Coconut Palm Stem Processing Technical Handbook

Wulf Killmann and Dieter Fink

Deutsche Gesellschaft
für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1–5
D-65760 Eschborn


Published by:
Protrade: Dept. Furniture and Wooden Products
Deutsche Gesellschaft
für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Post-office box 51 80
D-65726 Eschborn
Federal Republic of Germany
Telephone: (00 49) 61 96 /79-0
Fax: (00 49) 61 96/79-74 14
e-mail via internet: [email protected]

Wulf Killmann and Dieter Fink

Wulf Killmann and Dieter Fink

On behalf of:
The German Federal Ministry for
Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)

Typeset and Print by:
Werbestudio Klein,
Brönners Druckerei Breidenstein GmbH
Frankfurt am Main

This manual was printed on non-chlorine-bleached paper

Nominal fee DM 119,
-August 1996

What is Protrade?

Protrade, founded in 1987, is the trade promotion programme of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. It works on behalf of and acts within the political framework of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Additionally, Protrade also runs trade promotion programmes for the European Com mission and other institutions.

Its aim is to contribute to the improvement of competitiveness of private small and medium-sized companies in developing countries and economies in transition, thus generating additional employment and income.

The north-south trade promotion programme and the newly established south-south/regional trade programme cover the following services:

Product Consultancy: product development, design, procurement, production technology, quality assurance and environmental conservation.

Marketing Consultancy: market/trade sector analysis, export marketing, distribution, price structuring; packaging/logistics, special emphasis on sales promotion, advertising and PR measures in the EU.

Trade Fair Consultancy: stand layout, decoration and product presentation; follow-up, organisation and implementation of press conferences; buyer-seller meetings.

Trade Fair Subsidies: for national group stands comprised of at least three companies.

Market Information Service: seminars, workshops; marketing handbooks, export manuals, technical handbooks, trend informations; (83 titles are currently available).

Depending on requirements, and in accordance with the conditions of the European markets, a tailor-made package of measures is conceived for each company. Protrade experts provide on-the-spot advice in over 80 countries and assist in the preparation for trade fair participation in Germany and other EU countries, as well as supporting exhibitors in new business transactions.

Protrade is currently concentrating on the following sectors:

The Protrade balance sheet shows the following benchmark data: 34 employees, 650 assignments annually by 305 experts on short-term contract basis, consultancy services rendered to some 1,800 companies in 64 countries, and supported national group stands at 65 European trade fairs.

Protrade is a member of the FORUM of the European Trade Promotion Organisation (TPO) and the Joint Advisory Committee (JAC) of ITC, Geneva. At the present it actively supports 13 joint trade promotion activities of the FORUM members regarding trade promotion, trade fairs, exports and publications.

Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


What is Protrade?


1   The resource

1.1   The coconut palm

1.2   Properties of the palm stem

1.3   Defects in palm stems

2.   Products and design

2.1   Products

2.2   Design

2.2.1   Preferred jointing and construction techniques

2.2.2   The wood structure as a design feature

3   Harvesting and transport

3.1   Felling

3.2   Bucking and skidding

3.3   Loading and transport

3.4   Unloading and log-yard storage

4   Primary processing

4.1   Sawing patterns

4.2   Cleaning and amp-loading of logs

4.3   Break down of logs

4.3.1   Splitting

4.3.2   Handsawing with two-man ripsaw

4.3.3   Chain-sawing

4.3.4   Circular sawing

4.3.5   Band-sawing

4.3.6   Frame-sawing

4.3.7   Comparison of different saws

4.4   Resawing and trimming

4.5   Cutting steels and saw maintenance

4.6   Peeling and slicing

4.7   Chipping for wood-based panels

4.8   Utilization and disposal of waste

5   Grading

5.1   Visual grading

5.2   Grading by weight

5.3   Basic density determination

5.4   Pilodyn grading

6.   Seasoning

6.1   Moisture content assessment

6.2   Stacking

6.3   Drying

6.3.1   Air-drying

6.3.2   Kiln-drying   Solar-drying   Convection-drying   Condensation-drying   Vacuum-drying   Comparison of different drying methods

6.4   Seasoning defects

6.5   Seasoning of poles

7   Timber protection

7.1   Constructive prevention

7.2   Wood preservatives

7.3   Preservation methods

7.3.1   Charring

7.3.2   Dip treatment

7.3.3   Brushing/spraying

7.3.4   Soaking

7.3.5   Hot and cold bath

7.3.6   Diffusion processes

7.3.7   Pressure treatment

8   Secondary processing

8.1   Introduction

8.2   Processing sequences for various products

8.2.1   Frame door with panelling

8.2.2   Chair back leg

8.2.3   Parquet block

8.2.4   Turned components

8.2.5   Laminated table-top

8.3   Effects of the properties of the wood on its machinability by cutting methods

8.4   Basics of wood machining

8.5   General remarks on tool and machine design

8.5.1   Machine characteristics

8.5.2   Tool characteristics

8.6   Machining methods in secondary processing

8.6.1   Sawing

8.6.2   Narrow band-sawing

8.6.3   Planing (Peripheral flat planing)

8.6.4   Profiling/moulding

8.6.5   End-face planing (hogging)

8.6.6   Boring

8.6.7   Sanding

8.6.8   Mortising and tenoning

8.6.9   Dovetailing

8.6.10   Swing chisel mortising

8.6.11   Lathe-turning

8.7   Gluing technique

8.8   The finishing of coconut palm wood for the important cutting methods for coconut palm wood

8.9   Summary of machining conditions

8.10   Sequence to determine machining conditions

9   Energy from coconut wood

9.1   Firewood

9.2   Charcoal

10   Economics

10.1   Profitability

10.2   Calculation of costs for cut timber from coconut palm wood

10.2.1   Capacities

10.2.2   Calculation of manufacturing costs

10.3   Cash-flow analysis and internal rate of return of a coconut palm wood furniture plant

11   Marketing

12   Checklist: How to start coconut palm stem utilization

13   Glossary

14    List of Tables

15   List of Figures

16   List of Photos

17   Abbreviations

18   Literature cited