Biofuel co-products as livestock feed  Opportunities and challenges

Biofuel co-products as
livestock feed

Opportunities and challenges

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 2012


Climate change and predicted shortages of fossil fuels present major challenges. Currently, biofuel production is from agricultural crops grown primarily on arable land. Conflict with the traditional use of arable land, itself a limited resource, to produce food and animal feed must be avoided and economic sustainability assured. At present cereals, especially maize and wheat, and sugar cane are used for ethanol production, with soybean, oil palm and rapeseed for biodiesel production.

The expanding transport industry requires increasing amounts of biofuels, and an increasing market for co-products has generated a need for new feedstocks. Cellulosic material, often available from sub-prime land with minimal inputs, and other non-conventional sources are being investigated. Before being used as feeds, some seeds and cakes will require detoxification. The contribution of micro-algae, production of which can be achieved in coastal waters, is likely to grow in importance. These developments are mirrored the broadening of the animal species receiving the co-products, from ruminants, especially cattle, and pigs to poultry and fish (aquaculture). Further developments include enhancement of the use of existing co-products and the introduction of new ones.

This publication collates, discusses and summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on the use as livestock feed and future availability of co-products from the biofuel industry. The levels at which the co-products could be safely used in livestock diets are also presented. Throughout the book, gaps in knowledge and research topics needed to address them have been identified. These include standardization of product quality to assist ration formulation; testing of new products; development of detoxification procedures; research on micro-algae; and life cycle analysis linked to traditional nutritional appraisal.

This publication covers a wide array of co-products and is a timely contribution, as people's aspirations are rising, evident from the increasing demand for livestock products and an ever greater reliance on transport, coupled with the challenge of maintaining agricultural production when faced with global warming. We hope that the information here synthesized will be useful to policy-makers, researchers, the feed industry, science managers and NGOs, supporting them in making information- based decisions on issues such as food-feed-fuel competition. Hopefully it will help confront the emerging challenges of global warming, in addition to making efficient use as livestock feed of a wide range of currently available and future co-products from the biofuel industry.


Abbreviations used in the text


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Chapter 1
An outlook on world biofuel production and its implications for the animal feed industry

Chapter 2
An outlook on EU biofuel production and its implications for the animal feed industry

Chapter 3
Impact of United States biofuels co-products on the feed industry

Chapter 4
Utilization of wet distillers grains in high-energy beef cattle diets based on processed grain


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Chapter 5
Utilization of feed co-products from wet or dry milling for beef cattle

Chapter 6
Hydrogen sulphide: synthesis, physiological roles and pathology associated with feeding cattle maize co-products of the ethanol industry

Chapter 7
Feeding biofuel co-products to dairy cattle

Chapter 8
Utilization of crude glycerin in beef cattle


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Chapter 9
Nutritional value and utilization of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles in pigs and poultry

Chapter 10
Feeding biofuels co-products to pigs

Chapter 11
Co-products from biofuel production for farm animals – an EU perspective

Chapter 12
Utilizing co-products of the sweet sorghumbased biofuel industry as livestock feed in decentralized systems


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Chapter 13
Utilization of oil palm co-products as feeds for livestock in Malaysia

Chapter 14
Use of palm kernel cakes (Elaeis guineensis and Orbignya phalerata), co-products of the biofuel industry, in collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) feeds

Chapter 15
Sustainable and competitive use as livestock feed of some co-products, by-products and effluents generated in the bio-ethanol industry

Chapter 16
Scope for utilizing sugar cane bagasse as livestock feed – an Asian perspective


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Chapter 17
Camelina sativa in poultry diets: opportunities and challenges

Chapter 18
Utilization of lipid co-products of the biofuel industry in livestock feed

Chapter 19
Potential and constraints in utilizing co-products of the non-edible oils-based biodiesel industry – an overview

Chapter 20
Status of biofuels in India and scope of utilizing castor (Ricinus communis) cake – a biofuel co-product – as livestock feed


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Chapter 21
Use of detoxified jatropha kernel meal and protein isolate in diets of farm animals

Chapter 22
Use of Pongamia glabra (karanj) and Azadirachta indica (neem) seed cakes for feeding livestock

Chapter 23
Co-products of the United States biofuels industry as alternative feed ingredients for aquaculture

Chapter 24
Cultivation of micro-algae for lipids and hydrocarbons, and utilization of spent biomass for livestock feed and for bio-active constituents


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Chapter 25
Land use in Australia for biofuels and bio-energy: opportunities and challenges for livestock industries

Chapter 26
An assessment of the potential demand for DDGS in Western Canada: institutional and market considerations

Chapter 27
Biofuels: their co-products and water impacts in the context of life-cycle analysis

Chapter 28
Utilization of co-products of the biofuel industry as livestock feeds – a synthesis


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Appendix 1
Chapters and authors in this volume


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The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

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ISBN 978-92-5-107299-8

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© FAO 2012