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Applicant - A private or public group or agency, or its representative, which requests permission to introduce or transfer any aquatic organism within or between countries.

Aquaculture - The (commercial) culture or husbandry of aquatic flora or fauna other than:

  1. the rearing of exotic hobby fish not viable under ambient local conditions
  2. provincial, state, or federal fisheries enhancement activities
  3. the use of aquatic organisms for experimental research purposes.

Aquatic organism - any plant or animal growing or living in fresh or salt water.

Bacteria - Extremely small, relatively simple prokaryotic microorganisms traditionally classified with the fungi as schizomycetes.

Biomass - The amount of living matter in the form of one or more kinds of organisms present in a particular habitat.

Broodstock - Specimens of a species, either as eggs, juveniles, or adults, from which a first or subsequent generation may be produced for possible introduction to the environment.

Carrying capacity - The population (as of one species of aquatic organism) that a given area will support without undergoing deterioration.

Competition - More or less active demand by two or more organisms or kinds of organisms at the same time for some environmental resource in excess of the supply available, typically resulting in ultimate elimination of the less effective organism from the particular ecologic niche.

Containment - Sometimes introductions may have adequate health certification but still be viewed as potential ecological risks. To determine the potential of such risks it may ultimately be necessary to establish some animals in an escape-proof situation to carry out tests or for breeding, e.g., to establish monosex or sterile progeny.

The essential features of containment facilities are that:

  1. animals cannot escape and that the regulatory authority agree on the design
  2. the design minimizes any risk of operator error causing animal escape
  3. unauthorized persons cannot gain access and cause the release of contained animals.

Country of origin - (= exporting country)
ICES - the country from which a specific consignment of a species
(regardless of its native range) is received.
EIFAC - the country where the species is native.

Country of receipt - (= importing country) The country to which a specific consignment of a species is sent for introduction, transfer, or quarantine.

Current commercial practice - Established and ongoing cultivation, rearing, or placement of an introduced or transferred species in the environment for aquaculture, commercial, or recreational purposes.

Cytopathic - Destruction of cells.

Disease - A deviation from the state of complete physical or social well-being of an organism involving a well defined set of symptoms and aetiology and leading to an impairment of its normal functions. For the purpose of the codes of practice and the protocol document, the word disease is also understood to mean all organisms, including parasites, that cause disease.

Ecology - A branch of science concerned with the interrelationships of organisms and their environments.

Electrophoretic analysis - Analysis of movement of suspended particles through a fluid under the action of an electronegative force applied to electrodes in contact with the suspension.

Epidemiological effect - The effect relating to or involving the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population, or: The sum of the factors controlling the presence or absence of a disease or pathogen.

Established species - Species with existing naturally reproductive populations.

Exotic species - (see introduced species)

Fitness - The quality or state of being fit or fitted. Also, a measure of the reproduction success of an individual.

Gamete - Mature germ cell (as a sperm or egg) possessing a haploid chromosome set and capable of initiating formation of a new individual by fusion with another gamete.

Gene - a segment of DNA that occupies a specific position (locus) on a chromosome, is heritable and has one or more specific effects upon the phenotype of an organism.

Gene pool - The elements of the germ plasm of a population serving as specific transmitters of hereditary characters.

Genetics - A branch of biology that deals with the heredity and variation of organisms and with the mechanisms by which these are effected.

Genetic base - The genetic make up and phenomena of an organism, type, group, or condition.

Genetic diversity - All of the genetic variation in an individual, population or species.

Gynogenesis - The production of offspring having all maternal inheritance (all chromosomes and genes obtained from the mother).

Indigenous - Exisiting and having originated naturally in a particular region or environment.

Introduced species - (= non-indigeneous species which includes exotic species) Any species intentionally or accidentally transported and released by man into an environment outside its present range.

Introgression - The entry or introduction of a gene from one gene complex (pool) into another.

In vivo - In that which is alive.

Maintained species - A species of aquatic organism which must be maintained artificially (no natural reproduction) in the environment into which it was introduced or transferred.

Marine species - Any aquatic species that does not spend its entire life cycle in fresh water.

Metabolic by-products - Of, relating to, or worked by metabolism.

Metabolism - The sum of the processes concerned in the building up of protoplasm and its destruction incidental to life.

Niche - The sum of the physical and biotic life-controlling factors (as climate, food sources, water supply, enemies, etc.). A site or habitat supplying these factors characteristically necessary for the successful existance of an organism or species in a given habitat.

Non-indigenous species - (see introduced species) Not originating or developing or not produced naturally in a particular land or region or environment, or; Introduced directly or indirectly from outside into a particular land or region or environment.

Parasite - An organism living in or on another living organism, obtaining from it part or all of its organic nutrient, and commonly exhibiting some degree of adaptive structural modification, usually causes some degree of real damage to its host.

Pathology - Is the study of disease by scientific methods. A pathological condition in an organism is a deviation from normal of known or unknown origin.

Pathogenic - Causing or capable of causing disease.

Polyploidy - State in which a cell or cells of an organism contain three or more haploid sets of chromosomes.

Population - A group of organisms occupying a specific geographic area or biome.

Predation - The killing and eating of an individual of one species by an individual of another species.

Prophylactic bath - Medicinal bath that prevents or helps to prevent disease.

Proponent - One who makes a proposal and who subsequently argues in favour of it. (see applicant)

Protocol - Detailed outline of methods for adhering to a code of practice.

Quarantine - A limitation of freedom of movement of individuals of an aquatic species exposed to communicable disease, for a period of time sufficient to test for the presence or absence of a disease.

Quarantined species - Any species held in a confined or enclosed system that is designed to prevent any possibility of the release of the species, or any of its diseases or any other associated organism into the environment.

Reproductive strategy - Behaviour patterns in different types of animals by means of which the sperm is brought to the egg and the parental care of the resulting young insured.

Stock - A population of organisms which, sharing a common gene pool, is sufficiently discrete to warrant consideration as a self-perpetuating system which can be managed (Larkin 1972).

Species - A group of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups (Mayr 1970).

Transfer - The movement of individuals of a species or population of an aquatic organism from one location to another within its present range.

Transferred species - (= transplanted species) Any species intentionally or accidentally transported and released within its present range.

Trophic interaction - Interaction of the feeding level through which the passage of energy through an ecosystem proceeds.

Virus - A large group of infectious agents ranging from 10 to 250 nanometres in diameter, composed of a protein sheath surrounding a nucleic acid core and capable of infecting all animals, plants, and bacteria; characterized by total dependence on living cells for reproduction and by lack of independent metabolism.


EIFAC/OP 1Summary of the organized discussion on the economic evaluation of sport fishing (1968)
EIFAC/OP 2Bibliography on nutritional requirements of salmonoid fishes (1968)
EIFAC/OP 3Application of electricity to freshwater fishery management and development in Ireland (1969)
EIFAC/OP 4Les pêcheries de la Roumanie et la pêche roumaine (1970)
EIFAC/OP 5Potential uses of waste waters and heated effluents (1971)
EIFAC/OP 6Investigation of a method for comparing the efficiency of portable fishing machines (1973)
EIFAC/OP 7Economic issues and opportunities facing Europe in the field of sport fisheries (1973)
EIFAC/OP 8Pond fish culture in Czechoslovakia (1973)
EIFAC/OP 9A review of feeding equipment in fish culture (1973)
EIFAC/OP 10Bibliography on nutritional requirements of warm water fishes (1975)
EIFAC/OP 11Survey of ownership and utilization of inland fisheries in various European countries and Canada (1976)
EIFAC/OP 12Glossary of inland fishery terms (1978)
EIFAC/OP 13Historical review of EIFAC activities (1981)
EIFAC/OP 14EIFAC experiments on pelagic fish stock assessment by acoustic methods in Lake Konnevesi, Finland (1982)
EIFAC/OP 15EIFAC experiments on pelagic fish stock assessment by acoustic methods in Lake Constance (1985)
EIFAC/OP 16National reports of EIFAC member countries for the period January 1984 – December 1985 (1986)
EIFAC/OP 17EIFAC experiments on pelagic fish stock assessment by acoustic methods in Lake Tegel (1987)
EIFAC/OP 18Bibliography of existing literature on selectivity of inland water fishing gear published by European authors (1987)
EIFAC/OP 19The decrease in aquatic vegetation in Europe and its consequences for fish populations (1987)
EIFAC/OP 20National reports of EIFAC member countries for the period January 1986 – December 1987 (1988)
EIFAC/OP 21Age determination of Anguilla anguilla (L.) and related species Marking and tagging methods applied to eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)
EIFAC/OP 22EIFAC Technical Consultation on genetic brood stock management and breeding practices of fin fish.


EIFAC documents are issued in three series:

EIFAC Reports

Report of each session in English and French

EIFAC Technical Papers

Selected scientific and technical papers, including some of those contributed as working documents to sessions of the Commission or its Sub-Commissions. Published in English and French, or one of these languages.

EIFAC Occasional Papers

Papers of general interest to the Commission. Published in the language submitted, either in English or French; sometimes in both languages.

Copies of these documents, when still available, can be obtained from:

European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission
Fisheries Department
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy

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