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3.1 Secretariat of Marine Wealth

The Secretariat of Marine Wealth (SMW) was established in 1988 as a separate ministry responsible for all administration, planning, management, research, and development activities for the fisheries and aquaculture sector. Along with other government secretariats, the SMW operates from headquarters in Sirte, the country's administrative capital. As indicated by the chart shown in Annex 2, SMW is constituted under the authority of the Secretary of Marine Wealth. Reporting to the Secretary are the Committee Affairs Office and the Under-Secretary. The Legal Office and the Under-Secretary Assistant for Finance and Administration report through the Under-Secretary, as does the Under-Secretary Assistant. There are six general departments through which administrative, financial, operational, and technical matters are handled. These include: Finance & Administration; Technical Affairs; Training & Labourforce Development; Harbours & Marine Wealth Protection; Production & Marketing; and Planning, Follow-up, & Technical Cooperation. Constituent agencies of the SMW include: the Marine Biology Research Centre (MBRC); the National Fishing & Marketing Co. (NAFIMCO); the National Canning Co. (NACACO); LISPAFISH; the Harbour & Landing Site Bureau; the General Aquaculture Development Authority (GADA, together with its operational arm, the Aquaculture Projects Corporation or APC); and the Marine Sport Clubs Project.

Restructuring of parts of the SMW organisation was carried out in 1995 and as a consequence some departments and agencies are still being consolidated. The newly created SMW Information & Data Documentation Centre, for instance, is not yet fully established. Reportedly, it will function along lines laid out by the new General National Authority for Information & Documentation, the national office through which the recently formulated national information system policy is being implemented. Also under the process of consolidation is a new SMW local administrative committee system (to replace the old system of SMW regional or baladiya (muncipality) offices). This new arrangement will cover nine coastal zones, including: Zawia (Tunisian border to Zawia area), Tripoli (Janzour area to Tajura area), El Nagaza (from Tajura - Qasr Khiar) Misrata (Khoms area to Tawarghah area); Souf Jeen (Hisha area to Bueirat El Hassun area); El Wousta (Sirte area to Shat El Badin area); Benghazi (from Shat El Badin area to Addirsiyah area); Jabal Akhdar (El Ogla area to Derna area); El Batnan (from Derna area to Egyptian border).

Current task distribution between SMW offices and departments is as indicated in Table 2. Table 3 provides capsule summaries of the various SMW agencies, institutes, and companies. Sites noted in the table can be located on the maps in Annex 1.

Table 2. SMW departments and functions*

Committee Affairs Office
1)Receive all reports and correspondence, distribute within the Secretariat.
2)Prepare for Committee meetings.
3)Organise the Secretary's appointments and keep all documents.
4)Prepare all SMW publications and information pamphlets, TV and radio programmes.
Legal Office
1)Prepare and review all legislation and decisions to be issued by SMW.
2)Provide consultation on all legal issues.
3)Prepare and review proposals for laws and regulations.
4)Defend SMW in case of any law suits.
5)Prepare and review all SMW contracts.
Dept. of Planning, Follow-up & Technical Co-operation
1)Prepare technical and economic studies related to sector development plans, including suggestions on investment required and source of finance.
2)Follow-up of SMW decisions and orders and prepare reports.
3)Prepare quarterly and yearly follow-up reports of all sector activities.
4)Prepare for participation in national and international meetings or conferences related to the sector.
5)Prepare for international missions and visitors and follow-up technical co-operation agreements.
Technical Affairs Dept.
1)Conduct feasibility studies for infrastructure and other complementary facilities.
2)Prepare technical specifications and conditions for implementation of all SMW projects.
3)Study all project proposals and tenders concerned with SMW projects and select the best proposals.
4)Prepare maintenance plans for all SMW projects.
5)Study and recommend ways of developing fishing fleet and gear maintenance programmes.
6)Study any technical problems that may occur in the canning factories and suggest solutions.
7)Supervise SMW project implementation.
Dept. of Marine Harbours & Protection
1)Supervision and adminstration of landing sites and facilities.
2)Licensing of boats and trawlers and inspecting them for compliance with regulations.
3)Supervise implemenation of pollution control plan.
4)Provide consulation as needed for fishing craft maintenance and repair to meet requirements for issuing certificate of compliance according to international rules.
5)Supervise implementation of regulations and rules issued by SMW concerning landing sites.
6)Prevention of any illegal fishing and institution of actions against violators.
7)Propose suggestions for licensing conditions for fishing fleet.
8)Supervise operation and adminstration of communication systems.
9)Follow -up regulations and rules implemention concerning fishing areas, species allowed for catch, and closed fishing periods.
10)Protection of fisheries from overexploitation.
11)Monitoring and surveillance of pollution and correction of pollution problems.
12)Preparation of all safety requirement rules related to landing sites and fishing fleet.
Dept. of Production & Marketing
1)Determine production limits for state companies and follow-up on implementation.
2)Collection and analysis of all production data and prepare recomendations based on evaluation.
3)Co-operate with other departments in recommending gear and equipment specifications and requirements and disseminate this information.
4)Review product development and control quality in canning factories to ensure conformance with international specifications.
5)Investigate possibilities for new technology for the development of fisheries and aquaculture.
6)Review financial position of state companies and conduct analysis of their efficiency.
7)Review organisation charts and other administrative and financial arrangements for state companies and ensure that activities are in accordance with proper procedures.
8)Prepare studies for company establishment.
9)Provide assistance to state companies in solving their problems.
10)Inspect all state companies and other bodies belonging to SMW and evaluate their performance.
11)Review studies concerning aquaculture site selection with the help of MBRC and other bodies.
12)Implement studies and suggested programmes for co-operative development.
13)Study applications for co-operative and tasharukia establishment, issue their licenses, and supervise their activities.
14)Responsibility for all matters related to fish farming projects.
15)Investigation and resolution of all reports and complaints against co-operatives, tasharukiat, and state companies.
16)Responsibility for all matters concerning privatisation.
17)Suggest plans and practical programmes necessary for implementation of local and international marketing policy, pricing, export licenses (in co-operation with other specialised authorities), and for other fish product distribution facilities.
18)Conduct marketing evaluation studies and suggest any improvements required.
Dept. of Training & Labourforce Development
1)Preparation and implementation of training plan for sector.
2)Collection of data on sector labour needs by specialisation and setting of appropriate training programmes.
3)Supervision of training centres and setting curriculum requirements in co-operation with other specialised authorities.
4)Setting requirements for acceptance of trainees.
5)Carrying out extension programmes on safety, resource use, and other technical subjects in fisheries.
Dept of Finance & Adminstration:     To deal with all financial procedures and employee affairs.

* Source: SMW HQ Office, Sirte.

Table 3. SMW companies and agencies: summary information*

1.  National Fishing &Marketing Company (NAFIMCO)
  • HQ: Zwara
  • Est. 1979.
  • Production & marketing fish products, area from Tunisian border to Zliten.
  • Supply of fishing gear & equip.
  • Fish processing.
  • Capital: 4,484,170 LD
  • Labour force: 457 (257 Libyan, 200 Non-Libyan)
  • Production units: 15 trawlers; 41 gillnetters (‘mator’); 1 chill complex; 2 canning factories under implementation (Zliten & Sabratah); 40 refrig. trucks.
2.  National Canning Company (NACACO)
  • HQ: Tripoli
  • Est. 1969
  • Management and operation of canning factories.
  • Marketing fish products.
  • Operation, maintenance chill complexes.
  • Capital: 8,423,878 LD
  • Labour force: 471 (437 Libyan; 34 Non-Libyan).
  • Production units: 5 canning factories (Zwara; Sabratah; Zanzur; Khoms; Benghazi); 5 chill complexes (Zwara, Tripoli, Khoms, Misratah, Benghazi).
  • One further canning factory and can manufacturing plant under study (Misratah).
3.  Khalij Fishing Company
(Now merged with NAFIMCO)
  • HQ:Sifte
  • Est. 1988
  • Production & marketing of fish products, area from Zliten to Ajdabia and south.
  • Capital: 3,452,074 LD
  • Labour force: 235 (56 Libyan; 179 Non-Libyan).
  • Production units: 13 trawlers; 7 gillnetters (‘mator’); 32 Refrig trucks.
4.  Libyan Fishing Company
(Now merged with NAFIMCO)
  • HQ:Susah
  • Est. 1988
  • Production & marketing of fish products, area from Ajdabia to Egyptian border and south
  • Capital: 3,376,679 LD
  • Labour force: 151 (76 Libyan; 75 Non-Libyan).
  • Production units: 9 trawlers; 13 gillnetters (‘mator’); 27 Refrig. trucks
5.  Maintenance & Marine Equip. Co. (Now ‘Harbour & Landing Site Dev. Bureau’
  • HQ: Zwara
  • Est. 1988
  • Construction & maintenance of fishing boats and trawlers
  • Administration, operation, maintenance landing sites and chilling complexes.
  • Capital: 15,287,584 LD
  • Labour force: 284 (268 Libyan, 16 Non-Libyan).
  • Production units: Dry dock, workshops (Zwara).

(Vessel construction, maintenance now under Sect. of Transporation; chill complex ops. to NACACO.)
6.  Libyan-Spanish Co. (LISPAFISH)
  • HQ: Tripoli
  • Est. 1976
  • Fishing: national waters, high seas.
  • Marketing of fish products.
  • Capital: 3,929,876 LD (97.8% Libyan, 2.2% Spanish).
  • Labour force (main office administration): 18 (14 Libyan, 4 Non-Libyan).
  • Production units: 5 longliners; 5 purse seiners.
7.  General Aquaculture Development Authority (GADA)
  • HQ:Khoms
  • Est. 1988
  • Fish farming through the use of gulfs, lagoons, and reservoirs.
  • Affiliates: Aquatic Protein Co. Est. 1992; Aquaculture Projects Corporation (APC). Est. 1992.
  • Total labour force: 65.

Aquatic Protein Co. (Under formation)
  • Investment in fish farming activities.
  • Capital 10,000,000 LD (50% GADA, 50% Labour Union Investment Funds).
  • Fish and shrimp farming, hatchery operations (Ain Kaam, Ain Ghazala, Ain Ziana).
  • Capital: 4,000,000
8.  Marine Biology Research Centre (MBRC)
  • HQ: Tajura (Tripoli)
  • Est. 1984
  • Conduct research, studies on development, use national marine resources.
  • Provide technical advice and consultation on marine wealth issues.
  • Facilities: 49m LOA research vessel, R/V NOUR; 4 lab sections (marine chemistry & environment, plankton; benthos; fish biology & aquaculture); public aquarium; taxonomic museum; experimental tank rooms; teaching facilites.
  • Staff: 36 Research officers; 34 Administrative staff; 22 R/V officers, crew.
9.  Cooperative societies (Jamaiya)
  • Est. under Law 23 of 1991.
Provide support to local fisher members for: gear, equip. purchase; distribution and marketing channels; social services.
  • No. of local coops registered by 1994: 21
  • No. of coop affiliated boats: 1090.
  • No. of coop members: 1176.
10. Tasharukiat (private partnership/ owner-operated companies).
  • Est. under Law 9 of 1985.
  • Encourage private investment in, operation of partnership companies for fishing and fishing-related activities.
By 1994 number of registered tasharukiat for various fields of activity as follows:
  • Artisanal fishing: 363
  • Trawling: 80
  • Sponge fishing and processing: 6
  • Fishing and marketing: 14
  • Fish processing and marketing: 19
  • Fish canning: 4
  • Boat building, maintenance: 5
  • Gear/equip, manufacture: 2
  • Others: 36
11. Marine Sports Clubs (Enadi El Bahri).
  • Est. under SMW 1994.
  • Training, encouragement of youth in fishing and other marine-oriented sports and hobbies.
  • Formerly under military sponsorship, SMW review committee appointed for revitalising programme.
  • Five clubs in Zwara, Zawia, Tripoli, Misratah, Benghazi. Boats, fishing gear, snorkling equipment, etc.

* Based on official SMW reports (SMW 1994, 1995).

3.2 Development Objectives

The SMW situates sectoral development objectives within the broader context of national objectives of general welfare enhancement through economic diversification, creation of greater employment opportunities, and promotion of food self-sufficiency. Reference is thus made in various SMW reports to commitments to improve the sector's performance as a source of food, employment, and earnings through increased production and more efficient utilisation of marine resources in ways that are consistent with the requirement for sustainable development (SMW 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1995).

3.3 Development Programmes and Policies

The fisheries authorities have taken a number of initiatives to encourage growth in productive and processing-marketing capacity, notably in recent years. The basic strategy followed since the establishment of SMW in 1988 has been one of broad sectoral development in terms of productive and post-harvest capacities and supporting infrastructure. The Secretariat has either directly or indirectly through its state companies assumed a key role in investment initiatives and in the ownership and operation of major industry services, facilities, and commercial enterprises. Substantial efforts have thus been mounted to construct or upgrade fishing ports and landing sites and onshore installations, to procure new trawler and smallcraft fishing units for state company fleets, and to promote growth in the artisanal harvest sector through special import arrangements for gear and equipment, and the creation of input supply networks.

In keeping with recent national policy reorientation towards privatisation and selective divestment of property and productive assets of state-controlled companies, the SMW has within the last few years encouraged the sale of fishing craft, processing units, and other equipment to individuals and tasharukiat. As of December 1995 about 150 individuals and tasharukiat have been provided with credit facilities through local development banks. Also, the Secretariat through its companies has arranged the sale of 17 trawlers, 30 gillnetters (>14m LOA), 12 chill stores, 4 ice factories, 2 freezing tunnels, 8 refrigerated trucks, 50 marketing vans, and 4 tonnaras (fixed gear tuna stations)/canning factories.

Indications of the scale and scope of SMW commitments towards sectoral development are provided in Tables 4 through 7. Table 4 depicts an official SMW summary assessment of planned versus actual target achievements for the period from 1988, whilst Table 5 gives a more detailed breakdown for specific activity areas. Tables 6 and 7 show, respectively, development expenditure for funds allotted to the Secretariat directly from the Treasury since 1988, and development expenditure financed through local or international credit arrangements over the same period.

Table 4. Rates of planned versus actual SMW activity/project implementation, from 1988*

(by end 1994)
Estimated % ImplementationObservations
1.Production50,000t33,500t67%Annual production
2.Trawlers1489665%Vessel units
3.Fishing boats25002500100%Vessel units
4.Cold stores14,000 t11,000179%Capacity in tonnes
5.ResearchLIBFISH Project & Marine Atlas--90%Estimated work completed
6.Training3,000 trainees2,127 trainees70%Five year plan 1988–93
7.AquacultureDev. existing, est. new stationsFrom 2 to 4.----
8.Fishing & marketing companiesIncrease numberFrom 4 to 8----
9.Canning factoriesDev. existing, est. new factoriesFrom 63 tol54t/day140%Capacity raw material t/day
10.Communication/ wireless100 shore stations
1065 radio sets
15 stations 550 sets15%
30 new stations contracted; 450 sets under order.
11.TasharukiatIncrease number529--Total with permission; most not active as awaiting loans.
12.MBRCMaintenance, development--80%Estimated work completed.

*Source: SMW (1995).

Table 5. Planned versus actual SMW activity/project implementation, from 1988*


Training & labour force development
  • Training centres: 12 opened along the coast.
  • Medium-level technical training: 60 students now in marine high school
  • Higher training: 70 students in Marine Academy navigation and mechanical courses.
  • Admin, training: 120 persons trained for different administrative jobs during 1991–91.
  • Training abroad: 87 students sponsored for advanced studies in various scientific and technical fields; 82 have returned.
--Train 6000 persons in different technical and administrative fields by the year 2000.
Harbour & marsa developmentUnder implementation:Studies & Projects Under Contracting:
--Projects involving 16 harbours, 14 marsas (anchorages) distributed throughout coast, plus maintenance, upgrade existing facilities.
  • Cleaning Farwa Lagoon (Abu Kamash), upgrading pier.
  • Maintenance, development Misratah, Bardiyah harbours.
  • Boat ramps, Zuagha, Bab el Baher.
  • Two fishing docks, Tubruk.
  • Upgrade Susah harbour.
  • Maintenance dock, breakwater in Sirte old harbour.
  • Survey work, Garabulli, Harawa marsas.
  • Importation 5 boat lifts, 50t capacity (Completed).
  • Maintenance Sidi Blal harbour.
  • Importation 3 boat lifts, 50t capacity (Zliten, Sirte, Khoms).
  • Development of harbours in: Benghazi, Zliten, Khoms, Tripoli.
  • Study/designs for marsas/harbours in: Tolmeita, Zreg, Ben Jawad, Zwitina, Derna.
Studies & Designs Completed:
  • Study/design for Marsa Dila, Surman, Zuagah.
Chill & refrigeration facilities
  • Construction, operation 5 chill/cold complexes (Tripoli, Benghazi, Miratah, Khoms, Zwara)
  • Installation, operations 30 containerised units (chill rooms, freezing tunnels); 13 ice stores; 6 freezing tunnels.
  • Maintenance of 8 existing refrigeration facilities.
  • Chilling complexes Susah & Tubruk (under implementation).
  • Chilling complex, Zliten (under contract).
  • (Under study) 3 chilling complexes, 6 ice factories, 4 fast freezing tunnels, 10 chill storage units, maintenance Tolmeita chill store.
--Completion 14,000t installed capacity various sites along the coast.
  • Most existing canning facilities maintained.
  • Contracts arranged for two new factories (Zliten and Sabratah), ca. 100 t/day capacity.
  • Contract in process for additional canning factory and can container manufacturing plant.
--Maintenance 5 existing canneries, construction 3 new.
Communication equipmentInstalled: 15 stations, 550 radio sets.Under implementation: 30 stations,
--Installation 100 stations and 1065 fixed and portable radio sets.450 radio sets.
AquacultureUnder operation:
• Ain Ghazala • Ain Kaam • Mjinine reservoir • Braak farm
Under implementation:•Ain Ziana • Dzira lake • Qirim • Farwa Lagoon
Studied as suitable sites:•Khalij Bumba • El Agheila • Wadi El Massid • El Hisha • Wadi El Khabta
Sites under study: • Wadi El Khalifa • Tajura • Sabratah • Sirte • Zliten • Garunis • Tuliel
--Operation existing stations and expansion of facilities.
PrivatisationSold by SMW companies to former staff: • 17 trawlers • 30 gillnetters • 4 tonnara/ canning factories • 4 chill units, 4 ice factories, 2 freezing tunnels 33 vans (coastal area) • 8 chill units, 8 refrig. trucks, 17 vans (inland area)A survey of fisheries tasharukiat conducted late 1995 found 107 active firms, of which 11 have received credit from SMW (1.9 million LD tot.) & 37 from the Development Bank (0.8 million LD); 59 are self-financed (5.5 million LD investment).
--Provide incentives for private sector parties to purchase and operate vessels and post-harvest facilities, with preference to existing company personnel.
Marine ProtectionFunds allocated for purchase of fast patrol boats.To be implemented in cooperation with Coast Guard, Navy, and Customs, establish fisheries patrol service.
--Funding and operation of a fisheries patrol service.

* Source: SMW (1994,1995).

Table 6. SMW development budget allocations, direct funding (Treasury), 1988–95*

As at 10/95Expected by end '95
1.Harbours & Marsas      
 --Study & designUnderway2,447,918729,195929,1951,518,723678,668
 --Civil works IUnderway9,357,1304.473,7926.373.7922.983.3382.983.338
 --Civil works IITo be contracted55,800,577--400,00055.400,5776,000,000
 Sub-Total 67.605,.6255,282,9877,702,98759,902,6389,662,006
2.Communication & Guard boats      
 --Communication equip.Underway500,000270,000370,000130,000108,334
 --Fishing accessoriesUnderway500,000--100,000400,000400,000
 --Boats for fisheries patrolContracted7,452,000--500,0006,952,0004,285,334
 Sub-Total 8,452,000270,000970,0007,482,0004,783,668
3.Chill & Freezing Units      
 --7 Chill & freezing complexes.Underway13,165,65911,417,51612,017,5161,148,1431,116,668
 --Chill unit & equip.Underway367,000--100,000267,000267,000
 Sub-Total 13,532,65911,417,51612,117,5161,415,1431,383,668
5.Training & Research      
 --Research studiesUnderway2,500,000800,0001,100,0001,400,000687,670
 Sub-Total 3,500,0001,100,0001,700,0001,800,0001,087,670
TOTAL 93,090,28421,670,50327,290,50376,799,78122,752,346

*Source: SMW (1995).

Table 7. SMW development credit allocations, local and international sources, 1988–95*

By end '95
SMW4,560,0003,025,7781,534,222LIBFISH Project
Khalij Fish Co.10,004,5688895179,115,051Trawlers & operating equip.
National Fish Co.9,015,05009,015,050Trawler construction
NAFIMCO26,737,73710,395,81316,341,924Trawler construction & maintenance; 2 canning factories
NACACO9,456,3617,464,8931,991,468Development existing canning factories
Maintenance Co.500,000477,15822,842Equip purchase, operation & maintenance.
Libyan-Spanish Co.15,093,600653,80014,439,800High seas fishing vessels, operations & maintenance.

*Source: SMW (1995).

3.4 The Legislative Framework

The regulatory tools through which SMW seeks to secure fisheries development and management aims are codified as Law 14 of 1989 Concerning Utilisation of Marine Wealth (SMW 1989a) and its supplements, Decision 71/90 Concerning the Legal Intrepretation of Law 14 of 1989 (SMW 1990) and Decision 80/1991 Concerning the Technical Interpretation of Law 14 of 1989 (SMW 1991). These are reproduced in unofficial, indicative English translation from the Arabic original text in Annex 3. Also included in Annex 3 are unofficial summary translations of additional policy instruments pertaining to the organisation and functions of fisheries co-operatives (GCP 1991), implementation rules for co-operatives (SMW 1992), provision of subsidies to the industry (SMW 1989b) and the establishment of tasharukiat. (GPC 1985).

A summary list of key laws and decisions that have been issued since the establishment of the SMW in 1988 is shown in the table below.

Table 8. Fisheries-related legislation and decisions*

SMW ReferenceContents/Effect
Law 14/1989Basic legislation establishing SMW competencies and regulation of marine wealth use and preservation.
Decision No. 106/1988Establishes basis and procedures for providing subsidies and encouragement to operators in the marine fisheries.
Decision No. 5/1990Provisions for custom duty exemption for fishing gear and equipment.
Decision No. 71/1990Elaborates provisions of Law 14 and procedures pertaining thereto.
Decision No. 80/1991Provides technical explanations and specifications for the implementation of Law 14.
General People's Congress Decision No. 17/1991Prohibition on contracts with foreign owned companies for fishing in Libyan waters, or for use of any foreign vessels to utilise marine wealth in Libyan territorial waters. Stipulates that licenses for marine wealth utilisation should be issued to Libyan nationals only.
General People's Congress Law No. 23/1991Basic legislation authorising creation and operation of fishing cooperatives.
Decision No. 7/1992Elaborates provisions and procedures pertaining to Law No. 23.
Decision No. 95/1993Prohibition on use of monofilament nets and No. 11 hooks for fishing.
Decision No. 97/1993Prohibition on trawling in some areas during July and August spawning period for certain species.
Decision No. 98/1993Authorises SMW staff in the municipalities and regions and Libyan trawler captains and their assistants working with NAFIMCO to act as legal officers.

* Source: SMW (1994).

3.5 Regional and International Conventions and Arrangements

A number of international and regional conventions, programmes, organisations, and arrangements are of central policy, planning, and management relevance to Libya's marine wealth sector (Caddy 1990,1993; Scovazzi 1994; ICCOPS 1995). However, the extent to which international agreement provisions are applied through national legislation and actual practice varies considerably. Also, in the case of fisheries-related regional programmes, organisations, and arrangements, participation by national agencies has rarely been regular or consistent. A partial listing of relevant conventions, codes, and programmes, existing or still under deliberation or process, includes the following:

Table 9. Conventions, codes, and programmes relevant to Libyan marine wealth sector policy, planning, and management (partial list)

  • Instruments and documents related to the 1984 FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development, the 1992 FAO Technical Consultation on High Seas Fishing, and the UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and the FAO Council on Fisheries, Technical Committee of the Council on the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
  • General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean (GFCM; Rome, 1949 -- agreement entered into force 1952).
  • International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT).
  • Mediterranean Regional Aquaculture Project (MEDRAP Phases I & II), and follow-on network system comprised of SEPAM (Information Systems), TECAM (Technology), SELAM (Socio-economic and Legal Aspects), and EAM (Environment).
Maritime/Fishing safety
  • International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
  • Torremolinos International Convention for the Safety of Fishing Vessels (1973), and Torremolinos Protocol (1993).
  • FAO/ILO/IMO Code of Safety for Fishermen and Fishing Vessels (Parts A & B)
  • FAO/ILO/IMO Guidelines for the Design, Construction, and Equipment of Small Fishing Vessels.
  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS, 1982 -- entered into force 16.11.94 for all States which have deposited instruments of ratification or accession)
Marine/Coastal Environment & Sustainable Development -- General
  • MARPOL 73/78 (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 and Protocol amendment 1978)
  • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna 1987) and Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal 1987).
  • United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, 1992; including Convention on Biological Diversity, and Agenda 21).
Marine/Coastal Environment & Sustainable Development - Mediterranean
  • UNEP Regional Seas Programme/Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP, 1975; Phase II 1995).
  • Med Agenda 21
  • ‘Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean’ (Amended title of the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution, Barcelona, 1976; including related protocols with recent amendents under the ‘Barcelona system’; new texts adopted by an intergovernmental conference in June 1995 in Barcelona).
    • Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft.
    • Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency
    • Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution from Land-based Sources(Athens 1980).
    • ‘Protocol Concerning Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity’ (New title and text for Protocol Concerning Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas -- Geneva 1982).
    • Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution resulting from Exploration and Exploitation of the Continental Shelf and the Seabed and its Subsoil (Madrid 1994).
    • ‘Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea resulting from the Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal’ (expected to be adopted within the Barcelona framework in 1996).
  • International Centre for Coastal and Ocean Policy Studies (ICCOPS -- NGO est. 1992, Genoa, Italy).
Bilateral agreements
  • Delimitation of the continental shelf between Libya and Malta (10.11.86).
  • Delimitation of the continental shelf between Libya and Tunisia (08.08.88).

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