UN Enviroment Programme

Chapter 7. Status of soil pollution in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia


Abbasov, R., Cervantes de Blois, C.L., Sharov, P., Temnikova, A., Karimov, R. & Karimova, G. 2019. Toxic Site Identification Program in Azerbaijan. Environmental Management, 64(6): 794–808. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-019-01215-1

Abbasov, R., Temnikova, A., Sharov, P. & Sinitsky, J. 2018. Toxic Site Identification Program in Azerbaijan., pp. 794–808. Pure Earth and UNIDO. (also available at http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00267-019-01215-1).

Afonina, T.E., Pyzureva, A. Yu., Oshirova, M.A., Grebenszhikov, V. Yu. & Belopukhov, S.L. 2015. The current state of the soil contaminated by oil during accidental releases at the territory of Irkutsk region. Environmental Management, 5: 7 pp. (also available at https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sovremennoe-sostoyanie-zemel-zagryaznennyh-neftyu-pri-avariynyh-razlivah-na-territorii-irkutskoy-oblasti).

Aleksakhin, R.M., Bagdevich, I.M., Fesenko, S.V., Sanzheva, N.I., Ageets, V.Y. & Kashpariv, V.A. 2006. Role of protective measured in rehabilitation of contaminated territories. Minsk, Belarus. (Proceeding of the International conference ‘Chenobyl 20 years after’)

Aleksandrov, S.A. 2018. Ecological features of urban land use in highly urbanized territories. Economics and ecology of territorial formations, 2(4). (also available at https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/osobennosti-ekologii-gorodskogo-zemlepolzovaniya-na-vysokourbanizirovannyh-territoriyah/viewer).

Aliyeva, G., Halsall, C., Alasgarova, K., Avazova, M., Ibrahimov, Y. & Aghayeva, R. 2013. The legacy of persistent organic pollutants in Azerbaijan: an assessment of past use and current contamination. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(4): 1993–2008. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1076-9

AMAP. 2000. PCB in the Russian Federation: Inventory and Proposals for Priority Remedial actions., p. 30. Moscow, The RF, Centre for International projects (CIP), Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). (also available at https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/bitstream/handle/11374/723/PCB-in-the-Russian-Federation-Inventory-and-Proposals-for-Priority-Remedial-Actions.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y).

Amirova, Z. & Weber, R. 2015. Massive PCDD/F contamination at the Khimprom organochlorine plant in Ufa—a review and recommendations for future management. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(19): 14416–14430. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5048-8

Analitical report. 2003. The former military territories in Ukraine. Analitical report. Kyiv, Ukraine. 40 pp. p.

Asian Development Bank. 2005. Country Environmental Analysis: Azerbaijan. [Cited 13 November 2019]. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/institutional-document/32178/aze-cea.pdf

Ataniyazova, O., Adrian, S., Mazhitova, Z., Moshammer, H., Prindull, G. & Zetterström, R. 2001a. Continuing Progressive Deterioration of the Environment in the Aral Sea Region: Disastrous Effects on Mother and Child Health. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), 90: 589–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2001.tb00806.x

Ataniyazova, O., Baumann, R., Liem, D., Mukhopadhyay, U., Vogelaar, E. & Boersma, E. 2001b. Levels of certain metals, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins in cord blood, maternal blood, human milk and some commonly used nutrients in the surroundings of the Aral Sea (Karakalpakstan, Republic of Uzbekistan). Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), 90: 801–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2001.tb02808.x

Bagaeen, S. & Clark, C., eds. 2016. Sustainable Regeneration of Former Military Sites. Taylor and Francis Group edition. Routledge. 226 pp. (also available at https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315621784).

Bakradze, E., Vodyanitskii, Y., Urushadze, T., Chankseliani, Z. & Arabidze, M. 2018. About rationing of the heavy metals in soils of Georgia. Annals of Agrarian Science, 16(1): 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aasci.2017.09.002

Baranovsky, М.О. & Baranovska, О.В. 2016. Радіаційне забруднення території Чернігівської області: особливості, динаміка та наслідки (Radiation contamination of the Chernigiv region territory: perculiarities, dynamics and consequences.). Фізична географія та геоморфологія(3): 48–54. (also available at http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/ fiz _ geo _2016_3_10).

Barron, M.G., Ashurova, Z.J., Kukaniev, M.A., Avloev, H.K., Khaidarov, K.K., Jamshedov, J.N., Rahmatullova, O.S., Atolikshoeva, S.S., Mamadshova, S.S. & Manzenyuk, O. 2017. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods from rural areas of the Republic of Tajikistan. Environmental Pollution, 224: 494–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.031

Basel Convention. 2021. Parties to the Basel Convention [online]. [Cited 26 January 2020]. http://www.basel.int/Countries/StatusofRatifications/PartiesSignatories/tabid/4499/Default.aspx

Blacksmith Institute. 2014. Mailuu-Suu Radionuclides Contamination., p. 3. New York, NY, Blacksmith Insitute. (also available at https://www.pureearth.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/PCR_Mailuu-Suu-12.pdf).

Boubriak, I., Akimkina, T., Polischuk, V., Dmitriev, A., McCready, S. & Grodzinsky, D. 2016. Long term effects of Chernobyl contamination on DNA repair function and plant resistance to different biotic and abiotic stress factors. Cytology and Genetics, 50(6): 381–399. https://doi.org/10.3103/S0095452716060049

Brosse, N., Dufour, A., Meng, X., Sun, Q. & Ragauskas, A. 2012. Miscanthus: a fast-growing crop for biofuels and chemicals production. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 6(5): 580–598. https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.1353

Bubryak, I., Vilensky, E., Naumenko, V. & Grodzisky, D. 1992. Influence of combined alpha, beta and gamma radionuclide contamination on the frequency of waxy-reversions in barley pollen. Science of The Total Environment, 112(1): 29–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(92)90235-K

Chaer, I. 2019. People and Planet: Central Asia calls for International Solidarity. In: International Cooperation and Development - European Commission [online]. [Cited 24 January 2020]. https://ec.europa.eu/international-partnerships/news/people-and-planet-central-asia-calls-international-solidarity_en

Chemonics International. 2018. Improved Livelihoods and Nutrition in Tajikistan. In: Chemonics International [online]. [Cited 24 January 2020]. https://www.chemonics.com/projects/improved-livelihoods-nutrition-tajikistan/

Chernobyl Forum Expert Group on Environment. 2006. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: twenty years of experience., p. 180. Vienna, International Atomic Enrgy Agency. (also available at https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1239_web.pdf).

Claydon, S. 2017. Tackling Pesticide Threat (Georgia). In: Pesticide Action Network UK [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. https://www.pan-uk.org/tackling-pesticide-threat-georgia/

Degoduk, E.G. & Degoduk, S.E. 2006. Ecological and technogenic safety of Ukraine. Kyiv, Ukraine, EKMO. 306 pp.

Department of Ecology and Natural Resources. 2018a. Regional report about the state of the Environment in Dnipropetrovsk oblast for 2017., p. 317. Dnipro, Ukraine, Department of Ecology and Natural Resources of Dnipropetrovsk oblast.

Department of Ecology and Natural Resources. 2018b. Regional report about the State of the Environment in Kyiv oblast for 2017., p. 258. Kyiv, Ukraine, Department of Ecology and Natural Resources of Kyiv oblast administration. (also available at https://menr.gov.ua/news/32893.html?fbclid=IwAR3iAgY_0rbRsWb8XxYjooPxrn1lunaoPR8).

Djanibekov, N., Rudenko, I., Lamers, J.P.A. & Bobojonov, I. 2010. Pros and Cons of Cotton Production in Uzbekistan., p. 14. Food policy for developing countries: The role of government in the global food system No. Case study #7-9. (also available at https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/195373606.pdf).

Doleba Antonina. 2012. The structure of agriculture in Belarus. In: NovaBelarus.com [online]. [Cited 4 December 2019]. http://ru.novabelarus.com/ekonomika-belarusi/struktura-selskogo-hozyajstva-v-belarusi./

EBRD. 2017. Chisinau Solid Waste Project. In: European Bank for Recosntruction and Development [online]. [Cited 20 January 2020]. //www.ebrd.com/work-with-us/projects/esia/green-cities-chisinau-solid-waste.html

EBRD. 2020. Chernobyl’s New Safe Confinement. In: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development [online]. [Cited 3 August 2020]. //www.ebrd.com/what-we-do/sectors/nuclear-safety/chernobyl-new-safe-confinement.html

Economic Truth. 2005. Нахімічити на мільярди. In: Економічна правда [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. https://www.epravda.com.ua/projects/poleua/2018/10/16/641568/

EEAS. 2017. Environmental Remediation of Uranium Legacy Sites in Central Asia. In: EEAS - European External Action Service - European Commission [online]. [Cited 24 January 2020]. https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/uzbekistan/31044/environmental-remediation-uranium-legacy-sites-central-asia_en

Elberstawy, E., Moklyachuk, L., Pidlisnyuk, V., Schlutz, N., Stefanovska, T. & Vijgen, J., eds. 2005. Toward the establishment of an POPs/Pesticides stockpiles fund for CEEC and NIS. p. 223. Paper presented at 7th International HCH and Pesticides Forum, 2005, Kyiv, Ukraine. (also available at http://www.ihpa.info/docs/library/forumbooks/7th/7thHCH_FORUM_BOOK.pdf).

Encyclopedia Britannica. 2019. Aral Sea | Description, History, Demise, & Facts. In: Encyclopedia Britannica [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. https://www.britannica.com/place/Aral-Sea

Environmental Initiatives. 2019. Analytical report on the assessment of mercury-containing waste and recommendations for the implementation of the Minamata Convention in Ukraine. Eco-initiatives, 26 May 2019. (also available at http://eco-initiatives.org.ua/).

Environmental Justice Foundation. 2012. The true costs of cotton. Eradicating the human and environmental abuses associated with White Gold., p. 32. London, Great Britain, Environmental Justice Foundation. (also available at https://ejfoundation.org/what-we-do/cotton/the-true-costs-of-cotton).

EPL. 2015. Military activities at the Eastern Ukraine: challenges for mankind. Lviv, Ukraine. 136 pp.

Eurasianet. 2009. Turkmenistan: NATO Scientists Focus on Radioactive Dump Near Tourism Resort. Eurasianet, 12 June 2009. (also available at https://eurasianet.org/turkmenistan-nato-scientists-focus-on-radioactive-dump-near-tourism-resort).

FAO. 2012. A new deal to rid Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia of obsolete pesticides. In: http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/134629/icode/ [online]

FAO. 2014. Obsolete Pesticides: Inventory and environmental risk assessment [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/obsolete-pesticides/how-deal/inventory-risk/en.

FAO. 2018. Proceedings of the Global Symposium on Soil Pollution 2018. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 977 pp. (also available at http://www.fao.org/3/CA1087EN/ca1087en.pdf).

FAO. 2021. Regional partnerships of the Global Soil Partnership. In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [online]. [Cited 24 May 2021]. http://www.fao.org/global-soil-partnership/regional-partnerships/en/

FAOLEX. 2019. FAOLEX Database | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [online]. [Cited 27 December 2019]. http://www.fao.org/faolex/en/

Fergana news. 2011. Uzbekistan: Environmentalists intends to sue the Tursunzade aluminum plant in the International Court (Узбекистан: Экологи намерены подать на Таджикский алюминиевый завод иски в международные суды). Фергана - международное агентство новостей, 26 July 2011. (also available at http://www.fergananews.com//news.php?id=17064).

Ferrigno, S. & Pershau, A. 2014. Organic cotton production and processing in Tajikistan: an assessment of the current situation and future potential. Geneva, Switzerland, International Trade Centre. (also available at https://itctj.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/study-on-organic-cotton-in-tajikistan-final-eng_cover.pdf).

Gambashidze, G.O., Urushadze, T.F., Blum, W.E. & Mentler, A.F. 2014. Heavy metals in some soils of Western Georgia. Eurasian Soil Science, 47(8): 834–843. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229314080031

GEF. 2017. Regional Demonstration Project for Coordinated Management of ODS and POPs Disposal in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Armenia., p. 87. GEF. (also available at https://www.thegef.org/sites/default/files/project_documents/1-11-17_-_Rev_CEO_Endorsement_Doc.pdf.).

Gelbutovsky, A.B., Cheremisin, P.I., Borskin, M.M., Egorov, A. Yu., Tejenov, S.S. & Troshev, A.V. 2014. Реабилитация территорий бывших йодных производств в Туркменистане. In: Атомная энергия 2.0 [online]. [Cited 25 May 2020]. https://www.atomic-energy.ru/articles/2014/04/02/47845

Goncharuk, E.I. 2006. Коммунальная гигиена (Community hygene). Class book. Kyiv, Ukraine, Health. 792 pp. (also available at https://www.booksmed.com/gigiena/207-kommunalnaya-gigiena-goncharuk-uchebnik.html).

Gudkov, I.N. 2006. Strategy of biological radiation protection of biota in radionuclide contaminated territories. Radiation risk estimates in normal and emergency situations. Dordrecht Springer, Berlin/London/New York edition, pp. 101–108. (also available at https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/1-4020-4956-0_10).

Gurzhiy, T. 2007. Expired and Prohibited pesticides problem in Ukraine. Impact of Pollution on Animal products, pp. 41–45. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. No. Seria C:Enviornmental Secutiry. Netherland, Springer. (also available at https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-1-4020-8359-4.pdf).

Hamidov, A., Helming, K. & Balla, D. 2016. Impact of agricultural land use in Central Asia: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 36(1): 6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-015-0337-7

Hamilton, R.E. 2019. Coal Mines, Land Mines and Nuclear Bombs: The Environmental Cost of the War in Eastern Ukraine - Foreign Policy Research Institute. In: https://www.fpri.org/ [online]. [Cited 25 May 2020]. https://www.fpri.org/article/2019/09/coal-mines-land-mines-and-nuclear-bombs-the-environmental-cost-of-the-war-in-eastern-ukraine/

Hancock, K. & Libman, A. 2014. The Forgotten Region:Russia and Eurasia. Proceeding. p. 32 pp. Paper presented at ISA-FLACSO Joint International Conference, 23 July 2014, Buenos Aires. (also available at http://web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/FLACSO-ISA%20BuenosAires%202014/Archive/61fcee73-a1f4-4aab-ae78-96164936ee08.pdf).

IAEA. 2006. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: twenty years of experience., p. 180. Vienna, International Atomic Enrgy Agency. (also available at https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1239_web.pdf).

IAEA. 2018. Strategic Master Plan. Environmental Remediation of Uranium Legacy Sites in Central Asia., p. 8. Wien, Austria. (also available at https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/strategic-master-plan.pdf).

Ibrahimov, F., Ibrahimova, A., Kehler, J. & Richardson, E. 2010. Azerbaijan: Health system review. Health systems in Transition, 12(3): 1–117. (also available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49659629_Azerbaijan_Health_system_review).

IFC. 2015. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Opportunities for Ukraine. Scenarios for developing the municipal solid waste management sector., p. 101. International Finance Corporation, WB group. (also available at https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/24f11a48-d7a0-4970-9bd1-37ff9244f60e/21.+Municipal+Solid+Waste+in+Ukraine+DEVELOPMENT+POTENTIAL+Scenarios+for+developing+the+municipal+solid+waste+management+sector+.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CVID=lNpD-tO).

IHME. 2015. Health data: Kyrgyzstan. In: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation [online]. [Cited 20 January 2020]. http://www.healthdata.org/kyrgyzstan

IHPA. 2008. Working document for the Management of the Obsolete Pesticides, Republic of Moldova., p. 91. International HCH & Pesticides Association and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

IHPA. 2016. Improved Pesticides and Chemical Management. Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia., p. 34. International HCH & Pesticides Association. (also available at https://www.greens-efa.eu/legacy/fileadmin/dam/Documents/Events/2016_09_29_Management_of_agrochemicals/RoadMap-SUMMARY-IHPA-v2-2.1-LR.pdf).

IHPA. 2017a. Working Document for the Management of the Obsolete Pesticides, Republic of Armenia., p. 50. Country report. IHPA and FAO. (also available at http://www.ihpa.info/docs/library/other/improving/Armenia-WD-ENG.pdf).

IHPA. 2017b. Legal and Technical assessment of the management of Obsolete Pesticides. Republic of Belarus., p. 16. International HCH & Pesticides Association. (also available at http://www.ihpa.info/docs/library/other/improving/Belarus-CR-ENG-2.8.pdf).

IHPA. 2017c. Legal and Technical assessment of the management of Obsolete Pesticides. Republic of Georgia., p. 15. International HCH & Pesticides Association. (also available at http://www.ihpa.info/docs/library/other/improving/Georgia-CR-ENG-2.1.pdf).

IHPA. 2017d. Legal and Technical assessment of the management of Obsolete Pesticides. Republic of Kazakhstan., p. 15. International HCH & Pesticides Association. (also available at http://www.ihpa.info/docs/library/other/improving/Kazakhstan-CR-ENG-1.4.pdf).

IHPA. 2017e. Legal and Technical assessment of the management of Obsolete Pesticides. Republic of Azerbaijan., p. 15. International HCH & Pesticides Association. (also available at http://www.ihpa.info/docs/library/other/improving/Azerbaijan-CR-ENG-1.8.pdf).

IHPA. 2017f. Legal and Technical assessment of the management of Obsolete pesticides, Republic of Tajikistan., p. 16. International HCH & Pesticides Association. (also available at http://www.ihpa.info/docs/library/other/improving/Tajikistan-CR-ENG-1.8.pdf).

IHPA. 2017g. Legal and Technical assessment of the management of Obsolete pesticides, Ukraine., p. 15. International HCH & Pesticides Association. (also available at http://www.ihpa.info/docs/library/other/improving/Ukraine-CR-ENG-1.6.pdf).

ILRF & Tajikistan Social Institute for Youth and Civilization. 2007. Labor Conditions in the Tajikistan Cotton Industry., p. 32. Tajikistan, International Labor Rights Forum (ILRF). (also available at https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1876&context=globaldocs).

Isac, A., Barbarasa, I. & Mosanu, V. 2007. National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention development in Moldova. Obsolete pesticides in Central and Eastern European, Caucasus and Central Asia region: Start of clean up. p. 286. Paper presented at 9th International HCH and Pesticides Forum for CEECCA Countries, 2007, Chisinau, Moldova.

Jincharadze, Z., Javakhishvili, M. & Tsakadze, V. 2011. Georgia country report., p. 34. European neighbourhood and partnership instrument – Shared environmental information system. Tbilisi, Georgia, European Environment Agency. (also available at http://archive.zoinet.org/web/sites/default/files/publications/SEIS/enpi-seis-country-report_georgia_final.pdf).

Karaoglou, A., Desmet, G., Kelly, G.N. & Menzel, H.G., eds. 1996. The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident: proceedings of the first international conference, Minsk, Belarus, 18 to 22 March 1996. EUR 16554 EN. Brussels : Luxembourg, European Commission, Directorate-General XII, Science, Research, and Development ; Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 1192 pp.

Kenesariyev, U., Zhakashov, N., Snytin, I., Amrin, M. & Sultanaliyev, Y. 2008. Assessing the Extent of Pollutant Accumulation in the Animal Foods and Blood of Individuals Inhabiting the Azgyr Test Base Area. In B. Faye & Y. Sinyavskiy, eds. Impact of Pollution on Animal Products. pp. 163–168. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series Series C: Environmental Security. Paper presented at, 2008, Dordrecht.

Krasilnikov, P., Khasankhanova, G., Abdullaev, U., Baibagyhov, E., Baliuk, S., Chervan, A., Fateev, A., Safarli, S. & Saparov, A. 2019. Regional status of soil pollution: Euroasia. FAO,2018. Proceeding of the Global Synposium on Soil Pollutioni. pp. 17–29. Paper presented at Global Symposium on Soil Pollution, 2019, Room, Italy. (also available at http://www.fao.org/publications/card/en/c/CA1087EN/).

Kravchenko, O. 2019. Analytical report on analysis of the regional programmes of waste management., p. 52. Lviv, Ukraine.

Kravchuk, O. 2018. Export of raw materials as national idea and budget income. [Cited 30 November 2019]. commons.com.ua/uk/opadatkuvannya-silskogo-gospodarstva-vikliki-i-mozhlivosti/

Kukharchuk, T. & Kazyrenka, M. 2018. Trends of PCBs content in soils in impact zone of paint and varnish manufacture (on an example of Lida city, Belarus. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 54(2): 216–225. (also available at https://vestichem.belnauka.by/jour/article/view/323/308).

Kyrgyz Republic. 2018. The development program of the Kyrgyz Republic for the period 2018-2022. Approved by the Decree Jogorku Kenesh of the Kyrgyz Republic of April 20, 2018 No. 2377-VI. [Cited 25 May 2020]. https://www.un-page.org/files/public/the_development_program_of_the_kyrgyz_republic_for_the_period_2018-2022.pdf

de Lurdes Dinis, M. & Fiúza, A. 2013. Exposure Assessment to Hazardous Pesticides – Strategies to Reduce Human and Environmental Risks. In L.I. Simeonov, F.Z. Macaev & B.G. Simeonova, eds. Environmental Security Assessment and Management of Obsolete Pesticides in Southeast Europe, pp. 69–83. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands. (also available at http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-94-007-6461-3_5).

Lyaschenko, S.A., Loschinov, N.A. & Prister, B.S. 2016. Approbation of the methodology and assessment of actions in the radioactive zones. Proceeding of the International conferences UIAR30. pp. 19–20. Paper presented at Agricultural and forest radiology – 30 years after Chernobyl, 3 June 2016, Kyiv, Ukraine. (also available at http://uiar.org.ua/30_abstr.pdf).

Lysychenko, G., Weber, R., Kovach, V., Gertsiuk, M., Watson, A. & Krasnova, I. 2015. Threats to water resources from hexachlorobenzene waste at Kalush City (Ukraine)—a review of the risks and the remediation options. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(19): 14391–14404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5184-1

Mach, V., Grechko, V., Matuštík, J. & Straková, J. 2019. Heavy metals in soils, foodstuffs, and human hair in the mining and metallurgical communities of Alaverdi and Akhtala, Lori province of Armenia. Arnika, Centre for Community Mobilization and Support (CCMS), Ecolur,. (also available at https://english.arnika.org/publications/heavy-metals-in-soils-foodstuffs-and-human-hair-in-the-mining-and-metallurgical-communities-of-alaverdi-and-akthala-lori-province-of-armenia).

Matveev, Y.B. & Genetukha, G.G. 2019. Perspective of energetic utilization of the solid municipal wastes in Ukraine. Kyiv, Ukraine. 48 pp. (also available at http://www.uabio.org/img/files/docs/position-paper-uabio-22-en.pdf).

Micklin, P. 2007. The Aral Sea Disaster. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 35(1): 47–72. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.35.031306.140120

Minamata Convention. 2021. Parties of the Minamata Convention. In: Mercury Convention [online]. [Cited 26 January 2020]. http://www.mercuryconvention.org/Countries/Parties/tabid/3428/language/en-US/Default.aspx

Ministry of Agriculture. 2019. The consolidated analytical report on the state and land use in the Republic of Kazakhstan for year 2018., p. 275. Astana, Kazakhstan, Ministry of Agriculture, Committee on the Land management. (also available at https://moa.gov.kz/documents/1549788631.pdf).

Ministry of Agriculture of the Kazakh Republic. 2018. Annual analytical report about state and using of the soil of Republic of Kazakhstan., p. 275 pp. Astana, Kazakhstan.

Ministry of Ecology. 2018. Information review of the State Cadaster of waste operation, Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan, Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (also available at http://ecogeo.gov.kz/kk/pages/2018-zhylga-ondiris-zhne-tutynu-kaldyktarynyn-memlekettik-kadastryn-zhurgizu-ntizheleri).

Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources. 2017. National Report about the state of the environment in Ukraine in 2015., p. 308. Kyiv, Ukraine, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources. (also available at https://menr.gov.ua/news/31768.html).

Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine. 2016. National Report on the State of the Environment in Ukraine in 2014., p. 350. Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources. (also available at https://menr.gov.ua/files/docs.pdf. Assessed November 30).

Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine. 2017. Дані по відкритому бюджету мінекології (Data on the open budget of the Ministry of Ecology) [online]. [Cited 25 May 2020]. http://www.menr.gov.ua/#/2017

Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine. 2018. New policy in waste management – roadmap to circular economy. Ministry of the Environment. [Cited 19 January 2020]. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1vG-B0KCYUthINr52H6M6WgDEPGryTx24/view?usp=embed_facebook

Ministry of Economic Development of Azerbaijan. 2012. Closure and rehabilitation of Garadagh and Surakhani Landfills,. [Cited 13 December 2019]. http://documents.banquemondiale.org/curated/fr/837111468220761043/pdf/E18270vol040P10Draft0eng0029-03-12.pdf

Ministry of Environment and Agriculture. 2015. ტყისა და მიწათსარგებლობის ატლასი (Forest and Land use Atlas of Georgia) [online]. [Cited 25 May 2020]. https://atlas.mepa.gov.ge/

Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation. 2018. About state and protection of the Environment in the Russian Federation in year 2017. Moscow, the RF, Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation. (also available at http://www.mnr.gov.ru/docs/o_sostoyanii_i_ob_okhrane_okruzhayushchey_sredy_rossiyskoy_federatsii/gosudarstvennyy_doklad_o_sostoyanii_i_ob_okhrane_okruzhayushchey_sredy_rossiyskoy_federatsii_v_2017_/).

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Irkutsk Region. 2015. Report about the state and protection of the environment in Irkutsk region., p. 328. Irkutsk, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Irkutsk Region. (also available at https://irkobl.ru/sites/ecology/GosDoklad_Final.pdf).

Moed, H.F., Markusova, V. & Akoev, M. 2018. Trends in Russian research output indexed in Scopus and Web of Science. Scientometrics, 116(2): 1153–1180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2769-8

Nazarovets, S.A. 2019. The Contribution of Ukraine to the World Development of Technologies: Patent Citation Analysis of the Scientific Publications of Employees of the Ukrainian Institutions In 2009–2018. Visnyk of Kharkiv State Academy of Culture, 0(55). https://doi.org/10.31516/2410-5333.055.04

Nsanganwimana, F., Pourrut, B., Mench, M. & Douay, F. 2014. Suitability of Miscanthus species for managing inorganic and organic contaminated land and restoring ecosystem services. A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 143: 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.04.027

OECD. 2007. Policies for a better environment: progress in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. OSCE, EAP Task Force. [Cited 28 November 2019]. https://www.oecd.org/env/outreach/39271802.pdf

Ostanina, E. 2018. Landmines in the Donbass conflict zone: threats for the population and the necessity of mine clearance | Heinrich Böll Stiftung. In: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung [online]. [Cited 25 May 2020]. https://www.boell.de/en/2018/07/17/landmines-donbass-conflict-zone-threats-population-and-necessity-mine-clearance

Păun, M.C., Plesca, V., Vijgen, J. & Weber, R. 2014. Management and disposal of Obsolete Pesticide Stock Case Studies: Romania and the Republic of Moldova., p. 13. Obsolete Pesticide Stock - Case Studies Romania and the Republic of Moldova No. 4

Petrosyan, V., Orlova, A., Dunlap, C.E., Babayan, E., Farfel, M. & von Braun, M. 2004. Lead in residential soil and dust in a mining and smelting district in northern Armenia: a pilot study. Environmental Research, 94(3): 297–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00113-0

Pidlisnyuk, V., Erickson, L., Stefanovska, T., Popelka, J., Hettiarachchi, G., Davis, L. & Trögl, J. 2019. Potential phytomanagement of military polluted sites and biomass production using biofuel crop miscanthus x giganteus. Environmental Pollution, 249: 330–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.018

Plecher, H. 2019. Kazakhstan: share of economic sectors in the GDP from 2007 to 2017. Statista. [Cited 3 December 2019]. https://www.statista.com/statistics/436156/share-of-economic-sectors-in-the-gdp-in-kazakhstan/

Plesca, V., Gobjila, A., Barbarasa, I. & Cupcea, L. 2007. POPs Stockpiles Management and Destruction in Moldova. Proceeding of the 9th International HCH and Pesticides Forum for CEECCA Countries,. pp. 34–38. Paper presented at 9th International HCH and Pesticides Forum for CEECCA Countries, 2007, Chisinau, Moldova. (also available at http://www.ihpa.info/docs/library/forumbooks/9th/9thHCH_FORUM_BOOK_part2.pdf).

Podolyak, A.G. & Karpenko, A.F. 2016. Scientific recommendations for the radioactively contaminated soil in Belarus. Proceeding of the International conferences UIAR30. p. 24. Paper presented at International conferences UIAR30 “Agricultural and forest radiology – 30 years after Chernobyl, 2016, Kyiv, Ukraine. (also available at http://uiar.org.ua/30_abstr.pdf).

POPs Belarus. 2013. Realization of Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Belarus [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. http://www.popsbelarus.by/en/international_technicalassistance_project/packaging_pcbs.html.

Presidency of Ukraine. 2019. УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА УКРАЇНИ №512/2019. (UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT’S DECREE NO. 512/2019 on territorial activities that have been identified as a radioactive problem as a result of the Chernobyl disaster). [Cited 2 September 2020]. https://www.president.gov.ua/documents/5122019-28317

Pryde, P.R. 1971. Soviet Pesticides. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 13(9): 16–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/00139157.1971.9931135

Revich, B. & Shelepchikov, A. 2008. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Hot Spots in Russia. In E. Mehmetli & B. Koumanova, eds. The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment, pp. 113–126. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands. (also available at http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4020-6642-9_9).

RIA News. 2019. Евразийский экономический союз (ЕАЭС) (Eurasian Economic Union). In: РИА Новости [online]. [Cited 25 May 2020]. https://ria.ru/20191001/1559271451.html

Rotterdam Convention. 2021. Status of ratifications of the Rotterdam Convention [online]. [Cited 26 January 2020]. http://www.pic.int/Countries/Statusofratifications/tabid/1072/language/en-US/Default.aspx

Science Communication Unit, University of the West of & England, Bristol. 2013. Science for Environment Policy In-depth Report: Soil Contamination: Impacts on Human Health., p. 29. (also available at https://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/IR5_en.pdf).

Security Service of Ukraine. 2015. На Київщині СБУ ліквідувала підпільне виробництво пестицидів. In: 5 канал [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. https://www.5.ua/kyiv/na-kyivshchyni-sbu-likviduvala-pidpilne-vyrobnytstvo-pestytsydiv-95217.html

Sharov, P., Dowling, R., Gogishvili, M., Jones, B., Caravanos, J., McCartor, A., Kashdan, Z. & Fuller, R. 2016. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries. Environmental Pollution, 211: 346–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.01.019

Shayakhmetova, Z. 2019. Kazakhstan ranks 50th out of 189 countries in Human Development Index 2018. In: The Astana Times [online]. [Cited 20 January 2020]. https://astanatimes.com/2019/12/kazakhstan-ranks-50th-out-of-187-countries-in-human-development-index-2018/

Stockholm Convention. 2021. Status of ratifications of the Stockholm Convention [online]. [Cited 26 January 2020]. http://chm.pops.int/Countries/StatusofRatifications/PartiesandSignatoires/tabid/4500/Default.aspx

The Astana Times. 2019. New Kazakh ministry will focus on environment, preventing poaching and managing water resources. In: The Astana Times [online]. [Cited 20 January 2020]. https://astanatimes.com/2019/08/new-kazakh-ministry-will-focus-on-environment-preventing-poaching-and-managing-water-resources/

The Global Economy. 2018. Moldova: GDP share of agriculture. In: The GlobalEconomy.com [online]. [Cited 6 December 2019]. theglobaleconomy.com/Moldova/Share_of_agriculture/

The Global Economy. 2019. Belarus GDP share of agriculture - data, chart. In: TheGlobalEconomy.com [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Belarus/Share_of_agriculture/

Toichuev, R.M., Zhilova, L.V., Makambaeva, G.B., Payzildaev, T.R., Pronk, W., Bouwknegt, M. & Weber, R. 2018a. Assessment and review of organochlorine pesticide pollution in Kyrgyzstan. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(32): 31836–31847. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0001-7

Toichuev, R.M., Zhilova, L.V., Paizildaev, T.R., Khametova, M.S., Rakhmatillaev, A., Sakibaev, K.S., Madykova, Z.A., Toichueva, A.U., Schlumpf, M., Weber, R. & Lichtensteiger, W. 2018b. Organochlorine pesticides in placenta in Kyrgyzstan and the effect on pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn health. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(32): 31885–31894. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0962-6

Trading Economics. 2019a. Moldova - Economic Indicators [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. https://tradingeconomics.com/moldova/indicators

Trading Economics. 2019b. Kazakhstan - Economic Indicators [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. https://tradingeconomics.com/kazakhstan/indicators

Trading Economics. 2019c. Georgia - Economic Indicators [online]. [Cited 19 January 2020]. https://tradingeconomics.com/georgia/indicators

Trofimtseva, O. 2019. Ukraine occupies the 20th place in the world and the 11th place in Europe in terms of the area of agricultural land under organic production. In: Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food of Ukraine [online]. [Cited 25 November 2019]. https://agro.me.gov.ua/en/news/ukraine-occupies-20th-place-world-and-11th-place-europe-terms-area-agricultural-land-under-organic-production-olga-trofimtseva

Tsiborovsky, A.N. 2015. Population Health and Risk Factors Affecting Its Status as an Object of Management (Literature Review). Health of the nation No. 2. Ukrainian Institute for Strategic Studies of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.

UN. 2020. Map of the World. United Nations. [Cited 27 March 2021]. https://www.un.org/geospatial/file/3420/download

UNDP. 2010. Who does What Where in Disaster risk reduction in Georgia. Georgian National Committee of Disaster Risk Reduction & Environment Sustainable development. [Cited 6 December 2019]. https://www.preventionweb.net/files/14500_145003WSecondEditionMarch20101.pdf

UNDP, UNEP & OSCE. 2004. Environment and Security. The case of Southern Caucasus., p. 34. Environment and Security. The United Nations Development Programme, The United Nations Environment Programme, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. (also available at https://gridarendal-website-live.s3.amazonaws.com/production/documents/:s_document/324/original/envsec_transforming_risk_en.pdf?1490363117).

UNECE. 2008. Environmental Performance Reviews, Kazakhstan., p. 477. United Nations Publication No. Third Review. UNECE. (also available at https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/epr/epr_studies/ECE_CEP_185_Eng.pdf).

UNECE. 2012. Environmental Performance Reviews. Tajikistan, Second Review Synopsis., p. 53. No. Second Review. New York and Geneva, UNECE. (also available at https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/epr/epr_studies/Synopsis/Tajikistan_II_EN_Synopsis.pdf).

UNGA. 2019. The role of the international community in the prevention of the radiation threat in Central Asia. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 2018. United Nations General Assembly. [Cited 16 January 2020]. https://undocs.org/pdf?symbol=en/A/RES/73/238

UNICRI. 2016. Illicit pesticides, organized crime and supply chain integrity. Torino, Italy. (also available at http://www.unicri.it/topics/environmental/research/).

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, ed. 2012. 1st Environmental Performance Review of Turkmenistan. 1. review edition. Environmental performance reviews series No. 35. New York, NY, United Nations. 213 pp. (also available at http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/epr/epr_studies/Turkmenistan.pdf).

U.S. State Department. 1999. Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution of the Arctic (ACAP). Arctic Council Secretariat. (also available at https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/2061).

Vandergraaf, T.T., Mamedov, G.G., Ramazanov, M.A., Naghiyev, J.A., Mehdiyeva, A.A. & Huseynov, N.A. 2011. Determination of the Radionuclide Contamination on the Absheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan. ASME 2011 14th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, Parts A and B. pp. 461–469. Paper presented at ASME 2011 14th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, 1 January 2011, Reims, France. (also available at https://asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ICEM/proceedings/ICEM2011/54983/461/355218).

Vidavnitstvo, R. 2000. National Report about State of the Environment in Ukraine in 1999., p. 184. Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine.

Vijgen, J. & Egenhofer, C. 2009. Obsolete pesticides: a ticking time bomb and why we have to act now. Pieter Vonk, ed. The Netherland, auw Group bv, The Netherlands. 40 pp. (also available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262685687_OBSOLETE_PESTICIDES_A_TICKING_TIME_BOMB_AND_WHY_WE_HAVE_TO_ACT_NOW).

Vojcehovska, A.C., Zigul’ova, O.M. & Gladchuk, O.Z. 2019. Analytical report on assessment of mercury content waste and recommendation for implementation of Minamata Convention in Ukraine., p. 23. International charity organization “Ecology, Right, People”. (also available at http://eco-initiatives.org.ua/uploads/2019-05/zvit.pdf).

Vorobeichik, E.L. & Kaigorodova, S. Yu. 2017. Long-term dynamics of heavy metals in the upper horizons of soils in the region of a copper smelter impacts during the period of reduced emission. Eurasian Soil Science, 50(8): 977–990. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229317080130

Weber, R., Gaus, C., Tysklind, M., Johnston, P., Forter, M., Hollert, H., Heinisch, E., Holoubek, I., Lloyd-Smith, M., Masunaga, S., Moccarelli, P., Santillo, D., Seike, N., Symons, R., Torres, J.P.M., Verta, M., Varbelow, G., Vijgen, J., Watson, A., Costner, P., Woelz, J., Wycisk, P. & Zennegg, M. 2008. Dioxin- and POP-contaminated sites—contemporary and future relevance and challenges: Overview on background, aims and scope of the series. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 15(5): 363–393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-008-0024-1

Weber, R., Watson, A., Malkov, M., Costner, P. & Vijgen, J. 2011. Unintentionally produced hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene POPs waste from solvent productions - The need to establish emission factors and inventories. Organohalogen Compounds, 73: 2205–2208. (also available at http://dev.dioxin20xx.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/2011/5002.pdf).

WM-Expo. 2018. Station for organic waste composting in Lviv. In: Waste Management [online]. [Cited 29 December 2019]. http://wm-expo.com/ua/oglyad-rynku/invst-proekty-ua

WNA. 2020. World nuclear power reactors & uranium requirements. World Nuclear Association. https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/facts-and-figures/world-nuclear-power-reactors-and-uranium-requireme.aspx

World Bank. 2008a. Cleaning of areas polluted with radioactive wastes and oil in territory of Sabunchu and Surakhani districts of Baku., p. 262. Environmental Impact Assessment Report. Baku, The World Bank. (also available at http://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/400801468009973224/pdf/E18090v131paper1P104985.pdf).

World Bank. 2008b. Project ARP/ III-Large Scale Oil Polluted Land Clean up in Azerbaijan., p. 10. Project Information Document (PID) Appraisal Stage No. AB3679. The World Bank. (also available at http://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/414381467994621501/pdf/SOCAR0PID0100609.pdf).

World Bank. 2016a. Ukraine Country Environmental Analysis., p. 126. No. ACS16696. Washington DC, USA, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. (also available at http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/327881470142199866/pdf/AUS16696-WP-OUO-9-Ukraine-CEA-has-been-approved-P151337.pdf).

World Bank. 2016b. Armenia: Strategic Mineral Sector Sustainability Assessment. World Bank. (also available at http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/book/10.1596/24756).

Yablokov, A.V., Nesterenko, V.B. & Nesterenko, A.V. 2009. Chernobyl. Consequences of the catastrophe for people and the environment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences edition. J.D. Sherman-Nevinger, ed. USA, New York. 345 pp. (also available at https://www.nyas.org/annals/chernobyl/).

Yablokov, A.V., Nesterenko, V.B., Nesterenko, A.V. & Preobrazenskaya., N.G. 2016. Chernobyl: consequences of the catastrophe for people and environment: 1986-2016. Moscow, the RF, Society of the Scientific Research. 826 pp. (also available at https://www.yabloko.ru/chernobyl-book).

Yessirkepov, M., Nurmashev, B. & Anartayeva, M. 2015. A Scopus-Based Analysis of Publication Activity in Kazakhstan from 2010 to 2015: Positive Trends, Concerns, and Possible Solutions. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 30(12): 1915. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2015.30.12.1915

Zdanov, V. 2009. Hygiene assessment of impact of release from the power plants to the state of human health and proposed preventive measures. Donetsk, Ukraine, Donetsk National medical university named after M. Gorkyi. (PhD thesis). (also available at http://irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgi-bin/irbis64r_81/cgiirbis_64.exe?Z21ID=&I21DBN=ARD&P21DBN=ARD&S21STN=1&S21REF=10&S21FMT=fullwebr&C21COM=S&S21CNR=20&S21P01=0&S21P02=0&S21P03=A=&S21COLORTERMS=1&S21STR=%D0%96%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%BD$).

Zinchenko, V.A., Martunyuk, O.V., Pitkevich, S. & Vishnevsky, G. 2009. The peculiarities of growing Miscathusxgiganteus in the conditions of radioactive contamination. Proceeding of the scientific-practical conference “Science, Youth, Ecology”. pp. 138–140. Paper presented at Science, Youth, Ecology, 2009, Zitomir, Ukraine.

Zinchenko, V.A. & Zinchenko, A.V. 2007. The experience of using Plant Growth Regulators during growing of agricultural crops in radioactive contaminated conditions. Proceeding of the International conference “Humic acids and phytohormons in plant breeding”. pp. 59–61. Paper presented at International conference “Humic acids and phytohormons in plant breeding, 2007, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Zoï Environment Network. 2013. Waste and chemicals in Central Asia: A visual Synthesis., p. 116. Geneva, Switzerland. (also available at https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/7538/-Waste_and_chemicals_in_Central_Asia_A_visual_synthesis-2013Waste_Chemicals_CA_EN.pdf.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y).