NACA Training Manual Series No. 2


P. Kungvankij and T.E. Chua

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations



B.J. Pudadera, Jr.L.B. Tiro, Jr.
G. CorreI.O. Potestas
E. BorlonganG. A. Taleon
AlavaJ. N. Paw

Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries
Development Center

Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia (NACA)

Regional Lead Centre in the Philippines (RLCP)

June 1986

The designation employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/UNDP nor SEAFDEC AQD. concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimination of its frontiers or boundaries.


The copyright in this publication is vested in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part, by any method or process, without written permission from the copyright holder. Application for such permission with a statement of the purpose and extent of the repro duction desired, should be made through and addressed to the Coordinator, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia (NACA), UNDP, P.O. Box 618, Bangkok, Thailand


This publication is one of a series published specifically to commemorate the WORLD FOOD DAY 1986 by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia (NACA), a regional project of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It is the Asian component of the global network of aquaculture centres established and coordinated through the FAO/UNDP inter-regional project, Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme (ADCP).

FAO has been observing World Food Day on 16 October for the past five consecutive years, in an effort to increase public awareness of the problems of hunger and malnutrition. The impact of this celebration is globally felt, and 16 October has become an important date in the national calendar of activities of almost all Member Countries of FAO. It provides an excellent opportunity for making better known what FAO is, what it has done since its foundation, and the challenges it faces in helping to resolve the problems of hunger. The theme adopted for this year's celebration is “FISHERMEN and FISHING COMMUNITIES”, including aquaculture, and NACA is participating in the celebration through a series of publications and video productions on fish farming systems and technologies developed in Asia.

The role of aquaculture in the improvement of nutrition and socio-economic conditions of the fish farming communities in the rural and coastal regions cannot be over emphasized. In fact, rediscovery of aquaculture in Asia may provide hope for the rural poor, particularly as an option to the displaced fishermen and fishing communities of the region, for whom the culture of finish, shellfish and other aquatic organisms ranks among those occupations which have the greater potential of contributing to diets and higher income with the least disruption of their traditional lifestyle. However, transfer of technological innovations to them for adoption appears to be one of the most important constraints in changing their traditional methods of farming. As such bringing together the art and science of such innovations in the form of a publication or a video for the benefit of the fishermen, fishing community, fish farmers and extension workers, is one of the major NACA activities. It is therefore, befitting to bring out this publication as the World Food Day 1986 Commemorative Issue. This provides the package of practices of the farming system based on synthesis of the practical work done by the authors and blended with the observations made by others in this field. On behalf of NACA, I would like to thank the national staff and the project staff in bringing out this material.

CHEN Foo Yan
NACA Coordinator

Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


1. Introduction

2. Pond Culture

2.1 Traditional or extensive shrimp farming
2.2 Improved traditional or semi-intensive farming
2.3 Intensive farming

3. Site Selection for Shrimp Culture

3.1 Water quality
3.2 Tidal fluctuations
3.3 Soil
3.4 Topography
3.5 Vegetation
3.6 Source of seed
3.7 Accessibility
3.8 Other factors

4. Species Culture

4.1 Penaeus japonicus and P. orientalis
4.2 P. monodon
4.3 P. indicus and P. merguiensis
4.4 Metapenaeus ensis

5. Pond Design and Construction

5.1 Size and shape of culture ponds
5.2 Dike
5.3 Supply and drainage canal
5.4 Water control gate (sluice type)

6. Pond Preparation

6.1 Soil sampling
6.2 Leaching
6.3 Pond drying
6.4 Tilling
6.5 Control of undesirable species
6.6 Liming
6.7 Fertilization

7. Seed Supply

7.1 Supply of post-larvae from wild stock
7.2 Seed from Hatchery
7.3 Transportation of fry

8. Culture Techniques

8.1 Nursing of fry
8.2 Stocking of fry
8.3 Routine pond management

9. Water Quality Management

9.1 Salinity
9.2 pH
9.3 Dissolved oxygen (DO)
9.4 Nitrogen compound
9.5 Temperature
9.6 Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

10. Feeds and Feeding

10.1 Feeding behavior
10.2 Natural food in the pond
10.3 Supplemental feeding
10.4 Feeding method
10.5 Feeding rate and frequency

11. Manipulation of Stocking in Extensive and Semi-intensive Farming

12. Harvesting and Preservation

13. References


Figure 1. Typical extensive pond in Thailand

Figure 2. Typical semi-intensive pond

Figure 3. Amakusa-type shrimp farm in Japan

Figure 4. Intensive pond

Figure 5. Shigueno type intensive culture tank

Figure 6. Lay-out of earthen pond with peripheral canal

Figure 7. Cross section of dike

Figure 8. Sample design of parimeter dike

Figure 9. Typical slope of dike

Figure 10. A typical wooden gate

Figure 11. A reinforced concrete gate

Figure 12. Section of gate showing grooves for slabs and screens

Figure 13. Scooping of fry in twigs

Figure 14. Collection of fry in fry lure

Figure 15. Scoop net

Figure 16. Push net or scissor net

Figure 17. Fry traps

Figure 18. Transportation of fry through live tanks

Figure 19. Fry transportation of fry in polyethelene bags

Figure 20. Nursery pond

Figure 21. Nursery cage

Figure 22. Feeding tray

Figure 23. Selective harvesting net


Table 1. Lime requirement table

Table 2. Comparison of organic and inorganic fertilizers

Table 3. Stocking density of shrimp in different culture operations

Table 4. Methods of measuring the physico-chemical

Table 5. Nutrient composition of natural food organisms