Payments for Ecosystem Services and Food Security


Download Full Report pdf file -11.2Mb        Download ZIP version zip file - 20Mb

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome 2011


A healthy ecosystem can provide a variety of crucial services for public goods, such as clean water, nutrient cycling, climate regulation and food security services that contribute directly or indirectly to human well-being. Yet today, many ecosystems are in decline; this is of particular importance to agriculture, which depends on ecosystem services. Loss of healthy ecosystems will seriously affect the production of food, both today and in the future. Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an economic instrument designed to provide positive incentives to users of agricultural land and those involved in coastal or marine management. These incentives are expected to result in continued or improved provision of ecosystem services, which, in turn, will benefit society as a whole.

Table of Contents


  pdf file [434kb]

1. The role of PES in agriculture

  pdf file

2. Relevance of OECD agri-environmental measures for PES

  pdf file [922kb]

3. Opportunity and gaps in PES implementation and key areas for further investigation

  pdf file [1.8Mb]

4. Cost-effective targeting of PES

  pdf file [860kb]

5. Social and cultural drivers behind the success of PES

  pdf file [1.5Mb]

6. Landscape labelling approaches to PES: Bundling services, products and stewards

  pdf file [1.5Mb]

7. Enabling conditions and complementary legislative tools

  pdf file [1.6Mb]

8. PES within the context of Green Economy

  pdf file [1.9Mb]

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

ISBN 978-92-5-106796-3

All rights reserved. FAO encourages reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Non-commercial uses will be authorized free of charge, upon request. Reproduction for resale or other commercial purposes, including educational purposes, may incur fees. Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyright materials, and all queries concerning rights and licences, should be addressed by e-mail to [email protected] or to the Chief, Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.

© FAO 2011