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National forest products statistics, Malaysia



Malaysia is located in South East Asia and comprises Sabah, and Sarawak, on the island of Kalimantan (Borneo), and Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia has a total land area of 330 242 km2 (33 million ha), and is one of the few remaining heavily forested tropical countries with 20.06 million ha of natural forest (61 percent of total land area). Dipterocarp forest constitutes the bulk of Malaysia’s forest areas (89 percent), followed by peat swamp forest (7 percent), mangrove forest (3 percent), and planted forest (1 percent). Of the total forest area 5.97 million ha are in Peninsular Malaysia, 4.25 million in Sabah, and 9.84 million in Sarawak (Table 1).

Table 1. Malaysian forest cover by region (2001)


Area (millions ha)

Land area

Natural forest

Plantation forest

Total forest area

Forest area as % of land area

Peninsular Malaysia
























In addition to natural and plantation forest, Malaysia has another 5.27 million ha of agricultural tree crops, mainly rubber, oil palm, and cocoa. These tree crops, particularly rubber trees, are of increasing importance as alternative sources of raw material and vegetation cover. If these areas are taken into account, forest cover in Malaysia is 25.33 million ha or 77 percent of total land area.

Timber is the primary forest product in Malaysia although NTFPs such as rattan, bamboo, firewood, charcoal, damar, palm, wood-oil, gums/resins and medicinal plants are also harvested. Secondary products from the forest industries include sawn timber, plywood, veneer, particleboard, blockboard, fibreboard and medium density fibreboard, mouldings and furniture.

Between 1996 and 2000, Malaysia’s annual sawlog production averaged around 26 million m3, a decline of 32 percent from the 1991-1995 figure of around 38 million m3. This decrease was consistent with the Government’s conservation policy and commitment to the ITTO Year 2000 objective of sustainable forest management. In 2000, of the country’s total sawlog production of 23 million m3, Peninsular Malaysia contributed 22 percent, Sabah 16 percent, and Sarawak 62 percent. Sawlog production figures for 1996-2000 are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Annual production of sawlogs (1996-2000)


Production (‘000 m3)






Peninsular Malaysia

8 418

7 379

5 100

5 356

5 072


5 638

6 959

5 265

3 436

3 728


15 904

16 599

11 119

12 895

14 030


29 961

30 938

21 484

21 687

22 830

Source: Forestry Departments of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak.

Malaysia is the world’s largest exporter of tropical hardwood logs and sawn timber and is also a major exporter of tropical plywood, veneer and mouldings. Malaysia’s export of timber and timber products has been increasing steadily over the last decade, from US$3.57 billion in 1990 to US$4.65 billion in 2000. In terms of export volume and product range, there has been a shift from the traditional dominance of logs, sawn timber and plywood to a more varied mix including mouldings, furniture and wood-based panels. In 1990, logs contributed about 46 percent of total timber sector export earnings; by 2000 the figure had reduced to 14 percent. Table 3 shows Malaysia’s export of timber and timber products from 1996-2000.

Table 3. Export value of timber and timber products (1996-2000)


Value (US$ millions)












Sawn timber







1 158

1 139


1 066

1 011













Dressed Timber
























Wooden frames






Builders carpentry & joinery






Wooden furniture




1 026

1 162

Rattan furniture







3 699

3 874

3 745

4 494

4 658

Source: Malaysian Timber Industry Board, Department of Statistics, Sarawak, and Statistics Department Malaysia

Organisation of forestry sector statistics

In Malaysia, forestry statistics are collected, analysed and disseminated by the Forestry Departments of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak, the Malaysian Timber Industry Board (MTIB), the Sarawak Timber Industry Board (STIDC), the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia. Unlike the Statistics Department Malaysia, which operates under the provisions of the Statistics Act 1965 (Revised-1989), the forestry departments do not have powers or Acts of Parliament to compel submission of statistics from relevant establishments.

Forestry statistics are monitored indirectly through licensing procedures, revenue records and conditions that oblige licensees of logging areas and mills to keep records and submit reports to the Forestry Department on a monthly or yearly basis. In practice, this procedure is very cumbersome, wastes time and requires some form of coercion to obtain results.

The collection, processing, storage and reporting of forestry statistics constitutes an important part of the administrative functions of Malaysia’s Forestry Departments. In the Federal Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, for instance, the Forest Economics Unit is responsible for the compilation and publication of statistics from the various states. However, as information and reporting requirements of individual departments of the Forest Service to the various levels of policy and decision makers are substantial, other sections in the Federal Forestry Department are also involved in data collection based on their respective specialised needs.

Data and information flows from the field (Districts and States) to Forestry Department Head-quarters is based on the ‘Shuttle Returns’ system, which had been established for many years. The ‘Shuttle Returns’ system is well developed and formalised. It is periodically reviewed to improve timeliness, accuracy of reporting and scope of coverage. Statis tics, which cannot be monitored through shuttle returns, are collected by special surveys, either by mail or direct interviews. In certain cases, telephone interviews are used and more recently e-mail has been utilised.

For the following reasons the State Forestry Departments and the District Forest Offices are vital links in the statistics collection chain:

Data types, sources and methods


Forestland in Malaysia is owned by the individual states and can be divided into three administrative groups: (i) Forest Reserves, (ii) State land Forests, (iii) National Parks and Wildlife Reserves. Rubber plantations may be considered as a fourth group, although generally they are recorded under agricultural land.

Forest Reserves

Forest Reserves are administered and controlled by the State Forest Departments. Each state’s Ruler in Council has the power, by notification in the Gazette, to constitute any land a reserved forest or to decide that any reserved forest, or any portion thereof, shall cease to be reserved. Forest reserve area changes are recorded in the registers of reserves at the District Forest Offices, which are generally kept up-to-date. Each reserve register contains information on gazette number, date of gazetting, a photocopy of the page in the Gazette declaring the constitution or excision, the location and a map or area estimates from the State Survey Department.

State Land Forests

State land forests are administered and controlled by the State Land Departments although logging is controlled by the State Forestry Departments and areas are measured by the State Survey Departments. Each State Administrative District keeps a register of state land forest areas, on both an alienated and non-alienated basis. However, the alienation of state forestland is executed by specific government agencies involved in land development.

National Parks and Wildlife Reserves

National parks and wildlife reserves are administered and controlled by the Federal Game Department. Information on these reserves and their areas are compiled by each State Forest Department and published in the Annual Report.

Rubber plantations are almost totally under private ownership although the State Survey Departments have surveyed the areas. Replacement of rubber by other crops such as oil palm are followed by the Department of Statistics, Malaysia.

Included in forest land data collection efforts are the various forest types and land use categories, the latter being derived from a combination of forest and land characteristics, resource capabilities and developmental needs. The classification of land for forestry in respect of Permanent Reserved Forest, as required under the 1984 National Forestry Act, is based on functional uses of forest land as follows:

Forest resources

Forest resource information is derived from data collected during the various forest inventories, such as the National Forest Inventory, Pre-Felling Inventories and Continuous Forest Inventories, carried out by the Forest Department. Information on species composition, log production, growth and mortality rate is derived from data obtained from growth and yield studies, permanent sample plots and cutting and harvesting regime studies. Observations are based on maps, aerial photos and sample plot measurements.


Various types and sequences of silvicultural treatments are applied to harvested or disturbed forest stands both to assist natural regeneration and to improve yields. These prescriptions are based on post-felling diagnostic sampling results or on the management history and records of the forest stand, supported by field checking.

Annual treatment operations are planned by each State Forest Department and submitted to the Silviculture Unit in the Federal Forestry Department, which monitors and coordinates the reforestation programme and activities. Progress summaries for each silvicultural activity are recorded on special forms, which document progress and achievements including the type, extent and location of treatment operations, manpower requirements and costs. These forms are collected from the districts, compiled by the State Forest Departments and sent to the Federal Forestry Department where they are published in monthly and quarterly progress reports. At the district and state level, activities are entered in the Annual Felling and Treatment Plans and also the records for the compartment and reserve concerned.

Forest plantations

Forest plantation records are maintained by the District and State Forest Departments involved in plantation establishment. Information on nurseries, date and area planted and costs are collected. In Peninsular Malaysia, the information is compiled and submitted to the Forest Plantation Unit of the Federal Forestry Department, which coordinates forest plantation establishment.

Forest allocation and harvesting activity

Removal of forest produce is regulated by licences issued by the State Forest Departments. Information recorded in the licence form includes serial number, name and address of holder, date of issue and expiry, map and boundary description, logging prescriptions, name and location of checking station where the produce is to be measured, payment conditions and road standards.

Each District Forest Office enters records of licences issued and cancelled into shuttle return forms, which are sent at quarterly intervals to the Federal Forestry Department and are compiled and published in the Department’s various publications. Each District Forest Officer also keeps a register of forest offences and license breaches, detailing the offence and the manner in which it was dealt with. Monthly returns on forest offences are forwarded from the State Forestry Departments to Headquarters. As licensees are obliged to obtain a sub-licence for each worker before they enter the forest, these records also form the basic source of employment statistics in the logging sector.

Records of completed logging activities and other related information such as out-turn per acre and species removed are entered into Reserve Records and the Annual Felling and Treatment Plans.

Forest products and their units of measurement

Logs are measured in metric units under bark at the small end. Volume deductions, for logs with hollow heart or centre rot, are only allowed when the diameter of the defect is 15 cm or more at the measured end. Log volumes are derived from log measurements using volume tables prepared by the Forest Department. In general, logs of 24-40 cm and above are accepted for saw milling/veneering; the preferred length is 1.5 m and above.

All production is licensed and logs entering sawmills and plywood/veneer mills are hammer marked and given a serial number to indicate that they have been scaled and checked at a checking station.

Production of non-timber products such as rattan, bamboo, fuelwood, charcoal and other minor forest produce are reported only in terms of royalties collected.

For industrial products such as sawnwood, plywood/veneer and wood mouldings, output is reported in cubic metres. The sawmill, plywood/veneer mills and wood moulding mills are required by licence conditions to record log input and production. The Federal Forestry Department monitors development of the mills through a monthly shuttle return and periodic spot-checks.

No formal system has yet been devised for collection of data from downstream industries such as chip/fibreboard industries, furniture mills, wood-wool cement panel manufacturers. However, developments of these industries are monitored through periodical surveys, using questionnaires or direct interviews or through trade dialogue between government and the private sector.

Log production

As the sources of log production data, District Forest Offices make records of all issued forest products harvesting licences in a register of licences. In addition, individual licence files contain data on production, forest charges, renewals and termination of licences amongst other things. A removal pass, which carries a record of the type and volume of produce and the royalties and forest development cess/fund payable, is issued for each consignment (truck-load) of forest products. One copy of the removal pass is forwarded to the Collector of Forest Revenue in the State Forest Office who oversees revenue collection and compilation of revenues and volumes by species, licence, forest district and destination. At monthly intervals each State Forest Office transmits these statistics to the Federal Forest Department as shuttle returns. The shuttle returns comprise the following:

Non-timber forest products

In Malaysia, harvested non-timber forest products include rattan, bamboo, firewood, charcoal, damar, palm, wood-oil, gums/resins and medicinal plants. Due to variation in measurement units, the small quantities harvested and the low transaction rates, NTFP production volumes are not available. Production can only be estimated by examining royalties collected by the states.

Table 4. Royalties collected from NTFPs in Peninsular Malaysia (1996-2000)


Value (‘000s US$)


3 643


2 616


2 368


2 511


3 082

Forest industry

Statistics on wood-based industries such as sawmills, plywood/veneer mills, and moulding mills are collected on a monthly basis by the District Forest Offices. These mills are required, by condition of their licences, to keep records of the number of removal passes, date of entry into the mill, log number, species, volume input into the mills and processing machinery, output of converted timber and sales of timber to domestic markets. This information is completed by the mills themselves for the monthly shuttle returns and submitted to the respective District Forest Offices. The District Offices then check, verify and endorse the returns before they are despatched to the Federal Forest Department in shuttle returns as detailed in Table 5. The flow of forest industry information is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Current flow of forest industry statistics

The Forest Economics Unit in the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia (FDPM) with assistance from the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) has developed 3 information systems (Table 5) for the collection of forest industry data. The systems are run in Microsoft Access on personal computers.

Table 5. Information Systems in the Forest Economics Unit of the FDPM

Types of Information Systems

Shuttle No.

Year of Implementation

Sawmills Information System (SIS)



Plywood/Veneer Mills Information System (PLYSIS)



Moulding Mills Information System



The three information systems each contain 4 modules as follows:

These systems ensure timely reports and efficient use of manpower. As a result, more time can be spent analysing data and further reports can be produced for management purposes.

Industry data not covered by the shuttle returns, such as the wood-wool cement plants, timber preservation plants, pencil factories, wood-chips manufacturers, match factories are monitored through periodic surveys, using questionnaires or direct interviews.

Timber trade data

Statistics related to the timber trade are collected, analysed and disseminated by the Department of Statistics Malaysia, the Malaysian Timber Industry Board (MTIB), the Forestry Departments of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak, the Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia, and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Malaysia.

The Department of Statistics Malaysia compiles general external trade statistics of Malaysia based on import and export declarations (hard/soft copy) given on customs forms provided by the Royal Customs and Excise Department and Free Zone Authorities. These are published monthly and annually directly from computer printouts.

In ‘Monthly External Trade Statistics, Malaysia’, exports of selected forest products such as sawlogs, sawn timber, dressed timber, wooden mouldings, veneer sheets, and plain plywood are recorded by cubic metre, Malaysian Ringgit, average unit value and percentage contribution to total export/import value. Included in this publication, there is also a table of imports and exports by commodity group. The table provides figures for fuelwood, wood charcoal, wood chips or particles, wood waste, wood in the rough or roughly squared, simply worked wood, railway sleepers, pulp and waste paper, veneer, plywood, particle board, other worked wood not elsewhere specified, paper and paperboard, paper and paperboard cut to size or shape and particles of paper and paperboard.

Revisions, made from time to time as a result of continuous quality checks, are incorporated in cumulative totals in subsequent issues. The WTO Agreement on Valuation is used as the basis of valuation for all goods transactions. Commodities in the trade statistics publication are classified according to the Standard International Trade Classification, Revision 3 (S.I.T.C Rev. 3) of the United Nations. Trade data statistics are compiled under the provisions of the Statistics Act, 1965 (Revised-1989) that stipulates that the contents of individual returns are confidential. Therefore, only aggregated figures are published.

The Malaysian Timber Industry Board (MTIB) also collects, analyses and disseminates statistics related to timber trade through use of the Computerised Information System (CIS). The CIS holds all relevant timber industry data and information on legislative processes affecting forest products exports. The information is used to assist planning, management, administration and revenue collection activities associated with timber export. The CIS comprised two major sub-systems:

IMOS capture and maintain data relating to registration of companies as exporters, sliers, timber processors, jetty operators and grader applicants. The data are entered and maintained by the Registration Unit. IMOS consists of four major modules, while the operations module itself comprises three sub-modules (Table 6).

Table 6. Integrated MTIB Operations System




(i) Registration

Entry, validation and maintenance of data on receipt of applications, approvals and renewals of registered companies and graders.

(ii) Contract

Entry, validation and maintenance of data on receipt of contract from buyer and seller.

(iii) Licensing & Cess

Entry, validation and maintenance of data on receipt of customs declarations from exporters and exporter’s deposits. Printing of export licences.


Entry and maintenance of technical codes and classifications, and the status of graders.

Planning and Development (PND)

Entry and maintenance of data on receipt of custom declarations from The Customs Department.


Entry and maintenance of data on receipt of domestic market prices.

Besides the above, MTIB also gathers information from the FAO Forest Products Yearbook, journals, reports from trade commissions and embassies. From time to time MTIB also, conducts surveys and market research on subjects such as raw rattan pricing, transportation and currency tabulation.

MTIB produces the following timber trade related publications/reports:

Timber export statistics are also collected and compiled by the Forestry Departments of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak for internal use to follow business cycles and trends. Annual timber export statistics are analysed and published in the Annual Report and Forest Statistics Time Series Book of Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia.

Organisation and administration

Forest administration and staffing

Data on forest district administration, staff deployment and manpower requirements are compiled and recorded at district, state and federal level. The number and category of staff are currently reported in the Forestry Department Annual Report.

Finance and expenditure

Under each five year Malaysia Plan, the Federal Forestry Department through the Forest Planning Unit collects and compiles information on the progress of implementation of programmes, projects and activities in each state. Included are physical and financial achievements for various projects and activities ranging from infrastructural development, forest management and development activities to community forestry projects and manpower training.

Users of forest products statistics

Forest products statistics are dissemination through statistical bulletins and reports, responses to telephone and mail enquiries and via working paper presentations. In recent years, production and trade statistics for the Forestry Departments of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak have also been available on the Internet.

The most regular users of forestry statistics include:

The ministries closely related to the forestry sector, such as the Ministry of Lands and Mines, the Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia, and the National Land Council are adequately provided with statistics for policy formulation and macro level planning through the current system. Outside the forestry sector, the Department of Statistics, Malaysia is one of the major users of forestry statistics and requires statistics mainly to fulfil national accounting needs.

Dissemination of forestry statistics

The Forest Economics Unit of the Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia disseminates forestry statistics through the following publications:

The Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia disseminates more widely data by the following means:

Besides the Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia other sources of forestry statistics include:

In general, forestry statistics already reported in official publications cover most requests made to the forestry department and hence, the overall relevance and quality of statistics is high. Data sources are well defined and records kept at the sources are well maintained, especially with regard to routine data. Problems that arise are related to staff competence and the priority given to the work, which affects interpretation of questions and data and the eventual timeliness and accuracy of reporting.

Weaknesses and constraints in the forest products statistical system


One of the major problems in the present forest statistical system is timeliness. The problem affects most forestry sector statistics including log production, intake and output of logs from mills, areas of planned and executed land clearance in state land forests, licences and others. The slow flow of statistics from districts and states has caused delays in disseminating forest statistics and has also delayed publication of the Department’s Annual Report and Forest Statistics Report.


A second problem is the extent of duplication in forest statistics collection within Forest Department Headquarters, State Forest Offices and various other government departments and agencies. For example, the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the MTIB sometimes collect the same information as Forestry Department Headquarters. Furthermore, different sections in Forestry Department Headquarters may request the same information by different means and at different times.

Duplication is also a problem in compilation of trade statistics. The Department of Statistics Malaysia compiles and processes all raw data on external trade from customs declaration forms. Through formal arrangement, the raw data is supplied to five government ministries/departments on magnetic tape or CD-ROM. Ideally, the Forestry Department and the Malaysian Timber Industry Board would obtain timber trade data direct from The Department of Statistics Malaysia or even the Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia. However, considerations of timeliness, cost, and practicality compel the Forestry Department to obtain timber trade data elsewhere. Export data is thus acquired from the Malaysian Timber Industry Board and import data from the Malaysia External Trade Development Corporation (MATRADE), the external trade promotion arm of MITI (see Figure 2).

In the case of Sabah and Sarawak, import and export data are prepared by Sabah Forest Department, Sarawak Forest Department Headquarters and the Sarawak Timber Association. Thus, data input and other efforts are duplicated and large volumes of paperwork are created with considerable margins of error. This also inevitably raises the cost of collecting and processing forest statistics.


In principle, the purpose of collecting data is to perform analysis and to thus elucidate the situation. However, little interrogation and analysis of data seems to be performed, other than for annual statistical bulletins and reports, and a large amount of data seem to be filtered out and left unutilised. Data storage capacity is also inadequate and low priority is therefore given to safekeeping of raw data once summary figures have been produced.

Figure 2. Flow of timber export statistics

The rapid expansion and development of Malaysia’s forestry sector over the last few decades has led to a rapid increase in forestry activities and tremendous growth in data collection. For instance, in addition to existing statutory and routine requirements, forest management practices now have to be evaluated against prescribed sustainable forest management criteria. Manpower allocated to data collection is therefore increasingly overstrained in keeping up with the volume of work and this has affected the timeliness, accuracy and quality of statistics.

Computer use in information management, geographical information systems and remote sensing applications in Malaysia has developed rapidly since the 1970s. In the case of Peninsular Malaysia, efforts prior to 1996 to computerise data processing met with limited success. There was no single integrated system, but a number of systems and applications operating in isolation. Their use was complex and their relationships poorly structured or non-existent. Different systems frequently required identical information and the same data were often entered several times, resulting in inconsistencies and inefficient use of scarce staff time. Consequently, in 1996, the Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia embarked on an ambitious programme entitled ‘The Mapping and GIS Project’ with financial and technical assistance from the European Commission. The primary objective was to develop and operationalise on-line forestry applications within each of Peninsular Malaysia’s State Forestry Department. The project encompassed three systems, a Management Information System (MIS), a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a remote sensing system. The integrated systems would have linked the various State Forestry Departments and the Forestry Department Headquarters. However, in 1999 The EU terminated the Project and the integrated GIS and MIS Systems remained uncompleted and uninstalled. The Forestry Department is now continuing the project using internal sources of funding and local expertise.

Completing the Joint Forestry Sector Questionnaire

A number of difficulties are encountered in collating data required for the Joint Forestry Sector Questionnaire. In particular, these relate to obtaining data from the three regions of Malaysia and also from the various government agencies.

Annually, ITTO sends the questionnaire to Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia (MPI), the main agency responsible for collecting, coordinating and disseminating forest and forest products data in Malaysia. To complete the questionnaire, MPI enlists assistance from departments and agencies under the Ministry of Forestry. For instance, removal and production data can only be obtained from the Forestry Departments, while trade statistics are from the respective Forestry Departments, the Department of Statistics and the Malaysian Timber Industry Board, which itself obtains data from area offices and MATRADE. In addition, miscellaneous text questions may have to be referred to forest industries, timber associations or other agencies not in the stipulated mailing list of MPI.

Even though exact definitions for all terms and classifications are given, problems still arise in interpretation of items and fields in the questionnaire. For instance, removals and production are often interpreted as the same thing as are roundwood, sawlogs and veneer logs. It is therefore necessary to simplify definitions and reduce ambiguity in the terminology used.

Recommendations to improve the forest products statistical system

The economic importance of obtaining forest statistics in time should be formally and clearly presented to the State Land Departments, the State and District Administrative Offices and other development agencies. This will facilitate improvement in their statistics and planning processes to meet Forestry Department deadlines.

For the overall development of forestry sector statistics, the Forestry Department Planning Unit should be established as a centre to co-ordinate the efforts of the Forestry Department Divisions and other forestry organisations. For this purpose, a forestry sector statistics standing committee should be established to assist the Planning Unit in its development. The committee should contain representatives from the Forestry Department, The Statistics Department, The Malaysian Timber Industry Board, land agencies and the private sector.

In each State Forestry Department the responsibility of the continuo us development and production of statistics should be vested with a particular senior Forest Officer.

In view of the extent and volume of forestry data being collected at all levels in the Forestry Department, the use of computers has become necessary. Computerisation offers an efficient and cost effective means of acquiring, storing, updating and retrieving forest statistics in a timely and accurate manner. Operation of computerised systems requires planning and implementation of staff training and routine upgrading of computer peripherals in line with technological developments.

Motivation and training of staff at all levels is an absolute necessity. Brief courses on forestry sector statistics should be arranged, with the assistance of The Department of Statistics and the Forestry Faculty at the Agricultural University. Courses could be arranged separately for (i) directors of the Federal and State Forestry Departments, (ii) other academically trained forest officers, (iii) forest officers at the diploma level, (iv) uniformed staff, and (v) statistical clerks. A course in forestry sector statistics should also be included in the curricula of the Forestry Faculty at the Agricultural University, the Forestry College and the Forestry School.


Future forestry statistics requirements will continue to arise from the planning and implementation levels in the forestry sector. However, at present the state of forestry statistics in Malaysia is, in general, satisfactory. Data sources are well identified and records kept at the sources are well maintained, especially with regard to routine data. Problems, which arise, are related to staff competence and the priority given to the work, which affects interpretation of questions and data and the eventual timeliness and accuracy of reporting.

In terms of data collection, procedures are adequate and seem to fulfil Forest Service data requirements. The most encouraging aspects in the present and future development of the statistical systems in Malaysia’s forestry sector are:

The development of forestry sector statistical systems must be a continuous process moving with the anticipated rapid pace of change in the sector. The traditional system of sustained yield timber production in Malaysia has now been replaced by the new paradigm of sustainable multi-resource forest management. Under such management, the emphasis reflects wider forestry issues, such as the needs to sustain production of NTFPs, enhance the protective functions of forests and conserve biological diversity. With these broadening approaches to management, data requirements will similarly expand beyond the present statutory and routine needs. However, the additional information will enable forest management practices to be more effectively evaluated against sustainable forest management criteria.



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Razani Ujang, Mohd Hizamri Yasin, Austin, D. & Rashid, A.S. 1994. Computer Information Technology, Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Activities in Malaysia. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Computer Applications of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Technical Working Group, ASEAN Institute of Forest Management, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia. 1998. Profile: Malaysia’s Primary Commodities.

Appendix 1. Agencies involved in wood-products related data

Policy-level government agencies

Ministry of Primary Industries Malaysia

Ministry of Land and Co-operative Development

The National Forestry Council

Other government departments/statutory bodies

Department of Statistics Malaysia

Prime Minister’s Department

Royal Customs and Excise Department

Labour Department Peninsular Malaysia

Survey and Mapping Department

Meteorological Services Department

Fire and Rescue Department

Aborigines Affairs Department

Ministry of Finance Malaysia

Ministry of International Trade and Industry

Ministry of Human Resources

Ministry Of Agriculture

Ministry of Education

Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment

Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism

Ministry of Works

Central Bank of Malaysia

Malaysian Timber Industries Board

Forest Research Institute Malaysia

The various State Governments

Land Development Agencies

Malaysian Tourism Promotion Board

Malaysian Industrial Development Authority

National Library of Malaysia


National Archives of Malaysia

National Institute of Public Administration

International Agencies

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO)

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

The World Bank

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Foreign Embassies

Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)

Other agencies

Malaysia Timber Council

Malaysian Timber Certification Council

Malaysian Panel-products Manufacturers’ Association

Timber Trade Federation of Malaysia (Sawmillers)

Timber Exporters’ Association of Malaysia

Malaysian Wood Moulding and Joinery Council

Malaysian Furniture Industry Council

Rubberwood Industry Association of Malaysia

Malaysia Pulp and Paper Manufacturers’ Association

Persatuan Pengusaha-Pengusaha Kayu-Kayan dan Perabot Bumiputera Malaysia

Persatuan Pembalak Bumi Sabah

Sarawak Timber Association

The Timber Association of Sabah

Institute of Strategic and International Studies

Machineries Suppliers

Malaysian Nature Society


World Wide Fund for Nature Malaysia


Local and foreign investors and banks

The Press

General Public


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