EIFAC Technical Paper No. 35 Suppl. 1EIFAC/T35 Suppl. 1

The Hague, 8–11 May 1979


edited by

E.A. Huisman
H. Hogendoorn

Department of Fish Culture and Inland Fisheries
Agricultural University, Wageningen, the Netherlands

Proceedings of Workshop, organized and supported by
European Inland Fishery Advisory Commission of FAO (EIFAC)
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, the Netherlands
The Hague, 8–11 May 1979

The Hague, 1979


Following a recommendation of the Eleventh Session of EIFAC (Hamburg, 1978), a Workshop on Mass Rearing of Fry and Fingerlings of Fresh Water Fishes was held from 8–11 May 1979 at The Hague, the Netherlands. The proceedings of this Workshop which was attended by 34 participants from 16 countries, are presented in this volume.

The hospitality of both the Dutch Government and the Organisation for Improvement of Inland Fisheries (OVB) for hosting the Workshop as well as the willingness of the Government to print this document are greatly appreciated.

The substantial support by Ir. B. Steinmetz, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, in organizing and conducting the Workshop in his capacity as technical secretary is gratefully acknowledged. Special gratitude is expressed to Ir. H. Hogendoorn, not only for being the rapporteur in charge during the conduct of the Workshop, but more also for his extensive effort in co-editing these proceedings.

Finally reference is made to EIFAC-Technical Paper No. 35, in which the report of the Workshop, including the organizational background information, is published.

Wageningen, December 1979
E.A. Huisman
(Workshop Chairman)

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1.   Introductory papers

Opening address,

by Dr. E. van Drimmelen.

The role of fry and fingerlings in fish culture,

by E.A. Huisman

Present status of mass rearing of fry and fingerlings in the EIFAC-region,

by A.G. Coche and G. Bianchi.


1.     Introduction

2.     Cyprinus carpio

3.     Tinca tinca

4.     Chinese carps

5.     Scardinius erythropthalmus

6.     Rutilus rutilus

7.     Silurus glanis

8.     Lucioperca lucioperca

9.     Esox lucius

10.   Coregonus spp.

11.   Salmo gairdneri

12.   Salmo trutta trutta and S. salar

13.   Salvelinus spp.

14.   Hucho hucho

15.   Thymallus thymallus

16.   Tables


2.   Review Papers

Controlled fry and fingerling production in hatcheries,

by Harry Westers

1.     Introduction

2.     Basic principles

2.1   Hydraulics

2.2   Water quantity

2.3   Water quality

3.     Production in intensive rearing facilities

3.1   Flow requirements

3.2   Space requirements

4.     Controlled production of a coolwater fish in an intensive rearing facility

5.     Current state of the art

6.     References

7.     Tables and figures

Fry and fingerling production under pond farm management conditions (carps and other cyprinids),

by G.Tamás and L. Horváth.

1.     Introduction

2.     Fry rearing

2.1   Non-feeding period

2.2   Feeding period

3.     Rearing of fingerlings

3.1   Preparation of fingerling rearing ponds

3.2   Stocking

3.3   Feeding

3.4   Control fishing

3.5   Harvesting, transportation, wintering

Feeds and feeding in fry and fingerling culture,

by J.J. van der Wind.

1.      Introduction

2.     Nutritional requirement of fry and fingerlings

2.1   General

2.2   Protein

2.3   Fat

2.4   Minerals

2.5   Carbohydrates

2.6   Vitamins

2.7   Water

3.     How to meet the requirements

4.     Feeding methods

5.     References

6.     Tables

Health protection of fry and fingerlings in mass rearing operations,

by N. Fijan.

1.     Introduction

2.     General considerations

3.     Factors affecting the fish health

3.1   Genotypic and physiological properties of parents

3.2   Water quality and rearing conditions

3.3   Feed and feeding

3.4   Mechanical injuries

3.5   Microbial and parasitic diseases

4.     Control of microbial and parasitic diseases

4.1   Prevention

4.2   Treatment by medication

5.     Monitoring of health status

6.     Conclusion

3.   Experience Papers

Indoor and pond rearing technology for fry and fingerlings of wels, Siluris glanis L.,

by L. Horváth

1.     Introduction

2.     Methods of rearing in the first summer

2.1   Fry rearing

2.2   Fingerling rearing

3.     Feeding

3.1   Feeding of fry

3.2   Feeding of fingerlings

4.     Veterinary aspects of wels rearing

4.1   Rearing in basins

4.2   Rearing in ponds

5.     References

6.     Tables and figure

Experiments of first-feeding of carp fry with alevon and freeze-dried fish,

by M. von Lukowicz.

1.     Introduction

2.     Experiment on first-feeding with alevon in 1975

3.     Experiment on first-feeding in 1976

3.1   Feeds

3.2   Experimental methods

3.3   Results

4.     Discussion

5.     References

6.     Tables

Mass rearing of fry and fingerlings of herbivorous fish up to one month of age,

by B. Ržaničanin

1.     Introduction

2.     Management procedures

3.     Experimental results

4.     Discussion

Herbivorous fish breeding and rearing

by V. K. Vinogradov

1.     Introduction

2.     Species characteristics

2.1   Grass carp

2.2   Bighead

2.3   Silver carp

2.4   Hybrids

2.5   Feed selectivity

3.     Reproduction

4.     Fry rearing

5.     Production

6.     References

Rearing of elvers,

by H. Koops.

1.     Introduction

2.     Culture of glass-eels

3.     Culture of glass-eels to fry and fingerling stage

4.     References

5.     Figure

Propagation and rearing of pike perch in pond culture,

by A. Antalfi

1.     General

2.     Propagation

2.1   Spawning in fish farms

2.2   Artificial reproduction

3.     Fry rearing

3.1   Fry rearing in ponds

3.2   Fingerling rearing in cages

4.     References

Mass rearing of fry and fingerlings of trout species (Salmo spp.),

by J. From.

1.     Introduction

2.     Rearing of fry

2.1   Facilities and management

2.2   Feeding

2.3   Cleaning

2.4   The most common diseases

3.     Rearing of fingerlings

3.1   Facilities and management

3.2   Feeding

3.3   Cleaning

3.4   The most common diseases

Mass rearing of fry and fingerlings of salmon species, (Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus spp.,

by O.J. Torrissen.

1.     Introduction

2.     Environmental factors

2.1   Water quality

2.2   Water supply

2.3   Water flow

2.4   Influence of light

3.     Incubator systems

3.1   Technical description and evaluation

3.2   Biological evaluation and nursery operations

4.     Rearing facilities

4.1   Man made ponds

4.2   Pens in natural lakes

4.3   Natural environment systems

4.4   Evaluation of different systems

5.     Feeds and feeding

5.1   Dietary requirements

5.2   Particle size

5.3   Feeding level and feeding frequency

6.     References

7.     Tables and figures

Production and reproduction of tench,

by M. von Lukowicz and Chr. Proske.

1.     Introduction

2.     Biological features

3.     Reproduction

4.     Rearing of fry

5.     Production

6.     References

Catfish farming in Italy,

by P. Ghittino.

1.     Introduction

2.     Catfish species presently reared in Italy

3.     Reproduction

4.     Rearing of fry and fingerlings

5.     Catfish farming management in Italy

6.     Biological risks

7.     References

Feeding and growth of fry and fingerlings of whitefish, Coregonus fera J.,

by G. Gunkel and H. Kausch.

1.     Introduction

2.     Controlled propagation in fishery management

3.     Laboratory experiments on growth of fry and fingerlings

4.     The growth model applied to natural conditions

5.     Summary

6.     References

7.     Figures

Culture of fry and fingerlings of pike, Esox lucius,

by G.A. Timmermans.

1.     Introduction

2.     Yolk sac fry culture

3.     Culture of fry and fingerlings up to 3 to 6 weeks

3.1   Extensive culture

3.2   Semi-extensive culture

3.3   Intensive culture

3.4   Feeding with non-living feeds

4.     Culture of summer pike

5.     References

First experiments concerning controlled reproduction and rearing of fry and fingerlings of rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.,

by J.G.P. Klein Breteler.

1.     Introduction

2.     Collection of eggs and sperm

3.     Fertilization and incubation of eggs

4.     Rearing of yolk sac fry

5.     Rearing of fry and fingerlings

6.     Conclusion

7.     References

8.     Tables

Food organisms for rearing of fry and mullet,

by D. Kahan.

1.     Introduction

2.     Experiments and results

3.     Acknowledgements

4.     References

Practical mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Muller),

by S. Rothbard.

1.     Introduction

2.     Chlorella tank culture

3.     The rotifer mass culture

3.1   The culture tank

3.2   Water conditions for rotifer culture

3.3   Inoculation of growing tanks

3.4   The routine counting of rotifers

3.5   Feeding the rotifers

3.6   Harvesting the rotifers

4.     References

5.     Tables and figures