Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 578

Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India

R. Ramakrishna
Senior Scientist
Fisheries Research Station
S.V. Veterinary University, Undi
Andhra Pradesh, India

Thomas A. Shipton
FAO Consultant
Grahamstown, South Africa


Mohammad R. Hasan
Aquaculture Officer
Aquaculture Branch
Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
FAO, Rome

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 2013


Ramakrishna, R.; Shipton, T.A.; Hasan, M.R. 2013.
Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India.
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 578. Rome, FAO. 90 pp.

This study reviews the aquaculture of Indian major carps, rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus) with special reference to current feeding and feed management practices in Andhra Pradesh, India. The study is based on a survey of 106 farmers from four regions in Andhra Pradesh (Kolleru, Krishna, West Godavari, and Nellore). The study was undertaken between December 2009 to July 2010. Kolleru and the surrounding districts of Krishna and West Godavari are the primary culture areas. In Nellore district, Indian major carp culture is practiced at a lower intensity to that practiced in Kolleru. In East Godavari district, Indian major carps are primarily cultured in polyculture systems with either tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) or freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). While the study primarily focused on the feed management practices associated with Indian major carp production, management practices that are used under polyculture conditions with other species groups were also assessed. The study revealed that mash feed was the most popular and widely used feed type. De-oiled rice bran was used as the principal feed ingredient followed by groundnut cake and cotton seed cake. All the farmers reported using de-oiled rice bran, followed by groundnut cake (56 percent farmers), cotton seed cake (40 percent), raw rice bran (30 percent) and other mash feed ingredients. The poor quality of the mash feed ingredients, especially the de-oiled rice bran, groundnut cake, and cotton seed cake was an important issue of concern to the farmers. Commercially manufactured pellet feeds were used by 33 percent of the farmers to compliment their mash feeds, with the majority electing to use sinking pellets. Since 2007, there has been a marked increase in the use of commercially manufactured aquafeeds, most notably for the large scale production of the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Grow-out farmers feeding mash feeds used variants of a bag feeding method known as rope and pole feeding. In Nellore district some farmers practiced hapa feeding, while in East Godavari district, farmers fed fish in both the culture ponds (bag feeding) and hapas. Tiger shrimp or freshwater prawns were fed in these ponds using broadcast feeding methods. In the nursery and rearing ponds, the commonly used feed ingredients included groundnut cake, de-oiled rice bran and raw rice bran. The most common feeding practice was broadcast feeding. Rohu broodstock that were collected during the breeding season were fed in a similar manner to the fish in the grow-out production systems. Catla broodstock was segregated from the other culture species, and fed a diet comprising soybean cake, dried fish, and a mineral mixture. Constraints to Indian major carp production were identified, and research and development needs characterized.


Preparation of this document
Abbreviations and acronyms

1. Introduction



The Kolleru Lake



Water sources



Organic manures and inorganic fertilizers






Sources of finance



Insurance services






Feed and nutrition research capacity



The carp culture systems used in andhra pradesh



Semi-extensive polyculture of indian major and exotic carps (initial culture)



On-growing semi-intensive polyculture (typical culture)



Semi-intensive polyculture fattening (zero point culture)



Semi-intensive juvenile polyculture (zero point stock culture)



Polyculture grow-out systems (semi-intensive polyculture and mixed)



Nursery, juvenile and broodstock systems

2. Methods



Regional distribution of the farmer survey



Limitations of the study



Data analysis

3. Results and discussion



Farm size



Farmers' experience



Production characteristics



Manufactured pelleted feeds



The types of feed used by the farmers



Nutrition and feed management of indian major carps under practical semi-intensive pond culture conditions

4. Farmers' perceptions



Feed quality related problems



Rope or pole feeding



Feeding and feed consumption



Feed wastage



Gut evacuation time



The contribution of natural feeds to fish growth



Growth retardation



Satiation or sub-satiation feeding



Preferred pellet types



Manures and fertilizer use



Cost of production and net income

5. Conclusions and recommendations










1 –

Common and scientific names of fish species used in aquaculture in Andhra Pradesh, India


2 –

Annex Antibiotics and other pharmacologically active substances prohibited for use in Indian aquaculture


3 –

Annual production capacity of the 11 largest commercial pelleted feed manufactures and local feed factories in Andhra Pradesh, 2010


4 –

Products of the pelleted feed manufacturers in Andhra Pradesh


5 –

Manure and fertilizer use in "typical culture (on-growing semi-intensive polyculture)" production system"


6 –

Manure and fertilizer use in "zero point culture (semi-intensive polyculture fattening) and zero point stock culture (semi-intensive juvenile polyculture)" production systems


7 –

Manure and fertilizer use in a "polyculture grow-out (IMC and exotic carp)" production system


8 –

Manure and fertilizer use in "polyculture grow-out (IMC and tiger shrimp)" production system



Manure and fertilizer use in a "polyculture grow-out (IMC and giant river prawns)" production system



Input and fish sale prices used to estimate production costs and net incomes (july 2010)

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