The future of mariculture: a regional
approach for responsible development
in the Asia-Pacific region

FAO/NACA Regional Workshop
7–11 March 2006
Guangzhou, China

Edited by
Alessandro Lovatelli
Fishery Resources Officer (Aquaculture)
Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Rome, Italy

Micheal J. Phillips
Environment Specialist
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
Bangkok, Thailand

J. Richard Arthur
FAO Consultant
British Colombia, Canada


Koji Yamamoto
Research Associate
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
Bangkok, Thailand

Rome, 2008

Download ZIP version 4,4 Kb
Download full PDF version 4,8 Kb

Table of Contents

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

The views expressed in this information product are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO.

ISBN 978-92-5-106007-0
ISSN 1813-3940

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Electronic Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Communication Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to [email protected]

Lovatelli, A.; Phillips, M.J.; Arthur, J.R.; Yamamoto, K. (eds).
FAO/NACA Regional Workshop on the Future of Mariculture: a Regional Approach for Responsible Development in the Asia-Pacific Region. Guangzhou, China, 7–11 March 2006.
FAO Fisheries Proceedings. No. 11. Rome, FAO. 2008. 325p.


Aquaculture in the southeast Asian region has been growing steadily over the last few decades, requiring more space to accommodate it. The search for additional areas to expand the aquaculture industry as a whole and the identification of new farming species of commercial value to satisfy the growing local and export markets are pushing the sector in some countries to expand its activities in the sea, including further offshore where more space is available and where, to a lesser extent, competition is currently not so intense. During the latest session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) and the Sub-Committee on Aquaculture (COFI-SCA), members requested that FAO look into issues related to the sustainable development of coastal aquaculture and in particular

The FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department in collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) organized the regional workshop entitled “The Future of Mariculture: a Regional Approach for Responsible Development in the Asia-Pacific Region” from 7 to 11 March 2006. The workshop, held in Guangzhou, China, was conducted in collaboration with the Bureau of Fisheries of the People’s Republic of China and the Guangdong Ocean and Fisheries Administration.

Fifty-one participants from governments, business, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), universities and regional and international organizations from maricultureproducing countries around the Asia-Pacific region attended the workshop.

The workshop was convened in response to requests from FAO and NACA members to identify key trends and issues affecting mariculture growth in the Asia-Pacific region and to strengthen regional collaboration for future responsible development of mariculture. China’s hosting of the workshop recognizes the status of China as the leading mariculture-producing country in the world and a major market for mariculture products from around the Asia-Pacific region.

The workshop was organized in complementary sessions. The first consisted of a series of presentations and discussions on country trends and thematic reviews on selected key issues. The second continued with three working groups focusing on important
topics, namely: 1) Market, Demand and Trade; 2) Livelihoods, Producer Organizations, Technology Transfer and Communications; and 3) Mariculture Species and Systems. The third session comprised a “farmer dialogue” and a “trader and marketing dialogue”.
The farmer dialogue was conducted at a large mariculture farming area near Guangzhou, while the trader and marketing dialogue was conducted at the largest live-seafood market in Asia. These dialogues yielded valuable insights and recommendations from
farmers and traders.

The final plenary session brought together the working group findings and identified opportunities for regional collaborative action. The workshop participants proposed the establishment of a regional “Asia-Pacific Mariculture Cooperation” initiative to support
the development of sustainable mariculture in the Asia-Pacific region. The initiative will facilitate cooperation among the countries of the region by promoting responsible mariculture farming technologies, capacity-building, market access and effective transfer of knowledge. The platform for the initiative would be the “Asia-Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network”, which is already promoting cooperation in marine fish farming around the region and has been widely seen as a successful programme. FAO and NACA were requested to facilitate and support the development of this new mariculture initiative.

© FAO 2008


Preparation of this document  (Download pdf 564 Kb)
Abbreviations and acronyms

Workshop summary   (Download pdf 100 Kb)
Background and workshop organization
Working group findings
Final discussion and way forward
Farmer and trader dialogues (Download pdf 223 Kb)
Dialogue with farmers
Dialogue with traders

Annex 1 – Workshop agenda (Download pdf 43 Kb)
Annex 2 – List of participants (Download pdf 51 Kb)
Annex 3 – Interventions from the final workshop session (Download pdf 68 Kb)
Annex 4 – Selected mariculture photos (Download pdf 786 Kb)

SECTION 1 – Thematic regional reviews   (Download pdf 685 Kb)

Regional review on mariculture: products demand and markets
by Sudari Pawiro

Regional review on livelihood opportunities related to mariculture development
by Elizabeth M. Gonzales, U Khin Maung Soe, Rubu Mukherjee, Nguyen Song Ha, Aniza Suspita, Muhammad Junaid Wattoo and Paul Bulcock

Mechanisms for technology transfer
by Simon Wilkinson

Regional review on existing major mariculture species and farming technologies
by Michael A. Rimmer

SECTION 2 – Country experiences (Download pdf 252 Kb)

by Humayun Kabir

The People’s Republic of China
by Liu Yingjie

China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
by Jim Chu

India (Download pdf 375 Kb)
by Mohan Joseph Modayil, R. Satiadhas and G. Gopakumar

by Ida Bagus M. Suastika Jaya

Islamic Republic of Iran
by Kambiz Besharat and Sohrab Rezvani

Japan (Download pdf 385 Kb)
by Yoshihisa Yamamoto and Shigeo Hayase

The Republic of Korea
by Sungchul C. Bai

by Mohd Fariduddin Otham

The Philippines (Download pdf379 Kb)
by Westley R. Rosario

by Renu Yashiro

Viet Nam
by Le Xan

The Pacific Islands
by Ben Ponia

SECTION 3 – Special presentations and perspectives (Download pdf 265 Kb)

Demand, markets and trade of farmed fishery products in China
by Gao Jian, Yang Zhongyong and Xie Jinhua

The status of mariculture in northern China (Download pdf 130 Kb)
by Chang Yaqing and Chen Jiaxin

Marine fish cage culture in China (Download pdf 768 Kb)
by Jiaxin Chen, Changtao Guang, Hao Xu, Zhixin Chen, Pao Xu, Xiaomei Yan Yutang Wang and Jiafu Liu

Development of seafarming in India – an export perspective (Download pdf 124 Kb)
by B. Vishnu Bhat and P. N. Vinod

SEAFDEC support to aquaculture programmes in Southeast Asian countries (Download pdf 117 Kb)
by Siri Ekmaharaj

Perspective from the World Wildlife Fund (Download pdf 74 Kb)
by Aaron McNevin

The Southeast Asia SEAPLANT Network: an initiative of IFC-PENSA
by Iain C. Neish

Health issues in mariculture in the Asia–Pacific region: an industry perspective
by Zilong Tan, Cedric Komar and William J. Enright

Integrated mariculture: its role in future aquaculture development (Download pdf 400 Kb)
by Max Troell

How to Order