1. Regional estimates are included when more than 50 percent of population is covered. To reduce the margin of error, estimates are presented as three-year averages.
2. FAO estimates of the number of people living in households where at least one adult has been found to be food insecure.
3. Country-level results are presented only for those countries for which estimates are based on official national data (see note b) or as provisional estimates, based on FAO data collected through the Gallup©
World Poll, Geopoll or Kantar for countries whose national relevant authorities expressed no objection to their publication. Note that consent to publication does not necessarily imply validation of the estimate by the national authorities involved and that the estimate is subject to revision as soon as suitable data from official national sources are available. Global, regional and subregional aggregates are based on data collected in approximately 150 countries.
4. The estimates referring to the middle of the projected ranges for the years 2020 to 2022 were used to calculate the three-year averages.
5. For regional estimates, values correspond to the model predicted estimates for 2022. For countries, the latest data available from 2016 to 2022 are used.
6. Regional estimates are included when more than 50 percent of population is covered. For countries, the latest data available from 2005 to 2012 are used.
7. Regional estimates are included when more than 50 percent of population is covered. For countries, the latest data available from 2015 to 2021 are used.
* Wasting under five years of age regional aggregates exclude Japan.
** The Northern America wasting estimates are derived applying mixed-effect models with subregions as fixed effects; data were available only for the United States of America, preventing the estimation of standard errors (and confidence intervals). Further details on the methodology are described in De Onis, M., Blössner, M., Borghi, E., Frongillo, E.A. & Morris, R. 2004. Estimates of global prevalence of childhood underweight in 1990 and 2015. Journal of the American Medical Association
, 291(21): 2600–2606. Model selection is based on best fit.
a. Consecutive low population coverage; interpret with caution.
b. Based on official national data.
c. For years when official national data are not available, the estimates are integrated with FAO data. See Annex 1B
for further details.
d. Data informing the 2020 food insecurity estimates come from a national COVID-19 impact assessment survey with a reference period of 3 months; therefore, comparability with the rest of the series may be affected.
e. Based on official national data collected in 2019–2022 through EU statistics on income and living conditions.
f. Most recent input data are from before 2000, interpret with caution.
g. The UNICEF-WHO low birthweight estimates are derived through standard methodology applied to all countries to ensure comparability and are not the official statistics of the Government of India. India’s most recent national official low birthweight prevalence is 18.2 percent from the 2019–2021 National Family Health Survey–5 (NFHS-5), which is used as the basis of the UNICEF-WHO global estimation model to support cross-country comparability.
h. This estimate has been adjusted because the original estimate did not cover the full age range or the data source was only representative of rural areas.
<0.1 = less than 100 000 people.
n.a. = data not available; n.r. = data not reported. In the case of the number of undernourished people, this is because the prevalence is less than 2.5 percent.
SOURCES: Data for undernourishment and food insecurity are from FAO. 2023. FAOSTAT: Suite of Food Security Indicators. In: FAO
. [Cited 12 July 2023]. www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/FS
; data for stunting, wasting and overweight are based on UNICEF, WHO & World Bank. 2023. UNICEF-WHO-World Bank: Joint child malnutrition estimates - Levels and trends (2023 edition)
. [Cited 27 April 2023]. https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-report-2023
; data for obesity are based on WHO. 2020. Global Health Observatory (GHO) data repository. In: WHO
. [Cited 28 April 2020]. https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A900A?lang=en
; data on anaemia are based on WHO. 2021. Global anaemia estimates, Edition 2021. In: WHO | Global Health Observatory (GHO) data repository
. [Cited 20 April 2023]. www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/anaemia_in_women_and_children
; data for exclusive breastfeeding are based on UNICEF. 2022. Infant and young child feeding. In: UNICEF
. [Cited 6 April 2023]. https://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/infant-and-young-child-feeding
; and data for low birthweight are from UNICEF & WHO. 2023. Low birthweight joint estimates 2023 edition
. [Cited 12 July 2023]. https://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/low-birthweight