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Dairy Farming Manual

Volume 3

Husbandry Unit 5.6

page 197


Husbandry Unit 5.6:

Technical Notes

Note: Numbers in brackets refer to illustrations in the Extension Materials.

Concentrates are a group of livestock feeds which are characterised by a higher dry matter content and a higher digestibility than roughages such as the stems and leaves of the grasses, fodders, legumes and trees.  (1)

Concentrates of plant origin can be either energy-rich concentrates or protein-rich concentrates.

Energy-rich concentrates:  dried cassava tubers; cereals such as rice, wheat, maize, millet and sorghum; agricultural by-products such as rice bran, wheat bran, molasses  (2)

Protein-rich concentrates:  coconut cake; soybean meal; palm kernel cake; sunflower cake; groundnut (peanut) cake; cotton seed cake; rubber seed meal etc.  (3)

Concentrates of animal origin are characterized by the larger amounts of high-quality proteins contained in them.  Some examples are the by-products of the milk processing industry e.g. skim milk and whey which can be used in calf feeds.  These are too expensive to be given to adult ruminants.  (4)

page 199

Extension Materials
What are concentrates?

1 Animal feeds with higher:
- dry matter content
- digestibility
than roughages such as the stems and leaves of grasses, fodders, legumes and trees.

What types of concentrates are there?

2 Two types of concentrates come from plants:
Energy-rich concentrates e.g.
- dried cassava, tubers cereals such as rice, wheat
- by-products e.g. rice bran, molasses

3 Protein-rich concentrates e.g.
- coconut and sunflower cake
- soybean and rubbers seed meal
4 Concentrates from animals are rich in high-quality proteins e.g. by-products from skim milk and whey processing for calf feeds.

They are too expensive for adult animals.


page 200

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