### Appendix

#### SI units

Appendix 1: 1 The seven base units in the International System of Units (Sl)
 Quantity Name of base Sl Unit Symbol Length metre m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Electric current ampere A Thermodynamic temperature kelvin K Amount of substance mole mol Luminous intensity candela cd

Appendix 1: 2 Some derived Sl-units with their symbol/derivation
 Quantity common symbol Unit Symbol Derivation Term Term Length a, b, c metre m Sl-base unit Area A square metre m² Volume V cubic metre m³ Mass m kilogramme kg Sl-base unit Density r (rho) kilogramme per cubic metre kg/m³ Force F Newton N IN = 1 kgm/s2 Weight force W Newton N 9.80665N = 1 kgf Time t second s Sl-base unit Velocity v metre per second m/s Acceleration a meter per second per second m/ s2 Frequency (cycles per second) f Hertz Hz IHz = Ic/s Bending moment M Newton metre Nm Pressure P. F Newton per square metre N/m² IMN/m² = IN/mm² Stress s (sigma) Newton per square metre N/ m² Work, energy W Joule J IJ = INm Power P Watt W IW = IJ/s Quantity of heat Q Joule J Thermodynamic temperature T Kelvin K Sl-base unit Specific heat capacity c Joule per kilogram degree Kelvin J/ kg x o K Thermal conductivity k Watt per metre degree Kelvin W/m x o K Coefficient of heat U Watt per square metre Kelvin w/ m² x o K

Appendix 1: 3 Multiples and sub multiples of Sl-Units commonly used in construction theory
 Factor Prefix Symbol 106 mega M 103 kilo k (102 hecto h ) (10 deka da) (10 1 deci d) (l0 2 centi c ) 10 3 milk m 10 6 micro u

Prefix in brackets should be avoided.

#### Conversion tables

Practical values for use in everyday calculations

Note, the conversion factors marked * are exact

Appendix II.I Length
 m inch foot yard 1 * 39.3701 3.2808 1.0936 0.0254\$ 1 * 0.0833 0.0278 0.3048* 12 1* 0.3333 0.9144* 36 3 1*

1km = 0.6214 miles

Appendix II:2 Area
 m² cm² mm² in2 ft2 yd2 acre ha 1* 10.000 106* 1550.0031 10.7639 1.196 0.2471 x 10-3 0,1 x 10-3 0.1 x 10-3 1* 100* 0155 1.0764 x 10-3 1 1 96 x 103 24 71 x 10-9 0.1 X 10-6* 10-6* 0.01* 1* 1.55 x 10-3 10.7639 x 10-6 1.196 x 106 0.2471 x 10-9 0,1 X 10-9* 0.64516 x 10-3 6.4516* 645.16* 1* 6.9444 x 10-3 0.7716 X 10-3 0.1594 x 10-6 64.516 x 10-9 0.09290304* 929.0304 92903.044 144* 1* 0.1111 22.9568 x 10-6 9.2903 x 10-6 0.83612736* 8361.2736 0.8361 x 106 1296* 9* 1* 0.2066 x 10-3 83.6136 x 10-6 4046.8561 40.4685 x io6 4.0469 x 109 6272640* 43560* 4840* 1* 0.4047 100000* 100 x 106 109 15.5 x 106 107639.1 11959.9 2.4711 1*

Appendix II: 3 Volume
 m³ cm³ in3 ft3 yd3 * 106 61023.744 35.3147 1.3080 - 10-6 1* 0.0610 35.3146 x 10-5 1.3080x 10-6 16.387 x 10-6 16.387064* 1* 0.5787 x 10-3 21.4334 x 10-6 0.0283 28316.847 1728* 1* 0.0320 0.7646 764554.86 46656* 27* 1*

Appendix II:4 Mass
 kg g pound oz 1* 1000* 2.2046 35.274 0.001* 1* 2.205 x 10-3 0.0353 0.45359237* 453.5924 1* 16* 0.0283 28.3495 0.0625* 1*

Appendix II: 5 Density
 kg/m³ lb/ ft3 lb/ in3 1* 0.0624 3.6106 x 10-5 16.0185 1* 5.787 x 10-4 27679.906 1728* 1*

Appendix II:6 Force
 N kgf (=kp) Lbf 1* 0.102 0.2248 9.80665* 1 * 0.2246 4.4482 0.4536 1 *

Appendix II: 7 Pressure and Stress
 Pa = N/m² mm Hg UK ton-force/in2 Pound force/in2 (0°C) (tonf/in2) (LBF/in2 (= psi)) 1* 7.5006 x 10-3 64.7488 x 10-9 0.145 x 10-3 133.322 1* 115841.53 0.0193 06 8.6325 x l0-6 1* 2239.4237 6894.76 51.7283 446.543 K 10 6 1*

Appendix II: 8 Velocity
 m/s km/in ft/s mile/hr 1 * 3.6* 3.2808 2.2369 0.2778 1* 0.9113 0.6214 0.3048* 1.0973 1* 0.6818 0.447 1.609344* 1.4667 1 *

Appendix II: 9 Temperature
 °C °F °K °C (1.8 x °C) + 32* °C + 273-15* ( F - 32)1.8* °F* (° F - 32)/ 1.8 + 273.15* °K - 273.15* (1.8(0K - 273.15)) + 32' °K*

Appendix II: 10 Energv
 J. Nm, Ws kWh kcal ft Ibf therm 1* 0-2778 x 106 0.2388 x 10-3 0.7376 9.4781 x 10-9 3.6 x 106* 1* 859.845 2.6552 x 106 0.341 4.1868 x 103 1.163 x 10-3 1* 3.088 x 103 39.6832 x 10-6 1.3558 0.3766 x 10-6 0.3238 x 10-3 1* 12.8506 x 10-9 05,505 x 106 29.3071 25199.56 77.8168 x 106 1*

#### Greek alphabet

 Capital Lower-case Name Capital LowerCase Name A a alpha N n nu B b beta X e xi G g gamma O o omicron D d delta P p pi E e epsilon P r rho Z z zeta S s (at end of word) c sigma H h eta T i tau Q q theta Y t upsilon I i iota F f phi K k kappa X x chi L l lambda Y y psi M m mu W w omega