of research.

  3. Discuss with barangay leaders. Ask help in planning the demonstration; secure approval of the project and select site essential to the project.

  4. Gather all materials needed. This includes everything the clientele will need in order to apply the practice in his fishfarming activities.

  5. Plan presentation step by step. Include introductory and summary portions.

  6. Rehearse the presentation until thoroughly familiar with the steps and exactly know what to say or do for every step of the action.

Carrying out the demonstration

  1. Explain the purpose and importance of the demonstration.

  2. Discuss and show the operation step by step. Emphasize key points and repeat difficult steps. Pause to answer questions from the audience.

  3. Encourage audience to participate in each of the steps.

  4. Summarize the main steps of the demonstration for emphasis.

  5. Distribute handouts and literatures as supplementary readings.

3) Tour and field trips - method of extension which appeal to man's desire to go places and see things. “Things” to be seen may range from results on small demonstration on test plots to extensive application of new methods on actual farms.

4) Group discussion - process where two or more persons pool their knowledge and feelings and through mutual agreement clarify the issues under consideration. The extension worker should see to it that everyone has a change to be heard and keep the topics moving.

5) Extension school - patterned to give the participants knowledge and skill in some specific subject matter such as pond management, fish diseases, fish handling, etc. It involves practical training over a specific period of time.

6) Training center - designed to train clientele and new extension workers the theories and practices of improved and modern aquaculture techniques. This is exemplified by the UNDP-BFAR brackishwater aquaculture training centers in the four (4) climatic zones and training centers of SEAFDEC, BAC, FAC, etc.

Mass method - The mass media, radio, newspaper, circulars, letters, exhibits and displays, audio-visual aids, or a mobile unit, in which there are no personal contact, are used to reach an individual as well as a large number of people. It also provides a helpful repetition of the message conveyed by the extension worker through other methods. It can be used to help create awareness and interest in new aquaculture practices. It can also help shape a favorable attitude in a general public towards the extension program.

Mass methods reinforce the effectiveness of other extension teaching methods. Farmers attending a meeting or demonstration may forget an important aspect although repeated announcement in a mass media will help the farmer remember it.

  1. Radio reaches more people more quickly. It is easily understood and useful in areas where people are not fully literate. Urgent information can reach several areas without delay. Often, media can be used to enable fishfarmers to hear lectures by experts who are unable to visit them. No charge is made for the time alloted to program materials if it is of public interest.

  2. Newspapers are published to inform people on new subject, to increase people's knowledge of a subject, and to publicize meetings and demonstrations. Newspapers can reach many people who might otherwise not seek information from extension workers. The effectiveness is very limited if we are trying to reach ordinary village people, many of whom do not take newspapers and may not be able to read them with understanding. Another limitation is that the editor may shorten the story or not print it at all so it ceases to carry the message.

  3. A circular letter serves to publicize an extension activity and to give timely information on farm problems. It can cover a wide area of subjects and a very effective way of reinforcing personal contact and it is cheap to produce. The difficulty is that duplicating equipment and supplies of paper are not always readily available. A further limitation is that only persons who can read can make direct use of a circular letter.

  4. Exhibits and displays designed to catch attention of passersby, impress in them an idea and stimulate them to support an idea, get more information or take some kind of action. An exhibit if it is displayed at a big occasion such as a fiesta is seen by many local people and fairly high proportion of those attending such an occasion are people influential in the community. It is therefore, one of the ways in which to gain support for extension program.

  5. Audio-visual aids include pictures, posters, handouts, flip books, chalk boards, flannel graphs, slides, tape recorders, movie films, etc. All these help farmers understand the message more clearly because they do not only hear words but also see pictures. In this method, people learn through all their senses; that is to say, what they see, what they hear, what they smell, what they taste or what they feel. When more than one sense is used, learning is increased. All these means help fish producers to understand the message more clearly.

  6. Mobile units could reach even remote rural areas and the entertainment value of the facilities attracts a large audience who otherwise might not learn the extension message. It can reach large numbers of people in different parts of the community fairly rapidly, particularly those people who do not read newspapers or listen to radio programs. However, it is costly and materials for use in mobile units take time to prepare. It is also hard to maintain the vehicles and equipment in a serviceable condition particularly when the units are operating in remote areas.

5.2.2 Execution of action plan

Extension records and reports.

Values and uses of reports

  1. Self-appraisal and intelligent planning - The overall objective of extension program is to help people to develop and to increase their ability and desire to help themselves. If this objective is to be reached, an extension program must be based on these people where they are and on their current facilities and resources. These conditions, however, will constantly shift. As time passes, people change. The people's desire to improve themselves and their surrounding will increase. Their ability to carry on self-help program will improve as these changes come about; the agent or field worker will need to revise his program to fit the new situation; therefore, the extension worker will need to revise his procedure and method in order to make them more effective.

    The very art of preparing report requires the worker to revise his past activities and resulting accomplishment in terms of changes in people and their surroundings. A study of past reports helps all the worker to evaluate the effectiveness of his work. A review of the reports may uncover weak and strong points in past operation. With this knowledge the worker can more intelligently plan for a future program.

  2. Supervision appraisal of workers - Advancement within the ranks is one of the incentives of motivating workers to do their best. Among the several sources of information available to the supervisors in his appraisal of a worker's effectiveness are the reports, previously prepared by the worker.

  3. Background for new workers and supervisors - From time to time workers and supervisors may be transferred to areas where extension work has been carried on by another person. In such cases the new person must become familiar with the local situation and as background material for making a rapid and accurate assessment of the situation, a complete set of reports left by the former worker or a supervisor will prove extremely valuable.

  4. Justifying public expenditures and support - High government officials and those responsible for appropriations must determine the uses for which public funds will be spent. Without adequate reports from the field, administration would be unable to perform this obligation.

  5. Securing public support and interest - For ultimate success extension needs public support and interest not only of the local people in the areas where the work is being done but of the general public. Whenever extension is making a creditable achievement, stories of its activities and resultant accomplishment go a long way in securing such public interest and support. Extension officials who must present these stories look to reports as the best sources for these stories. The extension worker has an obligation to include in his reports facts and information of interest to the public.

  6. Recording trends - When extension work has been carried out for some time in a given area, the resulting changes in both people and situation will usually follow certain definite trends. These trends should be revealed when reports covering a more or less extended period of time are analyzed.

5.3 Program Evaluation

Evaluation can be defined as the process of determining the value or amount of success in achieving a predetermined objective.31 It is also defined as the measurement of desirable and undesirable consequences of an action that has been taken in order to forward some objectives that are valued. Value may be defined as any aspect of situation, event, or object that is involved with a preferential interest of being “good”, “bad”, “desirable”, or the like. Values are the principles by which priorities are established.

Evaluation can be visualized as a circular process, stemming from and returning to the information values.32 Evaluation always starts with some value, for example, it is good to follow management principles, in fishfarming, then, an objective is formulated from this value. The selection of an objective is usually preceded by or concurrent with “value information”. An example of “objective setting” would be the statement that more fishpond operators should have a greater net return on their fishpond operations. As a measure of this objective, we might find out how many fishpond operators have margins of profit or net returns, on their fishfarming operations. Next, an objective directed activity and program is planned. Following this we want to find out the effect of the objective-activity or in-depth training. Is it contributing to changes in fishpond operators that will lead to increased net returns? Finally we return to value information and resulting objectives.

31 Maunder, A.H., op. cit., p. 264
32 Ibid, p. 265

The Evaluation Process
1)   Value Formation
6)Assessing the effect of this objective operation
(Program Evaluation
2)Objective Setting
5)Putting objective activity in operation
(Program Operation)
3)Objective Measuring
4)   Identifying objective activity
(Program Planning)

Extension work is dynamic in nature.33 Changes in all phases of extension affecting conditions and ways of life of the people in their local communities are occurring every day, new methods of approaching the important problems arising from these changes need to be found, studied and used.

33 Ibid, p. 266

There are several important areas in the field of extension work that requires frequent study and evaluation on the part of the extension worker himself. These are the following:

  1. History of the area of work

  2. The economic situation

  3. The resources available and their use

  4. The social evaluation of the community - cultural background

  5. Basic knowledge of rural sociology, anthropology, psychology such as:

  6. Evaluation technique - how and when to evaluate to find out if objectives are being accomplished

  7. Proper kind of language and communication technique to use in the conduct of the extension teaching.

These are the important areas that an extension worker should know to understand the people he is working with, their wants and needs, in order that he can make use of the proper ways and means of approach. Each situation requires the use of different methods.

No matter how well technically equipped an extension worker is, he will not be able to achieve the degree of success desired in terms of improving the well-being of the people if he has not given his time and effort to investigate and learn about his community work and people. The study of his community work and his people will provide him the knowledge and understanding and this understanding is so necessary for his success. It also gives him a feeling of confidence and faith in what he is doing that contribute so much to his personal satisfaction and to the degree of efficiency with which he carries on his work.

The primary responsibility of an extension worker is to develop an educational program that would bring desirable changes in the people. The success of this effort will depend on the quality of the program and of the personnel involved in its development.

5.3.1 Evaluation scheme

Degrees of evaluation range from casual everyday observations and informal inquiries to systematic and formal investigations. The field extension worker is more concerned with the relatively simple evaluation process which gives him an insight into his work and leaves the more complicated studies to evaluation specialists. In order to form fairly objective basis for justifying a program an extension worker should involve himself in the review and analysis of information obtained from records, annual reports, checklists questionnaires, census data and the like. He should be trained in informal method of evaluation which consists of looking for evidence of progress or failure and for reasons why a program is going well or not.

34 Ibid.

The steps essential in planning an evaluation study are:

  1. Determine what personnel and financial resources are available and needed for making an investigation. The extension worker should determine what compensation is needed from outside resources as to personnel and money and also he should consider the time required for carrying out the evaluation (period).

  2. Select and define a part of a program to evaluate. Extension worker should know what objective phase or content of the extension program is to be evaluated. He should determine what data to collect and the available data needed in the evaluation.

  3. Define and classify the objectives of the evaluation. He should know the evidence needed in reaching these program goals in terms of the number of accomplishments or changed behavior of the people. He should know which is the most important indicator of change in behavior.

  4. Decide on how to collect information and what devices are needed. The extension worker should determine what type of devices are to be used. If questionnaire is to be used, he should determine what questions should be asked and how it should be phrased. He should also prepare record forms and should prepare instructions for using them. Guidelines in pre-testing and revision of the questionnaire if necessary should be undertaken.

  5. Plan tabulation. Several types of tabulation methods and tables needed to discuss relationships are employed in evaluation. These may include numerical counts and percentage.

  6. Determine samples. A sample may be a sample of people, a sample of subject matter, or a sample of behavior at a period of time depending upon the “population” about which the interpretation is to be made.

    Extension workers reach many people in their work than they collect evidence from them to produce the proof of their success or failure. They also teach the people about the part of the subject they wish to evaluate. If they get evidence from only a part of the number of people they reached, they are "sampling" those who were only reached, a common method of doing this is the random sampling.

    In a list of 200 fishpond operators, if you want to have a sample 40, divide the total number (200) by 40 and the quotient which is five (5) will be the number of the sampling intervals.

  7. Prepare for the collection of information. Observation must be systematically planned, recorded and have a purpose. The record should show who was observed, what are observed, how many times an activity took place, where, and for what purpose.

Collection of facts can be rather time-consuming, but it is facilitated by careful preparation and supervision. Some collection devices for evaluation are:

Mechanics of evaluation

  1. Checklists are often used in order to enable people to make one or more choices from a list of statements regarding a problem or an idea.

  2. Rating scale - In rating scales, informants are asked to choose, among various degrees of opinion, and a feeling of interest about the problem or idea. Attitudes, opinions and/or degrees of interest in a subject are some types of behavior changes that can be checked by the use of rating scales.

  3. Mailed questionnaires - Mailed questionnaires have the advantage of being reasonably inexpensive methods of collecting information and more people can usually be reached by mail rather than by personal contact, and answers are not influenced by the interviewer. Questionnaires are usually more limited in value than personal interviews. Questions may not be understood as there is no opportunity to explain them, returns are fewer, and follow-up is necessary in order to obtain replies from all whom questionnaires were sent.

  4. Personal interviews - Personal interviews may be carried out in groups or individually. Both groups and individual methods of interviewing have their worth and limitation. The individual being interviewed allows the interviewer to explain the questions and to keep the interest of the respondents for considerable period of time. Reasons for resistance may be discovered and overcome. The personal contact offers the interviewer opportunities to establish friendly relations and observe personal reactions, and secure fairly complete answers. However, it is rather expensive to locate and contact individuals and an untrained interviewer may be apt to bias replies by suggesting answers.

  5. Group interview - Group interview means bringing people together in a group and asking them to fill an individual questionnaire in writing. In this device, the person collecting the data explains the questionnaire or record form to the entire group and gives an opportunity for questions to be asked and for clarification of the record form. The interviewer is present to provide further help in understanding the form, guide and encourage completion of the record. There are limitations to the group interview-respondents, they may feel less free to ask questions in the presence of others. There may be a problem of people communicating with each other and being influenced accordingly. The interviewer should be the one who is interested in the work and who can maintain an objective approach. If possible, the extension workers should be considered for this job. The following are the important responsibilities of an interviewer:

Methods of evaluating extension program

  1. Program determination - Situation analysis (for setting a baseline). The extension workers should know if the collected information are adequate and accurate. Fact-finding data needs to be planned and limited according to available resources for analysis. It is no use to collect a number of facts if the data cannot be carefully analyzed.

  2. In the analysis of the actual situation an extension worker should find out or plan in order to ensure that the extension program fits in with them and does not overlap.

  3. Extension worker should look carefully at the proposed objectives to make sure they are stated and defined in a way that is measurable. He should know if the objectives of the extension program are based on the needs of the people, does it clearly define what changes are to be accomplished in relation to people involved, and he should also know if the objectives are within the limit of available resources and achievable within a set time limit.

  4. Extension worker should identify the problems that concern the people in his region and he should see to it that local leaders are involved in setting the objectives and setting-up plans for the extension activities in the community.

  5. Program plan - Extension workers should determine if the local leaders are involved in the program to assure their cooperation in the program implementation.

Program appraisal - In the implementation of the program, the extension workers should constantly consider whether the program is going in the right direction, and what measures to be taken to adjust it. Extension workers should know if the plan identifies the job to be done, persons responsible, methods to be used, data for events and activities, and also sees if the plans are being followed. He should also note if the methods are effective and suited to the people involved in relation to their education and interest. It is also important that the extension workers should know if the program meets the needs of the people, if it is flexible and could be adjusted. Extension workers should also coordinate their effort with that of other agencies.

35 Ibid, p. 260

Analysis of accomplishment - Extension worker should determine if the changes have taken place, in any:

  1. physical situation. For example, increased fishpond production, improvements of conditions or practices

  2. people, i.e., changes in behavior, knowledge, attitudes, skills, and by what means have the changes been brought out. He should see to it if the cost of bringing about desired changes are reasonable and attainable within the time limit set in the objectives.

    Even long personal experience, used as basis for planning a program can be misleading. It is more satisfactory to use careful observations and a more scientific method of appraising progress.

  3. Preparation of evaluation reports. Some of the most favored ways of presenting evaluation reports are:

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