The cost and affordability of a healthy diet, and the change of these indicators from 2019 to 2021, are reported in Table 5 by region, subregion and country income group, following the World Bank classification of countries by income level for 2022, based on per capita gross national income in 2021. Income classification is provided for all countries and territories except Anguilla and Montserrat.
Cost and affordability are also reported at the country level in Table A3.1 for the reference year 2017 when the ICP data were released, as well as for 2018–2021 when the two indicators are updated using the methodology described in Annex 2, Section D. In 2018–2021, the cost indicator was updated for 166 of the 169 countries and territories with information available in 2017, while affordability was updated for 142 of the 143 countries and territories. For Argentina and Zimbabwe, cost and affordability in 2018–2021 are used to estimate aggregate indicators shown in Table 5 but are not reported in Table A3.1. To update the costs in 2018–2021, PPP exchange rates for both countries are imputed, but they may not thoroughly reflect the severe currency devaluation and/or economic instability that the countries have experienced. Table A3.2 provides ranges of the affordability indicators globally, as well as by region, subregion and country income group, which show the percentage and number of people unable to afford a healthy diet in 2021. Lower-bound estimates assume that 80 percent of income is allocated to food, as this represents the largest expenditure share on food observed in the ICP 2017 data (in Guinea-Bissau). Upper-bound estimates assume that the share of income reserved for food varies by country income group. Following ICP 2017 national accounts data, food expenditures represent, on average, 14 percent, 27 percent, 38 percent and 52 percent of total expenditures in high-income countries, upper-middle-income countries, lower-middle-income countries and low-income countries, respectively. For a full description of the methodology used to determine these ranges, see Herforth et al. (2020).23