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Annex 1: Agenda and timetable

29 May 1995 (Monday)

0745 hrs

Picking up at the hotel

0800 - 0900 hrs

Registration at the international Business Centre (IBC)

0900 - 0945 hrs

Opening Ceremony

- Inaugural Address by His Excellency the Minister, Ministry of Forestry, Lt. General Chit Swe

- Address by Mr. A.W. Abdul Jalil, FAO Representative in Myanmar

- Opening Remarks by Dr. C.T.S. Nair, Senior Programme Advisor, Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific (FORSPA), FAO

- Election of Chairman

0945 - 1045 hrs

Coffee/Tea Break and Rearrangement of the Conference Hall

1045 - 1100 hrs

The Chairman will proceed the followings:

- Nomination of Vice-chairman and Rapporteur

- Adoption of Agenda and Timetable

- Introduction of the Seminar secretariat, FAO Regional Officer and Project Managers

1100 - 1115 hrs

Introductory Remarks by Mr. M. Kashio, Regional Forest Resources Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

Session I: Management of Natural Teak Forests

1115 - 1215 hrs

Resource Paper 1: Management Status of Natural Teak Forests by Mr. Ko Ko Gyi and Dr. Kyaw Tint, Forest Department, Myanmar

1215 - 1345 hrs


Session II: Management of Teak Plantations

1345 - 1445 hrs

Resource Paper 2: Overview of Problems in Teak Plantation Establishment by Dr. Apichart Kaosa-ard, Chiangmai University, Thailand

1445 - 1500 hrs

Coffee/Tea Break

1500 - 1730 hrs

Presentation of Satellite Papers

1) Teak Breeding and Improvement Strategies by Dr. Apichart Kaosa-ard, Chiangmai University, Thailand

2) Commercial Micropropagation of Teak by Dr. Paiboolya Gavinlertvatana, Thai Orchid Lab Co., Ltd., Thailand

3) Silvicultural Problems in Management of Teak Plantations by Mr. K. C. Chacko, Kerala Forest Research Institute, India

4) Flowering and Breeding by Mr. Jim Coles, ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre, Thailand (Presentation without a paper)

1730 - 1800 hrs


1900 hrs

Welcome Dinner hosted by His Excellency the Minister, Ministry of Forestry, Lt. General Chit Swe

30 May 1995 (Tuesday)

Session III: Trade and Marketing

0830 - 0930 hrs

Resource Paper 3: Trade and Marketing of Teak Wood and Products by U Sein Maung Wint, Special Advisor to the Minister of Forestry, Myanmar

0930 - 1000 hrs

Presentation of Satellite Papers

5) Processing and Development Technology and Future Trend for Utilization by Mr. Suntud Sangkul, Forest Industry Organization, Thailand

1000-1030 hrs

Coffee/Tea Break

6) Wood Quality and End-user Requirements (include. Grading Rules) by U Soe Tint, Institute of Forestry, and U Myint Kyu Pe, Myanmar Timer Enterprise, Myanmar

7) Trade and Marketing Experience with Myanmar Teak by Mr. Herman Manager, Altius Houtagenturen, Netherlands

Session IV: In-depth Discussion by Subject Groups

1130 - 1135 hrs

Summary of teak consultancy in Myanmar and Laos, March-April 1995

1135 - 1200 hrs

Formation of Groups and Explanation of their Tasks:

G-1) Management of Natural Teak Forests

G-2) Management of Teak Plantations

G-3) Trade and Marketing

1200 - 1330 hrs


1330 - 1630 hrs

Group Work

1630 - 1700 hrs

Video show on “Tectona grandis” - Myanmar Forestry

31 May 1995 (Wednesday) and

1 June 1995 (Thursday)

Field visit

2 June 1995 (Friday)

0830 - 0930 hrs

Special Plenary Session: Introduction to TEAKNET

by Dr. C.T.S. Nair, Senior Programme Advisor, Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific (FORSPA), FAO

0930 - 1200 hrs

Group Work (Session IV Contd;)

1200 - 1330 hrs


1330 - 1800 hrs

Group Report Writing by selected members of the Group. The rest can join city tours organized by the Secretariat.

3 June 1995 (Saturday)

Session V: Presentation

0830 - 1000 hrs

Presentation of Group Reports with Recommendations

1000 - 1030 hrs

Coffee/Tea Break


1030 - 1200 hrs

Discussion on TEAKNET

- Objectives

- Functions and Structure

- Membership

- Secretariat

- Responsibilities

- etc.

1200 - 1330 hrs


1330 - 1430 hrs

Discussion on TEAKNET (Contd;)

1430 - 1500 hrs

Coffee/Tea Break

1500 - 1600 hrs

Summary of the Output and Conclusion of the Seminar by Rapporteur

1600 - 1630 hrs

Closing Ceremony

1900 hrs

Dinner to be hosted by the Managing Director, Myanma Timber Enterprise

4 June 1995 (Sunday)

Departure of Participants

Annex 2: List of participants


Mr. Chimi Dorji
Divisional Forest Officer
Department of Forest
Ministry of Agriculture


Mr. Kuang Bingchao
The Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
The Chinese Academy of Forestry
Long Dong, Guangzhou 510520

Mr. Bai Jiayu
Professor & Director
The Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
The Chinese Academy of Forestry
Long Dong, Guangzhou 510520


Mr. Konnathu Chacko Chacko
In-Charge, Division of Silviculture
Kerala Forest Research Institute
Peechi, Thrissur, Kerala


Dr. Hendi Suhaedi
Forest Tree Improvement and Development Institute

Mr. Sadhardjo Siswamartana
Head of General Planning
Perum Perhutani
Senayan Jakarta

Mrs. Rochmini Mardikanto
Head of R&D
Perum Perhutani
Senayan Jakarta


Mr. Anousinh Mani
Head of Teak Improvement Section
Department of Forestry


Dr. Zakaria Ibrahim
Director of Plantation Forest
Forest Research institute Malaysia (FRIM)
Kuala Lumpur

Private Enterprise

Mr. Swee Khoon Lee
Plantation Administrative Manager
J. C. Chang (Pte.) Ltd.


U Sein Maung Wint
Director General (Retired)
Forest Department
Ministry of Forestry

U Myat Thin
Director General
Planning and Statistics Department
Ministry of Forestry

U Tin Hla
Director General
Forest Department
Ministry of Forestry

U Khin Maung Mya
Deputy Director General
Forest Department
Ministry of Forestry

Dr. Kyaw Tint
Deputy Director General
Planning and Statistics Department
Ministry of Forestry

U Soe Tint
Professor and Rector
Institute of Forestry
Ministry of Forestry

U Mehm Ko Ko Gyi
Watershed Management Division
Forest Department
Ministry of Forestry

U Shwe Kyaw
Forest Research Institute
Forest Department
Ministry of Forestry

U San Lwin (1)
Assistant Director
Planning and Statistics Division
Forest Department
Ministry of Forestry

U Myint Than
General Manager
Planning and Statistics Branch
Myanma Timber Enterprise

U Shwe Baw
General Manager
Milling and Marketing Branch
Myanma Timber Enterprise

U Kyin Nyunt
General Manager
Milling and Marketing Branch
Myanma Timber Enterprise

U Myint Kyu Pe
Deputy General Manager
Myanma Timber Enterprise

Private Enterprise

U Win Aung
Business Representative
Altus Houtagenturen

Dr. Phone Win
Thu Ri Ya Overseas Trade Services


Private Enterprise

Mr. Herman Manger
Altius Houtagenturen


Mr. Vichien Sumantakul
Senior Forest Research Officer
Silviculture Research Division
Royal Forest Department

Dr. Apichart Kaosa-ard
Head of Department
Forest Resources Department
Faculty of Agriculture
Chiang Mai University

Mr. Suntud Sangkul
Head of R&D Sub-Division
Technical Division
Forest Industry Organization

Private Enterprise

Dr. Paiboolya Gavinlertvatana
Thai Orchids Lab Co. Ltd.,

Mr. Wai Man Yip
Vice President
Thai Orchids Lab Co. Ltd.,

Mr. Saifee Saleh Goolamabbas
Business Development Director
Thai Orchids Lab Co. Ltd.,

Mr. Prasit Sa-ardavut
Senior Forest Researcher
Pine Improvement Centre
Silviculture Research Division
Royal Forest Department

Mr. P. C. Cheng
Thai Sawat


Private Enterprise

Mr. Robert Marc Williams
117 East Garden
Coeur d’Alene
Idaho, 83814

Mr. Daniel Peter Cannon
The Cannon Group Inc.
10151 University BL #165
Orlando, FL 32817


Mr. Hoang Chuong
Vice Director
Forest Science Sub-Institute of Southern
Ho Chi Minh City


Mr. Masakazu Kashio
Regional Forest Resources Officer
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Bangkok, Thailand


Dr. Choolashi T. S. Nair
Senior Programme Advisor
Forestry Research Support Programme for
Asia and the Pacific (GCP/RAS/134/ASB)
FORSPA, FAO Regional Office
Bangkok, Thailand


Dr. K. Vivekanandan
Chief Technical Adviser and Project
UNDP/FAO Regional Project (RAS/91/004)
Ecosystems Research and Development
Laguna, Philippines


Mr. David M. Cameron
Team Leader
Strengthening Re-afforestation Programme in
Asia (GCP/RAS/142/JPN), STRAP c/o Ministry of Forestry
Hanoi, Vietnam

Mr. Hiroki Miyazono
Plantation Expert
Strengthening Re-afforestation Programme in
Asia (GCP/RAS/142/JPN), STRAP c/o Ministry of Forestry
Hanoi, Vietnam

Dr. Frede Danborg
Forest Plantation Officer
Strengthening Re-afforestation Programme in
Asia (GCP/RAS/142/JPN), STRAP c/o Ministry of Forestry
Hanoi, Vietnam


Mr. Somyos Kijkar
ASEAN Forest Tree Seed Centre
Muak-Lek, Saraburi, Thailand

Mr. Jim Coles
Canadian Project Manager
ASEAN Forest Tree Seed Centre
Muak Lek, Saraburi, Thailand

Annex 3: Summarized results of the First Regional Seminar on Teak

The following was first published as “China hosts a meeting on teak”, in Tigerpaper [18(1):1991]

The Government of China has taken the unique step of making funds available to organize a TCDC workshop on research and development of teak - a non-traditional species for the country. Although natural teak forest extends only up to the border of China with Myanmar and Thailand, scientists in the country evinced keen interest in the growing of teak since 1964. Several provenances of teak were tried in China during the last quarter century and recently China stepped up its research into tissue culture of teak. At the request of the scientists, the government of China has sanctioned adequate funds for ESCAP and FAO to organize a TCDC seminar where scientists from the traditional teak growing countries of the region could exchange their expertise and experiences with their Chinese counterparts. What follows is a summary of the conclusions and the recommendations of this seminar.


1. Thirty-one participants from twelve countries, together with the concerned officers from the Government of China, ESCAP and FAG, met at Guangzhou, China from 20-23 March 1991, and discussed the issues concerning research and development of teak. From 24-27 March 1991, a post-seminar field visit to Hainan Island to observe teak research was organized for the participants. The countries represented at the Seminar were: Bangladesh, China, Denmark, France, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

2. The Seminar elected the following as the office bearers:

Professor Hong Jusheng


Mr. Ratan Lal Banik


Mr. Mehn Ko Ko Gyi


Mr. Guruswamy Kumaravelu


3. Mr. Yang Yuchou, Director of Department of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Forestry of the People’s Republic of China, delivered the welcome address on behalf of the Government of China. He stated that the Chinese Government attaches great importance to the research in teak and has accorded this topic a national scientific priority. He expressed the willingness of Chinese scientists to exchange information on their experiences and achievements with fellow scientists from abroad. He expressed the hope that with the joint efforts made by the scientists it will become possible to exert a positive impact on forestry development in the region.

4. Mr. Sultan Zaman Khan, Chief of Agriculture and Development Division, delivered the message of the Executive Secretary, ESCAP to the Seminar. The Executive Secretary emphasized the dangers of depletion of forest resources at an alarming rate and called for appropriate policy measures. He stated that the management of forest resources should be seen as a means to increase productivity of land, generate employment and raise incomes while safeguarding the environment. Programmes of participatory nature such as social forestry would be the most appropriate vehicle for achieving these goals. He also stressed the importance of research and development of teak, a unique and valuable species of the region. He extended a warm welcome to the participants and wished them every success in their deliberations.

5. On behalf of FAG, Dr. Y.S. Rao, Regional Forestry Officer, welcomed the participants to the Seminar. In his welcome statement, he briefly touched upon three main issues: i) the relevance of the Seminar to modern day forestry; ii) the significance of holding the meeting in China; and iii) the ways in which the participants could contribute to the success of this Seminar.

6. On behalf of Guangdong Province, Mr. Liang Xingquan, Director of Department of Forestry of Guangdong Province, extended his greetings and welcome to all the participants.

7. Individual participants delivered country reports which covered the substantive aspects of natural distribution, silviculture, management, artificial regeneration, processing, utilization and marketing of teak. The country presentations were followed by presentations by resource persons drawn from China and abroad. The Seminar then discussed the issues, conclusions and recommendations in three separate groups. Their findings are set out in the following sections of the report.

Natural Distribution, Silviculture and Management of Teak Forests

8. The Seminar considered the above captioned subject in detail and arrived at the following conclusions based on the country reports presented in the Seminar.

9. The only countries where teak is naturally distributed are the Indian peninsula, Thailand, Myanmar, and in lesser areas in Laos and some islands of the Indian Archipelago.

10. The Seminar concluded that teak occurs naturally between the latitudes: 25°30’N and 9°N. However, its successful naturalized growth is found in Java in the southern hemisphere between 5°S and 9°S

11. The Seminar indicated that the following site conditions are important for teak growth: geology and soil. The species occurs in a wide variety of geological formations but does not grow well on soils overlying conglomerate, sandstone or laterite. The majority of teak forests are situated on hilly or undulating ground, but can also be found on the plains of well-drained alluvial flats along river banks. It requires good drainage and cannot tolerate water stagnation. It prefers pH between 6.5 to 8. Adequate presence of calcium, phosphorous and magnesium is essential.

12. The Seminar outlined the important associated species of teak in its natural distribution. In its natural range, teak is confined to the moist and dry mixed deciduous forest types. In the moist deciduous forest the most important associates are Gmelina arborea, Dalbergia latifolia, Pterocarpus marsupium, Xylia xylocarpa, bamboo species, etc. In the dry deciduous forests, the important associates are Terminalia tomentosa, T. chebula, Phyllanthus emblica, Butea frondosa, etc.

13. The Seminar concluded that the following climatic requirements should be kept in mind while embarking on teak plantation programmes. Though teak can grow in rainfall areas of 760 mm and slightly less, and in the higher range 3,800-5,000 mm, it appears to thrive best with monsoonal rainfall in the order of 1,300-3,800 mm. It can grow well from sea level to 1,000 m altitude. It thrives best and reaches its largest dimensions in fairly moist, warm tropical climate. However, it should be noted that under conditions of fast growth, the wood quality may be inferior. The maximum temperature in its natural distribution is 40°C and minimum temperature 12.5°C.

14. The Seminar considered the different management techniques that are followed in all the teak growing countries. Primarily, the silviculture systems adopted by teak growing countries are: i) coppice system; ii) selection cum improvement system; iii) Myanmar selection system; and iv) clear felling system. It is concluded that a suitable method should be adopted according to the type of regeneration and the extent of natural regeneration and the demand for produce in each region.

15. The Seminar noted the following factors influencing natural regeneration:

1) Sharp alternation of dry and wet period:

2) Herbaceous and grass cover under the teak forest inhibit seed germination;

3) A certain amount of warmth is prerequisite for seed germination;

4) In moist localities, seedlings require light from their infancy, but in hot dry regions, a sudden influx of light on young seedlings retards regeneration;

5) Soft, friable soil for penetration by the strong tap root of the seedling is necessary; and

6) A light ground fire pre-treats the seeds, eliminates weed competition, makes light available, increases mineral availability, thus favouring natural regeneration.

16. The Seminar reviewed the different types of felling regulations followed by each of the teak growing countries, and was satisfied that these were based on sound forest management principles.

17. The Seminar recognized that some of the natural teak forests are facing ecological successional retrogression. Effective steps are, therefore, called for from these countries for the preservation and conservation of these unique and valuable areas. Preservation plots, gene pools, etc., may be established in these areas and should be effectively protected against felling, fire damage, etc.

Artificial Regeneration of Teak

18. The Seminar discussed various aspects of artificial regeneration of teak and arrived at the following conclusions and recommendations.

19. The Seminar recognized that problems of various kinds exist in ensuring good quality, viable seed to pursue the plantation programmes in different countries. Poor germination of teak seeds is observed in almost every country; often the germination percentage does not exceed 30 percent. The Seminar recommended further research work on two of the many aspects concerning teak seeds: i) seed physiology; and ii) pre-treatment of seeds.

20. The Seminar observed that grading of seeds leads to obtaining better germination percentages. Therefore, it was recommended that seed grading practices should be established and, as far possible, big sized fruits should be chosen for establishing the nurseries, since they are often multiple seeded.

21. The Seminar noted that, in general, plant percentages in nurseries are low and recommended that countries review their nursery operations (sowing density, pre-sowing germination etc.) and modify them for better results. The effect of biofertilizers like mycorrhiza, nitrogen fixing bacteria, phosphobacteria, etc., in nurseries and plantations of teak should be explored.

22. The Seminar observed that three types of planting are practised in the countries of the region: i) direct sowing of seeds; ii) stump planting; and iii) poly bag planting. Direct sowing has, in many countries, been overtaken by the stump planting method and is practised only in a few countries. In some countries of the region such as China, Myanmar and Thailand, planting of poly pot seedlings is also practised.

23. The Seminar considered mixed plantation techniques and strongly recommended that every country should undertake trials, preferably of small scale, and collect data on the performance of monoculture as against mixtures. The research should be of an all-embracing nature and include data gathering on economic, ecological, sociological and biological factors influencing the plantation establishment.

24. The Seminar recognized that the more common spacing schedules in teak monocultures are: 2m x 2m; 3m x 3m; and 4m x 4m (on good sites in Thailand).

25. In mixed plantations, the spacing depends on the mixture adopted and the nature of the secondary species. In the case of agroforestry, the nature of the agriculture crop to be grown determines the spacing, in addition to other factors. In view of these varying factors, including the genetic aspects, it is recommended that each country should determine the nature and scope of their spacing trials.

26. The Seminar noted that substantial cost saving opportunities are available in plantation establishment through intercropping practices. It is also noted that these practices offer extensive opportunities for local community participation.

27. The Seminar noted that in the case of social forestry projects where wide spacing (2m x 5m and 2m x 6m) is adopted, pruning would be necessary up to an age of 5 years, before the first thinning. However, when the spacing is 2m x 2m up to 4m x 4m, there is no requirement for pruning in monoculture.

28. Regarding the size of the pit for planting, it is recognized that the most suitable in China is 40cm x 40cm x 40cm, where the general practice is to refill the top soil and add organic matter to achieve better stocking. Addition of mineral fertilizers is avoided since it proves costly.

29. The Seminar underscored the importance of establishing a proper thinning regime to obtain better tree growth, improve the quality of timber, stem form, stand health, secure optimal economic returns, and also to safeguard the site conditions, including avoidance of excessive soil erosion. First thinning at the age of 5-10 years was suggested. However, in agroforestry, this may differ and depends on factors which affect the growth of the agricultural crops in addition to the tree crop.

30. The Seminar observed that very little progress has been made to evolve control mechanisms for common and widespread pests and diseases. The Seminar recommended that pest and disease control research should be intensified, with particular focus on biological control and appropriate plantation management.

31. The Seminar, recognizing the importance of establishing site index classification for volume table work, recommended that site classes should be established in China, Lao, and Vietnam.

32. Many countries are facing shortage of quality seeds. To meet their immediate demand it is recommended that:

1) the genetic quality and seed production potential of local stands be examined and that those found suitable are selected for seed production; and

2) if the present demand cannot be met in full by selected local sources, steps should be taken to import disease-free, quality seed of known origin. When seed of good genetical and physiological quality cannot be obtained, plantation programmes must be modified. Inferior seeds should not be used.

33. The Seminar strongly recommended that when seed is imported, assurances must be sought to the effect that the seeds are free of diseases. It is also important to seek data on the precise origin of the seeds. Seed certification procedures should, desirably, be followed. The Seminar urged the countries to exchange data on availability of seeds for export.

34. The Seminar noted that several countries have undertaken research on clonal forestry, including tissue culture and sprout cuttings, sometimes to overcome seed shortages. Tissue culture has a great potential to multiply planting material of superior genetic quality. But in the process, genetic variability is sacrificed. The Seminar stressed the importance of maintaining genetic diversity. To achieve this, clonal plantations should ensure that a wide range of clones are used.

35. Studies on the floral biology of teak, documenting the natural pollinating agents, etc., should be started in each country to more appropriately and effectively design clonal seed orchards, a prerequisite for making quality seeds available in large quantities.

36. The Seminar recommended drawing up of long term plans at the national level to execute tree improvement programmes. The importance of an intensive tree improvement programme, utilizing base materials with the best possible genetic quality and variation, was emphasized by the Seminar.

37. The Seminar observed that for countries to procure genetic material and establish gene pools, it would be necessary to promote regional and international cooperation.

Processing, Utilization, and Marketing of Teak

38. The Seminar discussed various aspects concerning the processing, utilization and marketing of teak and arrived at the following conclusions and recommendations.

39. The Seminar recognized that teak is unmatched in its qualities because of its strength, dimensional stability, workability, colour, and figure. It commands a unique position in the world market.

40. Available data indicates that the forest area where teak occurs either in pure stands (including plantations) or in mixture does not exceed 25 million hectares in the Asia-Pacific Region.

41. The growing of teak varies from one country to another. From the data of production it is seen that annual production as of 1990 is of the order of 4 million m3. This includes both teak consumed domestically and that traded abroad.

42. The Seminar emphasized that Myanmar is the only remaining source for teak logs and recent data show that about 200,000 m3 is the magnitude of teak exported from Myanmar in round form.

43. World trade in teak is dominated by secondary and tertiary products. Tertiary products, such as furniture overlaid with teak veneer, claim the largest segment of the world value of trade in teak. Sawn timber and sliced veneer are the other important processed products.

44. The Seminar recommended that where log export is still prevalent, measures should be taken to establish secondary and, preferably, tertiary processing facilities within the country, in order to maximize the value-added to its economy.

45. The Seminar observed that the unusual demand in the world market for teak may induce its over-exploitation for maximizing short term revenues. The Seminar cautioned against such an approach.

46. The Seminar recognizes the importance of safe-guarding this valuable species for the future and recommends that countries in the region should adopt a highly conservative approach in its extraction and trade.

47. The Seminar underscored the need for promoting growing of teak trees by the private sector, small farmers and even as a backyard tree. Planting teak trees can be viewed as a ready-cash earning proposition by individual households. In about 20 years time, it provides valuable cash for meeting contingencies.

48. The Seminar recognizes that in some countries teak is used indiscriminately and there is a need for promoting public awareness about its rational and appropriate use.

49. The Seminar recommended that Research/Extension/Training in promoting appropriate use of teak timber should be undertaken by concerned institutions.

50. The Seminar underscored the need for phasing out the use of teak as “sawn timber” and stressed the importance of developing slicing technology to produce decorative veneers.

51. The Seminar noted that as opposed to large dimensioned trees from natural forests, what is available in most teak producing countries is small dimensioned plantation grown teak. Efforts should be made to enhance the processing, utilization, and marketing of small dimension teak logs.

52. Problems relating to improving the strength and durability of sap wood in small dimensioned logs need to be researched. This will enable the production of marketable teak timber in a relatively short duration from plantations.

53. The Seminar recommended that future genetic improvement should concentrate on producing teak trees with the following characteristics, stated here in the order of importance: i) cylindrical form; and ii) decorative grain.

Proposal on Regional Cooperation

54. The Seminar supported in principle a proposal on regional cooperation to promote strong linkages and mutual cooperation among the countries of the region in the field of research and development of teak. It was proposed that the “Asia-Pacific Network on Research and Development of Teak (TEAK-NET)” should be established to achieve this objective. All the institutions (countries) represented at this Seminar would be regarded as founder members of TEAK-NET. Other members would be coopted in the future.

55. The Government of China has indicated its willingness to host a TEAK-NET secretariat, which would work in close collaboration with National Coordinators. TEAK-NET will also be closely associated with ESCAP, FAO and her two regional projects on tree improvement and forestry research.

56. Since effective information exchange is an important function of TEAK-NET, a newsletter will be published. Among the other activities of TEAK-NET will be: i) establishing data bases; ii) publication of scientific papers; iii) exchange of germ plasm; iv) human resource development through training, exchange programme for researchers, etc.; v) research extension; and vi) cooperative and coordinated research where possible.

57. The Seminar participants agreed to further examine the above proposal in consultation with their respective governments and communicate their considered comments and views to ESCAP and FAO as soon as possible.

58. The Seminar recommended that ESCAP and FAO should jointly develop a detailed plan of the proposed network mechanism, among others, administrative, operational and financial implications and approach concerned member governments, as appropriate, to formally establish the network.

59. The Seminar adopted the report on 23 March 1991.

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