Download Full Report  8,9Mb

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome 2013


Between now and 2050, the world’s population will increase by one-third. Most of these additional 2 billion people will live in developing countries. At the same time, more people will be living in cities. If current income and consumption growth trends continue, FAO estimates that agricultural production will have to increase by 60 percent by 2050 to satisfy the expected demands for food and feed. Agriculture must therefore transform itself if it is to feed a growing global population and provide the basis for economic growth and poverty reduction. Climate change will make this task more difficult under a business-as-usual scenario, due to adverse impacts on agriculture, requiring spiralling adaptation and related costs.

Table of Contents

Executive summary

MODULE 1: Why Climate-smart agriculture, forestry and fisheries  

Overview and Key messages
1.1 Food security and climate change: three intertwined challenges
1.2 Towards more efficient and resilient systems
1.3 Increase systemic efficiency and resilience: policies, institutions finances
1.4 What’s new with CSA?
1.5 Conclusions and focus of the sourcebook

MODULE 2: Managing landscapes for Climate-smart agricultural systems  

Overview and Key messages
2.1 Why is a landscape approach needed for achieving Climate-smart agriculture?
2.2 How can a landscape approach be implemented?
2.3 Examples of landscape approaches
2.4 Conclusions

MODULE 3: Water management  

Overview and Key messages
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Water management in agriculture: status and trends
3.3 Potential impacts of climate change on water in agriculture
3.4 Vulnerability to climate change and resilience: a variety of situations
3.5 Assessing risk, preparing responses
3.6 Options for adaptation to climate change
3.7 Prioritizing options with an eye on vulnerable categories of people
3.8 Conditions for successful adaptation
3.9 Water management for climate change mitigation
3.10 Conclusions

MODULE 4: Soils and their management for Climate-smart agriculture  

Overview and Key messages
4.1 Principles of soil health, key functions and soil: plant-water interrelations
4.2 Challenges of climate change to soils
4.3 Soil principles for climate change adaptation and mitigation and enhancing resilience in different contexts
4.4 Successful examples of soil management practices for climate-smart agriculture with a focus on resilience
4.5 Conclusions

MODULE 5: Sound Management of Energy for Climate-smart agriculture  

Overview and Key messages
5.1 Introduction – Energy and the agrifood system
5.2 Energy-smart food in the CSA context
5.3 Moving forward – possible energy solutions for CSA
5.4 Conclusions

MODULE 6: Conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources
for food and agriculture

Overview and Key messages
6.1 Genetic resources for food and agriculture
6.2 Genetic resources for food and agriculture: a prerequisite for climate-smart agriculture
6.3 Concluding remarks

MODULE 7: Climate-smart crop production system  

Overview and Key messages
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Climate change impacts
7.3 Sustainable crop production intensification
7.4 Underlying principles: management of natural biological processes
7.5 Climate-smart approaches and practices
7.6 Conclusions

MODULE 8: Climate-smart Livestock  

Overview and Key messages
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Adaptation and mitigation needs
8.3 Climate-smart livestock
8.4 Conclusions

MODULE 9: Climate-smart forestry  

Overview and Key messages

MODULE 10: Climate-smart fisheries and aquaculture  

Overview and Key messages
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Climate-smart approaches
10.3 Practical themes for developing climate-smart fisheries and aquaculture
10.4 Strategic climate-smart approaches for the sector
10.5 Progress of fisheries and aquaculture towards CSA
10.6 Transitioning to CSA
10.7 Conclusions

MODULE 11: Developing sustainable and inclusive food value chains for
Climate-smart agriculture

Overview and Key messages
11.1 Introduction to sustainable and inclusive food value chains
11.2 Sustainable and inclusive food value chains in practice: the case of food losses and waste
11.3 Step-by-step approach for chain actors to improve their performance
along the sustainable and inclusive food value chain
11.4 Conclusions

MODULE 12: Local institutions  

Overview and Key messages
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Key institutions for CSA initiatives
12.3 Building synergies
12.4 Quick institutional context assessment
12.5 Conclusions

MODULE 13: Mainstreaming Climate-smart agriculture into National Policies and Programmes  

Overview and Key messages
13.1 Climate-smart agriculture within larger economic and policy frameworks
13.2 Improve market accessibility: policy and financial instruments
13.3 Improving access to knowledge and monitoring: the role of implementing actors
13.4 Conclusions

MODULE 14: Financing Climate-smart agriculture  

Overview and Key messages
14.1 Introduction
14.2 How does climate change affect investment needs for agriculture?
14.3 Global climate finance: catalysing the transition towards CSA
14.4 Preparing for the way forward in international CSA financing

MODULE 15: Disaster Risk Reduction: Strengthening Livelihood Resilience  

Overview and Key messages
15.1 Disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation
15.2 Planning for resilience against multiple risks
15.3 Building on community-based approaches to DRR and adaptation
15.4 Scaling up proven technologies and practices for resilient livelihoods
15.5 The enabling framework of DRR to support CSA
15.6 Concluding remarks and recommendations

MODULE 16: Making Climate-smart agriculture a work for the most vulnerable:
the role of safety nets

Overview and Key messages
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Social protection and safety nets – a conceptual overview
16.3 Key functions of safety nets in relation to CSA
16.4 Challenges and lessons learned
16.5 Conclusions

MODULE 17: Capacity development for climate-smart agriculture  

Overview and Key messages
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Strategies for improving policy coherence and effectiveness
17.3 Strategies for knowledge sharing and effective learning
17.4 Conclusions

MODULE 18: Assessment, monitoring and evaluation  

Overview and Key messages
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Defining assessment, monitoring and evaluation for CSA: scope, purposes, frameworks and concepts
18.3 How to conduct assessments for CSA policy and project design
18.4 How to implement monitoring and evaluation for CSA programmes and projects
18.5 Challenges and guiding principles
18.6 Examples of assessment, monitoring and evaluation
18.7 Conclusions

GLOSSARY [606kb]

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

ISBN 978-92-5-107720-7 (print)
E-ISBN 978-92-5-107721-4 (PDF)

FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is given and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products or services is not implied in any way. All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial use rights should be made via or addressed to [email protected].

FAO information products are available on the FAO website ( and can be purchased through [email protected].