Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


5.1 SMW Programmes and Policies

Development initiatives undertaken by the SMW since its establishment in 1988 have been in accordance with an overall set of guidelines, originally set out as a ‘Five Year Plan’ covering the 1988–1993 period (SMW 1994), Objectives in some cases have been indicated in rather general terms (e.g. ‘Development of aquaculture.’); in other cases specific targets have been defined, but with little apparent justification in terms of such considerations as state of the resources, market circumstances, or other technical details (e.g. ‘Increase number of trawlers up to 148 units and artisanal boats to 2500 units’). Clearer reference to the bio-technical and socio-economic context of sector development would provide a better basis for appreciating requirements, structuring programmes to meet them, and monitoring and evaluating progress accordingly.

It is evident in any event that the underlying SMW strategy for the sector has been one of very broad and ambitious capacity building, implying strong development commitments and attendant heavy capitalisation. And in these terms there has obviously been substantial delivery in the form of enlarged fishing and post-harvest capacity compared to levels of the mid-1980s and before. Such achievements nevertheless still only provide a potential for production and value-added activity expansion, as distinct from actual attainment. To what extent have fleet building and infrastructural investments been matched by increases in sector volume and value outputs? The continued lack of an adequate statistical monitoring and reporting system makes it difficult to gauge results with any precision. All the same, it would appear that a rather serious disproportion has emerged between sector value outputs -- the real benefits being produced, and development and operational commitments -- the costs of this production.

What seems indicated, therefore, is some measure of reorientation or readjustment in favour of consolidation and rationalisation of the industry. This would amount to a move away from what has been in effect a phase of strong expansion, marked by rapid capitalisation and capacity building, and into a phase of ‘optimisation,’ marked by more efficient utilisation of resources for maximum sustainability. The primary concerns of planning and management efforts would then become those of securing socio-economic benefits for the longer-term through cost-effective sector performance, quality management in all aspects of harvest and post-harvest activities, and protection of the strategic asset base -- the marine and coastal environment.

A voluntary model framework through which such reorientation could be effected is provided by the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAO 1995), key principles of which are already explicitly or implicitly a part of existing national fisheries policy and policy tools, especially SMW Law 14 of 1989 and its supplements. The draft Code (as of July 1995) now being finalised by the FAO Council on Fisheries, Technical Committee of the Council on the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries in anticipation of the Twenty-eighth session of the Conference on Fisheries, comprises eleven Articles, including:

Article 1Nature and scope of the Code
Article 2Objectives of the Code
Article 3Relationship with international instruments
Article 4Implementation, monitoring and updating
Article 5General principles
Article 6Fisheries management
Article 7Fishing operations
Article 8Aquaculture development
Article 9Integration of fisheries into coastal area management
Article 10Post-harvest practices and trade
Article 11Fisheries research

The following sections, in setting out a brief analysis of policy-, planning-and management-related issues and needs linked to capture fisheries, aquaculture development, coastal zone management, post-harvest activities, and fisheries research and technical support services within Libya, may be read against the backdrop of the Code in its present draft form. Breakdowns of national policy provision and implementation in relation to Articles 6 through 11 of the Code are presented, in as much detail as it has been possible to explore for the moment, in Tables A4/1 through A4/6 of Annex 4. An overall context is set by Article 5 of the Code, its General Principles, some key themes of which can be unofficially summarised or paraphrased as follows:10

5.2 Planning and Management of Capture Fisheries

5.2.1 Situation, problems, and prospects11

The industrial (trawl) fishery

Prospects for any significant expansion of exploitation of the trawlable stock in the western portion of territorial waters do not appear promising, if principles of sustainable management and the ‘precautionary approach’ to stock utilisation are to be respected. As noted in Section 4.1.2, the trawlable stock in these waters already appears to be near a state of full exploitation. It should be kept clearly in mind that estimated MSY findings of LIBFISH trawl survey work apply to the trawlable fraction of demersal stock for the western area (Tunisian border-Misurata and outwards), and does not take into account the untrawlable fraction which remains accessible to gear of the inshore artisanal fishery. This latter stock should be the subject of further assessment.

The recent trawl survey findings nevertheless stand as an important planning and management reference point, since they apply to the area where, for obvious reasons, virtually all of the Libyan trawl fishing is concentrated. As noted in Lambouef et al. (1995),

Most trawlable areas are located to the west of Missurata, and in waters outside of a coastal band reaching 30–50 metres deep in places. In the Gulf of Sirte free trawlable grounds are available in areas deeper than 200 metres. Inside this limit, it is likely that some fairways could be found through the implementation of a detailed ground survey with accurate positioning. In the east, the steep slope and bottom roughness leave little opportunities to find trawling ground. The present findings generally confirm the conclusions of similar studies conducted earlier for that portion of the coast.

Possibilities for expanded production in the industrial capture fisheries are not to be ruled out entirely, however. They are still to be explored, but on a selective basis - first for presently underutilised or more lightly fished species, and second, to a more limited extent, from grounds that are not now being fully exploited. With regard to the latter, further exploratory fishing surveys would be required to fully assess the potential of eastern grounds for future demersal fish exploitation:

A programme should be prepared to make a detailed survey of areas where trawl obstructions were found, in order to find fairways and passages. This is a long term exercise which implies the use a positioning system with plotting capacity, and a good echo-sounder. Heavy trawls and a sufficient supply of spare parts should be provided for, as substantial gear damage can be expected [ibid].

With regard to fuller exploitation of presently underutilised or lightly fished stocks, species including Piceral and Silver scabbardfish do not seem to be of much commercial interest, yet are present in significant quantities. Based on experiences gained during the LIBFISH trawl surveys, the wider use of High Vertical Opening (HVO) trawls would be a means of exploiting Horse mackerel, Chub mackerel, and Silver scabbardfish resources that are presently not accessible to the traditional Mediterranean trawl.

Of particular note is the situation with regard to small pelagics. It could well prove worthwhile to explore the use of techniques such as midwater trawling to exploit that part of the small pelagic stock not accessible to the traditional lampara fishing fleet, especially along the eastern sections of the coastline.

All of this said, it is also the case that only around one quarter of the industrial fleet units are known to be active. Most state and private units remain out of operation due to problems of crew shortages and lack of spare parts and repair facilities. For the industrial fishery overall, it would now seem appropriate to give priority to improvement of operational efficiencies rather than to any further expansion of fleet -capacity. Such a strategy would require the resolution of outstanding management, maintenance, and labour problems that are currently hampering the performance of existing units.

The artisanal fishery

Similar problems of apparent surplus capacity and operational inefficiencies affect the artisanal fishing fleet units, only about half of which are currently in active service. As in the case of the industrial fleet, improved performance based on existing capacity rather than its expansion would seem the preferable development path to follow. This would best be accomplished through a carefully applied mix of such initiatives as: management measures to restrict wasteful and destructive fishing practices, and to curtail pollution and habitat degradation in the coastal zone; improved access for artisanal operators to boat and engine repair services; lifting of fixed pricing rules and export restrictions, as appropriate; and promotion of improved catch handling practices to gain better market value. A rehabilitation of the fisheries training centre programme to provide students with more practical fishing and smallcraft operational experience and skills is also needed to encourage greater local participation in the industry.

Capture fisheries management in the wider Mediterranean setting

Past approaches and present options for the management of fisheries within the GFCM area have been reviewed by Caddy (1990, 1993), who points out that concerns which were being expressed in the 1950s on the need to curtail overfishing and pressure on inshore nursery areas remain matters for priority action to this day. His remarks on the general Mediterranean scene provide a useful perspective on the particular case of Libyan capture fisheries. With reference to exploitation of demersal stocks, it is observed that:

Relatively few countries have taken management action to control increases in fishing effort despite the repeated recommendations of GFCM. Allowing for changes in fishing power, catch rates of demersals in inshore fisheries are still generally low, and present levels of landing are achieved by exerting a high fishing effort by generally overcapitalized fleets. The top priority is still therefore to correct the serious overfishing that exists immediately offshore from most Mediterranean littorals. It is highly probable that management action on this question is the key to success in increasing the yield, and more certainly, the -economic return to the fishery. It seems likely also, that effort control is a precondition to the success of other management measures, such as increasing the size at first capture, and more importantly, increasing the spawning biomass and spawning success. At the same time, urgent measures need to be taken to protect inshore nursery areas from the adverse impacts of fishing and pollution [Caddy 1993:122].

And for small pelagics, it is noted that: ‘…management measures to control fishing have been relatively limited…. The problem for most small pelagic fish… seems related more to difficulties in achieving effective utilization and marketing rather than overfishing’ (ibid).

5.2.2 ‘Responsible fisheries’ provisions

Reference to Table A4/1 shows that, at the formal level, existing policy and policy tools regulating the capture fisheries in the Jamahirya are largely in keeping with conservation and management principles recognised in the Code of Conduct. However, there is a very substantial gap separating ‘theory’ and ‘practice,’ particularly as related to the observance of regulations and their enforcement by authorities. Whereas there is clear legal prohibition ‘on the books’ regarding the use of destructive methods such as explosives, for instance, or trawling waters or setting nets close inshore, in practice these requirements are frequently ignored.

Furthermore, a major exercise is needed for detailed review of existing regulatory measures with a view towards bringing them into closer conformance with commonly agreed practice across the wider Mediterranean region. Since 1972, for instance, the GFCM has recommended that mesh sizes for trawl cod ends of less than 40mm (stretched) be prohibited in the Mediterranean -- a provision that has yet to be adopted within Libyan legislation, which still specifies a minimum mesh size of 30mm.

It can generally be observed that much strengthened institutional capabilities are needed within the SMW for planning and management tasks to be effectively addressed. An immediate priority in this connection is the implementation of an adequate statistics collection and analysis system, expecially with regard to catch assessment survey (CAS) capabilities. Major additional institution building efforts will also be required for the MBRC, in order to allow the Centre to function properly in its role as the primary research and technical consultation agency for the fisheries sector. The overall process of strengthening SMW capabilities to respond to planning and management needs would be greatly facilitated by more regular and thorough participation of national technical officers and researchers in regional and global fora and programmes related to fisheries and marine resource issues.

5.3 Planning and Management of Aquaculture

5.3.1 Situation, problems, and prospects

Aquaculture development in the Jamahirya has up to now been a matter of government - sponsored projects, presumably with a view towards establishing feasibilities of particular species/technique models for possible replication on a wider commercial scale. Presumably also, past and present development investments in aquaculture projects are justified in terms of their possible contributions towards longer-term goals of economic diversification, food production self-sufficiency, and general welfare benefits. Sooner or later, though, the question will have to be faced of how fishfarming operations of whatever kind can perform without such heavy financial underpinning from the State.

Possibilities in connection with aquaculture development appear to be substantial, though these are likely to be realised only in the medium-to longer-term. Pilot/trial activities already underway or due for implementation seem to have been organised without reference to any comprehensive plan. This gap has been recognised and an SMW/GADA technical committee is now in the process of formulating a more complete programme. The review of aquaculture development status and prospects in the country recently prepared by members of the LIBFISH Project team may prove useful as a reference point for this exercise. Amongst other observations noted in the review was the need for improved management and maintenance of aquaculture installations already in operation. Also remarked upon were some planning fundamentals and points related to the choice of production modalities.

With regard to the siting and utility of various aquaculture production systems for Libyan coastal application, major points to bear in mind include: a) the overall need for a gradualist approach in the building of national aquafarming capacity in order to avoid the waste and disappointment of production technologies ill-suited to local environments, uneconomic projects, and overcapitalisation (excessive capacity); b) the existence of extensive areas of shoreland which could be suitable for pond and raceway developments of both large-and small-scale; c) the rather limited opportunities that exist for the development of inshore cage farms or for production enhancement within lagoons, wadi embayments, wetlands, or sabkha (saltmarsh) areas; and d) the new opportunities offered by recent technological developments that make it possible to farm in more exposed locations offshore [Reynolds et al. 1995a].

Additional points of key importance raised in the LIBFISH aquaculture planning review touch on the needs for:

5.3.2 ‘Responsible fisheries’ provisions

As indicated by Table A4/3 (Annex 4), many of the provisions under Article 8 of the Code are not of any immediate relevance precisely because aquaculture in the country is at an early stage of development. The opportunity thus exists to guide its development almost from the beginning with a comprehensive application of the Code of Conduct provisions. For this to occur, however, strong immediate action is indicated along three fronts. First of all, there is the general provision that ‘States should establish, maintain and develop an appropriate legal and administrative framework which facilitates the development of responsible aquaculture.’ In fact the legislative basis for aquaculture in Libya is very weak, comprising only a brief reference in the Technical Interpretation of Law 14.

[This] does little more than: note some simple definitions; assert the authority of the SMW to require approval for establishing aquafarming installations and of the MBRC and GADA to make recommendations on such installations and to have access to aqua farms for research purposes; and lay out some very general conditions for the movement of fish fry and for the control of disease and parasites. A need for major revision and upgrading of legislation pertaining to aquaculture is clearly indicated, as indeed is the case for the body of national fisheries legislation as a whole [Reynolds et al. 1995a].

Secondly, as already mentioned above, there is a lack of adequate planning for national aquaculture activities. This is a matter of overriding importance and should be corrected as soon as possible, in keeping with the Code's provision that: ‘States should produce and regularly update aquaculture development strategies and plans, as required, to ensure that aquaculture development is ecologically sustainable and allow the rational use of resources shared by aquaculture and other activities.’

Thirdly, although national fisheries authorities seem committed in principle to participation in international arrangements and fora dedicated to purposes of responsible aquaculture development, including protection of transboundary aquatic systems and promotion of sustainable practices, such -participation has not been as comprehensive or consistent as it needs to be in order to ensure effective access to information sources, exchange of ideas and experiences, and general regional cooperation. In particular efforts are needed to strengthen participation in the regional networking system that was established as a follow-on to the Mediterranean Regional Aquaculture Project Phase II (MEDRAP II), including networks for Information Systems (SIPAM), Technology (TECAM), Socio-economic and Legal Aspects (SELAM), and Environment (EAM).

5.4 Planning and Management for Coastal Zones

5.4.1 Situation, problems, and prospects

Libya faces major problems with regard to environmental protection and sustained resource use within the coastal (onshore and nearshore) corridor, as can readily be ascertained from the maps and site comments in Annex 1. Observations on pollution and habitat degradation have been raised in earlier LIBFISH reports, and it has been strongly urged that an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) approach be adopted as a means for beginning to improve the situation. The following remarks, drawn from the recent Project review of aquaculture development in the country (Reynolds et al. 1995a), may be useful to reiterate.

…Improved environmental management is identified as an urgent priority in the case of numerous sites and several stretches of shoreline. New management initiatives for an onshore-nearshore corridor and adjacent areas should encompass measures for pollution control and abatement, restoration of degraded areas, and protection under special reserve status of important natural and scenic shorelands, coastal waters, lagoons, wetland settings, and wildlife/bird refuges. Many states around the world are turning to the model of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) as a means to deal with complex issues of resource use conflicts and the need to promote economic development without the cost of environmental degradation, and its application would certainly be of great relevance and value in the case of the Libyan coastal corridor.

…ICZM …recognises that coastal areas offer special natural resources and economic development opportunities that are of concern to a variety of different agencies, groups, and individuals who have an interest or a ‘stake’ in maintaining the existence of the resource base and/or its exploitation for one purpose or another…. ICZM attempts to set coastal resource systems and their management in broad perspective, looking at the whole picture of resource availability, use claims, and present and projected patterns of exploitation pressure and what they imply. Its aims are thus holistic (dealing with coastal zones as a single, unified whole), comprehensive (wide scope of purpose), and integrative (seeks collaboration between all sector agencies and stakeholders in achieving objectives). Although preservation of natural settings and biodiversity are central themes emphasised in ICZM, it serves equally to promote optimal socio-economic outcomes in the long-term. Resource preservation and extractive resource use for economic growth are therefore not cast as necessarily contradictory ends.

The guiding principle is sustainability, as distinct from the shortsightedness of resource depletion through uncontrolled exploitation for the sake of quick gain….

5.4.2 ‘Responsible fisheries’ provisions

Article 9 of the Code of Conduct invites States to ‘…ensure that an appropriate policy, legal and institutional framework is adopted to achieve the sustainable and integrated use of the resources, taking into account the fragility of coastal ecosystems and the finite nature of their natural resources and the needs of coastal communities.’ There is at present no direct provision in SMW policy formulations or instruments for ICZM. However, national commitment in principle can be inferred from Libya's participation in the UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP), for which the Environmental Protection Centre serves as the local contact institution/focal point. Also at a country-wide level, work is presently proceeding on a revised National Physical Perspective Plan that adopts an integrated environmental management approach.

An urgent need is indicated for SMW to undertake a far-reaching reexamination of its policy and institutional arrangements with a view towards fixing ICZM orientations firmly as part of the marine wealth sector planning and management agenda. This move will require fundamental initiatives in a number of dimensions. For example, although existing legislation makes reference to pollution control and prohibits the use of methods or substances harmful to the marine environment and marine organisms, it is very weak on specifics and enforcement measures seem practically nonexistent. Also, although there is provision in law to establish marine reserves, and though numerous sites would appear to be suitable candidates for special protection (see maps and site notes, Annex 1), as far as is known no action has thus far been taken in this regard. Again, very substantial action is indicated in terms of raising awareness within the fisheries community and the wider public on the crucial importance of environment protection and responsible stewardship of the country's natural coastal resources.

5.5 Planning and Management of Post-Harvest Activities

5.5.1 Situation, problems, and prospects

Some of the most immediate possibilities for strengthening sector contributions to the national economy lie in the fisheries post-harvest domain, where quite significant gains could be achieved through -improved efficiencies and product quality management within existing operations as well as through innovative fisheries product value-added activities.

Facility and market survey work conducted under Project LIBFISH brought to light a number of deficiencies in present methods of fish handling, processing, and distribution. Survey findings and attendant recommendations have already been written up and transmitted to SMW authorities and industry representatives through various technical documents (Ababouch and Medina Pizzali 1994; Medina Pizzali 1994, 1995; Medina Pizzali and Ben Abdallah 1995; Medina Pizzali et al. 1995a, 1995b; Reynolds et al. 1995b). For fish handling and processing facilities, field investigations showed that:

Critical points of deficiency lie in the areas of small pelagic handling practices both on-board and on-shore, sanitary conditions, quality and production controls, plant maintenance, fish waste disposal, waste water treatment, and low utilisation of installed capacity. Particularly worrisome are problems in the fish canneries. In some cases, potential serious risks for consumers were evident… [Medina Pizzali 1995].

For the major Tripoli fish markets, technical evaluation made it clear that there is a serious lack of temperature control (proper icing) in product retail display and storage, that sanitary conditions and inspection services are of a very low standard, and that premises, equipment, and practices generally are in need of drastic improvement.

A pressing need for product quality management based on the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach in processing facilities and markets has thus been identified. Implementation of a comprehensive quality control improvement programme would likely yield substantial benefits in terms of better product utilisation and higher earnings from both export and domestic markets. It would be useful to complement such efforts by product development work with a view toward promoting wider market opportunities for local value-added fishery products.

5.5.2 ‘Responsible fisheries’ provisions

Code of Conduct Article 10 provisions relating to post-harvest practices and trade, amongst other things, lay stress on the promotion of product safety and integrity through adoption and maintenance of national safety and quality assurance standards. Practices are endorsed for the reduction of post-harvest losses, improved utilization of by-catch, environmentally sound methods of processing, transporting, and storing fish products, support for fish technology research, and encouragement of the use of fish for human consumption. With reference to the conduct of domestic and international trade, the Code amongst other things recommends approaches that are consistent with requirements of sound fisheries conservation and sustainable development, removal of barriers and and other restrictions to market access, transparency and simplicity in regulations and procedures, and collection and exchange of accurate statistics.

As shown by Table A4/5 (Annex 4), a very substantial amount of review and readjustment of policy, legal and administrative frameworks will need to be carried out if the national fisheries industry is to move into closer compliance with the provisions of Article 10 in the Code. Although existing policies and policy instruments are broadly in keeping with most provisions, at least for those items reviewed, implementation tends to be weak or inconsistent.12

5.6 Planning and Management Support: Research and Technical Advisory Services

5.6.1 Situation, problems, and prospects

As already indicated, the MBRC is given a general mandate under Law 14 and its companion guides, the Legal Intrepretation and the Technical Interpretation, as the principal agency for research and technical advisory support to the SMW. There is an obvious and compelling need for such support in dealing with problems across the whole range of sector issues and interests ~ from questions of protection and sustainable exploitation of the resource base right through to questions of product quality management and patterns of local fish consumption. At the same time, despite the substantial building and other facilities at its Tajura premises, the Centre's performance in delivering quality research and development (R&D) outputs has not always measured up to expectations, judged either in terms of national legislative provisions or directly by its own charter. For some years MBRC operations have been hampered by interrelated problems of budget constraints, inadequate maintenance of plant and facilities, lack of a strong and explicit R&D work programme, and a shortage of skilled and motivated professional staff. The same complex of problems, incidentally, has also limited the effectiveness of GADA and its APC affiliate in relation to the pilot/trial work being carried out at the different aquaculture field stations.

It was against this background that Project LIBFISH was formulated, with the second of its two immediate objectives expressly addressing the MBRC situation. Thus, the project is to ‘Develop the capacity of the Marine Biology Research Centre … to provide effective technical advisory and management services in marine resource utilization and aquaculture to the Secretariat of Marine Wealth.’13 Although it must be recognised that, for a variety of mostly unavoidable reasons, full attainment has proved rather difficult,14 important advances have nonetheless been made towards this objective through all of the LIBFISH components, both in terms of technical work undertaken and in-service, workshop, and study tour training opportunities provided to national counterpart staff. These achievements, together with recommendations for further technical work and staff development activities that should be followed up, are fully reported in Technical Briefing Notes and Field Documents. Summary accounts are available as component final reports for Planning/Statistics (Reynolds 1995), Aquaculture (Vallet 1995), Fish Technology (Medina Pizalli 1995), Resource Assessment (Lamboeuf 1995), and Vessel Operations (Goanec 1994; Ansel 1994; Sutherland 1994; Kessler 1995). Particular emphasis was placed on proposals for MBRC facility improvement and staff development measures in connection with the establishment of technical service capabilities in aquaculture and fish disease diagnosis and control, and in fisheries product quality management. It has been envisaged that these proposals could be implemented as part of a second Project phase (Reynolds et al. 1995b). In summary, they are as follows:

5.6.2 ‘Responsible fisheries’ provisions

The Code's Article 11 calls for ambitious research actions to ensure a sound scientific basis for responsible fisheries decision-making in all relevant fields of ‘…biology, ecology, technology, environmental science, economics, social science, aquaculture, and nutritional science.‘The agendum set forth clearly has a strong applied orientation, in keeping with the practical and often very immediate problems that need to be addressed in fisheries conservation, management, and development contexts. In addition to providing adequate facilities, particular emphasis is placed on the need for ‘…appropriate training, staffing and institution building…’ to secure a solid research foundation. Systematic collection of reliable and accurate data, and the timely analysis and dissemination of findings are also identified as crucial requirements.

Item-by-item assessment of Article 11 fisheries research provisions and the extent of formal and practical compliance within the Libyan arena, as shown in Table A4/6, reveals a situation of general deficiency. That a commitment exists within the SMW to see this deficiency resolved is already demonstrated through the sponsorship of Project LIBFISH work, through the further support presently being directed towards the the rehabilitation of the MBRC's physical plant and aquaculture/aquarium facilities, and through the arrangements now underway for the drydocking and partial refit of the Centre's research vessel, the NOUR. It remains the case however that the MBRC requires substantially greater reinforcement if it is ever truly to fulfill its mandate of providing essential backstopping support to the sector. Staff development and performance issues deserve especially close attention. ‘Hardware’ measures -- acquisition of books and journals, the purchase of new vehicles, installation of specialised equipment, refit of buildings and vessels, etc. ~ are obviously necessary but not in themselves sufficient for research and technical service capacity building purposes. Effective operations also require ‘software’ elements. For instance, even though the MBRC library may house a large collection of fisheries-related textbooks, journals, and research reports, and indeed is always acquiring more, such ‘hardware’ items cannot be put to meaningful use without a good user interface. The ‘software’ needed in this case is an efficient and up-to-date information cataloguing and retrieval system and people skilled in its operation and maintenance.

Institution building ‘software’ issues are thus of equal importance to ‘hardware’ concerns when it comes to development of fisheries research capacities. They may even be regarded as being the more critical issues, in that they are certainly much more difficult to resolve. The purchase of a new piece of machinery is largely a matter of order, invoice, and payment. Institution building also depends crucially on the provision of funds, but requires much more besides.15 For MBRC, a whole complex of interrelated needs demands attention, including design and implementation of relevant research programmes, establishment of high quality technical consultation competencies in the various scientific sections, and -- fundamentally -- a significant enhancement of staff skills and professional standards through training and plain, simple dedication to … work.

10 A partial and unofficial synopsis only. Refer to the full draft Code (FAO 1995) for verification.

11 The situation with regard to the sponge fishery, tuna purse seiners, tonnara operations, and the limited high seas activities of LISPAFISH vessels is not examined here as there was no opportunitity for detailed investigations given other demands of the Project LIBFISH work programme. Indications are that purse seining operations by vessels based in domestic ports are of marginal significance, and that the tonnara fishery has been in a state of decline for many years. Only 3 of the 5 stations which remain of the 18 tonnaras that existed before World War II were in operation during the 1995 season. It is understood that LISPAFISH operations are increasingly concentrated on the import of fishery products for the domestic market. Prospects for a revitalisation of the sponge fishery after its virtual disappearance in the 1960s are not well known, and warrant further investigation.

12 Work originally planned under Project LIBFISH in the areas of marketing and international trade could not be undertaken due to budget and time constraints. The review of national policy provision and implementation in relation to the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, Article 10 (Draft), is thus not complete.

13 UNDP (1990). Immediate Objective 1 is directed towards the SMW itself, and calls for a strengthening of the Secretariat's capabilities ‘…to control and manage the fisheries and aquaculture sectors of marine resource development on a sustainable basis.’

14 See Reynolds and Dawid (1995) and Dawid and Reynolds (1995) for project performance evaluations.

15 It must nonetheless be recognised that issues related to staff terms of service at the MBRC remain problematic and that these have direct financial implications. Some amelioration of present circumstances, perhaps in the form of the research allowances that were formerly granted to research staff, but this time with a performance or merit factor built in, would be very likely to boost motivation levels at least to some extent.

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page