Rome, © FAO 1986



B.C. Yalçin

The designations employd and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture rganization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of and country. territory, city or area or of its authorities. or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-102449-9

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The author is qratefuL to the heads of Animal Husbandry Departments of the veterinary and agriculturaL faculties of different universities in the country and to the directors of related research institutes for providing reprints and other published material, to Mrs. S. Yatcin fordrawing the figures, and to Mrs. Tuzkaya for typing the manuscript.


The 65.5 million sheep and goats in Turkey constitute the largest national herd in the Near East region.At present, they cortribute 43 percent to the total, meat and 33 oercent to the total milk produced in the country.The meat produeed from sheep and goats in 1984 was 56 percent higher than that fromcattle and buffaloes. Apart from meeting the domestic demand, the 1984 foreign exchange earning from the export of live sheep, goats, their meat and mohair amounted to about US$ 360 million. In addition some 76 thousand tons of skins produced in 1984 constituted a major part of the raw materialfor the leather industry.

The growing opportunities for the export of live sheep and mutton demand intensification of production together with the streamlining of marketing System.Research and demonstration of improved Systems are bas ic elements of the development requirements in this regard. It was felt that a concise review was needed of the available resources, the present production Systems and the research currently being carried out in the country.

At FAO's request, Dr.B.C. Yalçin, Head, Department of Animal Breeding, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Istanbut, prepared a comprehensive reviewwhich is presented here as an FAO Animal Production and Health Paper. The paper is one of a series of reviens that is being published by the Near East Regional Cooperative Network on SmallRuminants Research and Development for each participating country.

Following is the list of publications of the Near East Regional Cooperative Network on Small Ruminants Research and Development.

  1. Report of the TCDC Workshop on the improved utilization of feed resources for sheep fattening in the Near East, Amman, ApriL 1981.(Arabicand English)
  2. Intensive Sheep Production in the Near East (Economides). Animal Production and Health Paper No. 40.1983.(English)
  3. Report of the FAO Expert Consultation on Small Ruminant Research and Development in the Near East, Tunis, October 1984. (Arabicand English)
  4. Small Ruminants in the Near East: I. Selected papers presented at Tunis Expert Consultation. Animal Production and Health Paper No. 54. (Arabicand English)
  5. Small Ruminants in the Near East: II.Selected papers presented from World Animal Review. Animal Production and Health Paper No. 55. 1985. (Arabicand English)
  6. Sheep and Goats in Pakistan (Hasnain). Animal Production and Health Paper No. 56. 1985. (English)
  7. Sheep and Goats in Turkey (Yalçin). Animal Production and Health Paper No.1986. (English)

AbdulWahab Qureshi
Near East Regional Animal Production and Health Officer
Animal Production and Health Division, Rome

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3.1.   Feed Resources

3.2.   Production Systems

3.2.1.   Sedentary System

3.2.2.   Trans humant System

3.2.3.   Nomadic System

3.3.   General Nutrition and Management Practices

3.3.1.   Nutrition

3.3.2.   Housing

3.3.3.   Mating

3.3.4.   Lambing

3.3.5.   Milking,

3.3.6.   Shearing ,

3.3.7.   Production Recording

3.3.8.   Disease


4.1.   Sheep and Goat Populations and their Distributions

4.2.   Sheep and Goat Production


5.1.   Sheep Breeds

5.1.1.   White Karaman

5.1.2.   Red Karaman

5.1.3.   Daqliç

5.1.4.   Awassi

5.1.5.   Karakul

5.1.6.   Kivircik

5.1.7.   Karayaka

5.1.8.   Turkish Merinos

5.1.9.   Gökçeada (imroz)

5.1.10.   Sakiz

5.1.11.   Tuj

5.1.12.   Other Types

5.2.   Goat Breeds

5.2.1.   The Angora Goat

5.2.2.   Hair Goat

5.2.3.   Kilis Goat

5.2.4.   Other Goat Breeds


6.1.   Research on Sheep Production

6.1.1.   Production Potential

6.1.2.   Improvement Through Purebreeding and Selection

6.1.3.   Improvement Through Crossbreeding

6.2.   Research on Goat Production

6.2.1.   Research on Angora Goats

6.2.2.   Research Involving Hair Goats and Milk Breeds

6.3.   Problems and Future Research Requirements




Table 4.1.     Sheep and goat numbers in different years

Table 4.2.     Composition of sheep population in relation to breeds

Table 4.3.     Annual production of sheep and goat meat in Turkey

Table 4.4.     Annual production of sheep and goat milk in Turkey

Table 4.5.     Annual production of wool , mohair, hair and fresh skins

Table 4.6.     Exports of the main sheep and goat products from Turkey

Table 6.1.     Mean values for the primary reproductive characteristics of different sheep breeds in Turkey

Table 6.2.     Performance of maie Kivirciklambs under different rearing and fattening regimes

Table 6.3.     Comparative fattening performances of Kivircik and Merino lambs

Table 6.4.     Growth performances of White Karaman and Red Karaman lambs.

Table 6.5.     Fattening performances of Dağliç, White Karaman and Kivircik lambs

Table 6.6.     Mean values for body weight, lactation milk yield and greasy fleece weight of ewes of different native breeds under relatïvely good conditions

Table 6.7.     Mean numbers of skin follicles in different sheep breeds of Turkey

Table 6.8.     Estimates of repeat.ability and heritabilityfor different production traits of sheep breeds in Turkey

Table 6.9.     Production performances of Merino, Red Karaman and their cresses

Table 6.10.   Least squares means for production traits of Ile ce France, White Karaman and their crosses

Table 6.11.   Crowth rate and carcass quality of lambs in two-way and three-way crossbreeding involving the Dağliç breed

Table 6.12.   Least squares means for production characteristics of American Rambouillet, Dğgliç and their crosses

Table 6.13.   Results of East Friesian x Kivircik crossbreeding

Table 6.14.   Results of Texel x Kivircik crossbreeding experiment

Table 6.15.   Repeatabilities and heritabilities of various production traits of Angora goats

Table 6.16.   Phenotypic and genotypic correlations among various traits of Angora goats

Table 6.17.   Phenotypic and genetic correlations between skin follicle characteristics and mohair traits

Table 6.18.   Mean lactation milk yield and lactation length in pure and crossbred groups of goats


Plate 1.     White Karaman ewe (Kangal type)

Plate 2.     Red Karaman ewe

Plate 3.     Dğgliç ram

Plate 4.     Dğgliç ewe

Plate 5.     Awassi ram

Plate 6.     Awassi ewe

Plate 7.     Karakul ram

Plate 8.     Karakul ewe

Plate 9.     Kivireik ram

Plate 10.   Kivircik flock

Plate 11.   Karayaka ram (Karagöz type)

Plate 12.   Karayaka ewe (Karagöz type)

Plate 13.   Karacabey Merino ram

Plate 14.   Central Anatolian ewe

Plate 15.   Gökçeada (Imroz) ewe

Plate 16.   Sakiz ram

Plate 17.   Sakiz ewe with quintuplet lambs

Plate 18.   Sakiz flock

Plate 19.   Tuj ram

Plate 20.   Tuj ewe

Plate 21.   Ödemis ram

Plate 22.   Ramliç ram

Plate 23.   Ramliç ewe

Plate 24.   Ramlîç flock at Çifteler

Plate 25.   Angora goat (buck)

Plate 26.   Angora goat (doe)

Plate 27.   Angora goat flock at Çifteler

Plate 28.   Hair goats

Plate 29.   Hair goats (flock)

Plate 30.   Gürcü goat (buck and doe)