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Dairy Farming Manual

Volume 1

Technology Unit 2
Milk Quality

page 33

Extension Materials
What should you know about milk quality ?
Why should you produce high quality milk ? ( 5 - 8 ) 

1 High quality milk: 
- earns you money
- is better for you 
-keeps longer.

How can you produce high quality milk ? ( 9 - 12 ) 

2 Make sure: 
-you and your cows are healthy
-everything is clean
-you keep your milk cool and deliver quickly.

What affects the quality of 
your milk ? 

3 The number ofbacteria in your milk ( 13 - 31) and the health of your cows 
( 32 - 34 ). 

4 Thequality of your feed 
( 35 - 36 ) 
and thepurityof you milk 
(39 - 43 ). 
page 35
Why should you produce high quality milk ?
5 They test your milk at the collecting centre -

high quality milk gets a

good price.

6 High quality milk has

many nutrient and 

few bacteria.

7 So it tastes good and makes you

strong and healthy and keeps.

8    Milk with

many bateria

tastes bad and does not keep.

page 36

9 Make sure:

- your cows are healthy

10 you are clean

your cow is clean

every thing at the milking place is clean

11 you keep your milk


12 you get your milk

to the collecting centre

in the shortest time possible

page 37

13 all milk contains

some bacteria

14 Milk with few bacteria is of

high quality.  Milk with many bacteria is of low quality.

You get more money for high quality milk.

15 if your milk is of low quality and contains many bacteria,
you get less money
and the milk collection centre
may reject your milk.
page 38

16 Some bacteria produce acids

and turn the milk sour.

17 Some bacteria produce

gas and spoil your milk.

18 Most bacteria breakdown your milk

and reduce the nutrient value.

19 Some bacteria

can make you ill

or even kill you.

page 39

Where do the bacteria come from ?
Your cattle
 page 40

Milking Utensil

24 Bacteria come from:
- dirty pails
- dirty strainers
- dirty churns
- dirty udder cloths


25 Dirty walls and floors
26 Dust carries bacteria from:
- the surroundings
- the manure heap
- residues
- the soil
27 Dirty water contains many bacteria.
 page 41

How can you keep the number of bacteria in your milk low ?

During milking

28 Keep milk clean by:
- milking in a clean cow shed
- using clean milking utensils
-using clean milking practices.
During storage
29 Bacteria multiply quickly in a warm place.
30 Keep the collected milk in cans in a shady and cool place.
Dip the cans in cold water before and after nilking.

During transport

31 Get your milk to the collecting centres as soon as possible after milking.
page 42

32 High quality milk
comes from healthy cows.
If your cow is sick,
consult your extension worker.
33 If your cow has

mastitis, do not deliver your milk.
The collecting centre will reject it.


34 If your cow had

antibiotic injections,
do not deliver your milk
until you consult your veterinatian
or extension worker.


page 43


35    If your milk has bad taste or smell, you may have to improve:

- cleaning
- handling
- storing
of milking utensils.


 36    Do not feed silage
and wet crop residues
at the milking place.
Smells from this and other feed may pass to your milk.
37 Bacteria multiply in warm milk.
Your milk has a bad smell and taste and spoils quickly.
38 Cool your milk after milking or deliver your milk

immediately to the collecting centre.

page 44


How do you make sure your milk is pure ?

39 Never add water
or anything else to your milk.

40 Make sure you use detergents and disinfectants to clean your milking equipment.

Follow instructions carefully
and consult your extension worker.

41 Keep insecticides, pesticides and other chemicals
away from the milking shed
and the water supply.
page 45

 What do you clean ?

42  Everything


43 Prepare yourself,
your equipment
and your cow well
before milking.

Apply the proper hand milking practice.
(see H 7.2 Milking)

page 46

What do you know about milk quality ?
    Reasons for producing high quality milk
    1.   Higher price
    2.   Taste, nutritative value and keeping ability
    How to produce high quality milk ?
    1.   Healthy cow
    2.   Hygiene
    3.   Temperature
    4.   Delivery time
    Factors affecting the quality of milk
    1.   Bacteria
       - number and milk payment
       - effects of bacteria
       - where bacteria come from
       - keeping the number of bacteria low
    2.   Health
       - mastitis
       - antibiotics
    3.   Feeding
    4.   Temprature
    5.   Purity
       - additives
       - chemicals
    6.   Hygiene
    7.   Milking
page 47

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