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This research was carried out in collaboration with the Northern Development Centre of the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). Information was obtained from primary and secondary sources (including interviews with relevant organizations and hill tribe communities) at the national and local levels. In addition to interviews with the government and NGO officers and staff, field surveys were conducted in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces of Northern Thailand.

The author wishes to express her sincere gratitude to the Northern Development Centre for its assistance throughout the research. The author would also like to extend appreciation to the officers and staff of the Department of Non-formal Education (DNFE) of the Ministry of Education; the DNFE Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai offices; the Mae Chaem Non-Formal Education Centre; the DNFE Northern Regional Centre; the DNFE Highland Community Learning Centre in Mae Suai district in Chiang Rai province; the Horticultural Crop Promotion Division of the Department of Agricultural Extension of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives; the Chiang Mai Agricultural Extension Office; the sub-district Agricultural Technology Transfer Centre (ATTC) of San Sai district in Chiang Mai province; the ATTC offices in Hang Dong and Samoeng districts in Chiang Mai province; the Hill Tribe Welfare Division of the Department of Public Welfare (DPW) of the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare; the Tribal Research Institute under DPW in Chiang Mai; the Hill Tribe Welfare and Development Centre offices under DPW in Chiang Mai and in Chiang Rai; the NESDB; the Inter Mountain Peoples Education and Culture in Thailand Association (IMPECT); and the Social Research Institute of Chiang Mai University. Furthermore, the author is particularly grateful to the hill tribe people who shared valuable information for the research.

Special appreciation is extended to Malcolm Hazelman, Senior Extension, Education and Communication Officer, FAO/Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, and Kla Somtrakool, Advisor to the Ministry of Education, for support and advice throughout the research. The author is equally grateful for the comments from Ester Zulberti, Chief, Extension, Education and Communication Service, Lavinia Gasperini, Senior Officer (Education), Extension, Education and Communication Service, both from FAO headquarters, and Wim Polman, Rural Development Officer from the FAO/Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.