7-12 October 1990 - 23rd International Dairy Congress, Montreal, Canada
More than 5 000 participants from over 50 countries will meet in Montreal from 7 to 12 October 1990 for the 23rd International Dairy Congress. Over 200 speakers will address subjects on all aspects of the dairy industry from biotechnology to food safety, quality assurance and marketing. There will also be scientific poster sessions during which delegates will discuss the latest research papers and developments.
The theme of this first Congress to be held in North America will be all aspects of "dairying in a changing world".
A special international display of products at the Congress will allow delegates to see and discuss new products, packaging and ideas. Technical tours of the Canadian dairy industry will also be arranged.
The Congress will be held in conjunction with Exposition 1990 where 150 suppliers will exhibit products and services used by producers, processors, packagers, distributors and retailers involved in the dairy industry.
For registration and a programme brochure, and to present a poster session, contact: Mr Richard Stern, Executive Director, 23rd International Dairy Congress, PO Box 2143, Station D, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5W3, Canada Tel: (613) 238-4116; Fax: (613) 238-6247; Telex: 053-3952.
Report on the International Conference on Application of Biotechnology to Livestock in Developing Countries
This Conference, which took place in September 1989 at the Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh, Scotland, aimed at informing those involved with livestock in developing countries of the recent rapid advances in biotechnology and explored the practical application of these advances. The themes of the conference were: vaccines, diagnosis and epidemiology, genetic manipulation (breeding) and nutrition (manipulation of foodstuffs and by-products).
Two presentations by the FAO participants covered the specific area of genetics of domestic animals and related fields as well as major aspects of FAO's biotechnology programme. Embryos will offer a means of inserting new genes into the genome of animals while the splitting or cloning of embryos when eventually developed will offer a vast potential for changing traditional reproduction and genetic techniques for livestock.
Another area of interest to FAO is genome mapping methods and their application to animals of developing countries. The aim is to locate the DNA segments responsible for coding desirable or undesirable traits. Plans have been drawn up to undertake, with international support, the mapping of trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle at the International Trypanotolerance Centre in the Gambia.
The areas which the FAO biotechnology programme for livestock seeks to support were reviewed, including reproduction, genetics, growth, lactation and fibre production, nutrition, disease diagnosis and control, expert global and regional meetings, training courses and networks as well as some specific-field projects.
Small Ruminant Research, the journal of the International Goat Association
The first issue of the new official journal of the International Goat Association appeared in March 1988. It publishes articles of original and applied research on subjects including nutrition, physiology, anatomy, genetics, microbiology, ethology, product technology, socio-economics, management, and veterinary medicine related to goats and sheep, and also to other small ruminants such as deer, llama, alpaca and vicuña.
Small Ruminant Research is published quarterly. Subscription rates are US$143.00/DFL286.00. A detailed "Guide to authors" is available from the publishers. For further information contact Mr R. Hayward, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., PO Box 330, 1000AH Amsterdam, the Netherlands, or Ms J. Weislogel, Elsevier Science Publishing Company Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA.
World Buffalo Association
A World-Buffalo Association has been formed to promote and disseminate information on all types and breeds of buffalo.
The primary aim of the association is to centralize buffalo data from scientific communities, breeders, research organizations and small farmers throughout the world.
A quarterly newsletter will be sent to members, agricultural colleges and others interested in buffaloes.
Swamp buffalo, principally used for draught and meat, are native to eastern Asia, while river buffalo (also known as water buffalo), are found from India to Egypt and in Europe. It is reported that river buffalo produce more milk than swamp buffalo and are gentle animals, often cared for by small children. It is also of interest to note that river-type buffaloes have been used in Bulgaria-to pull snow-ploughs in winter and they are also found in the cold, mountainous areas of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal.
All inquiries for further information should be addressed to the World Buffalo Association LAA, 3811 S.W. 95th Avenue, Miami, Florida 33165, USA.
It was felt that there was a special need for a journal on buffalo science for the developing countries and since 1985, when the Buffalo Journal was introduced by the Editor, Prof. M. Kamonpatana of Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, it has been published twice yearly.
Buffalo Journal publishes research papers, reviews and comments on buffalo anatomy, breeding, diseases, genetics, management, nutrition, physiology, reproduction and socioeconomic problems.
Contributions on swamp buffalo are particularly welcome.
The subscription rate is US$24.00 (bank draft). Please address your inquiries to the Editor, Buffalo Journal, Research Centre for Bioscience in Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn, Bangkok, Thailand.
Courses for feed millers
The Swiss Institute of Feed Technology offers courses of further training for feed millers and personnel active in the grain processing industry. The courses cover a six-month period made up of four months' study at home, followed by two months' instruction at the Swiss Institute of Feed Technology in May and June of each year.
Instructors are experienced in the industry and give up-to-date and practical training with simple and direct methods. Subjects dealt with are: basic structure of feed mills; modern process technology; practical operations with machines; electrical control systems and automation; feed knowledge and livestock feeding; industrial economics; computer workshop; factory and management; applied special professional mathematics.
Further information may be obtained from Mr G. Bremer, Swiss Institute of Feed Technology, Lindenstrasse 4, CH 9240 Uzwil, Switzerland.
Training in milk collection, dairy operations and management
A 12-week course , aimed at dairy managers and development staff in developing countries, is being offered from July to September 1990 and again in 1991 at the International Cooperative Training Centre. The course has been designed to cover a unique variety of subjects from a range of disciplines relevant to dairy operations and development, from collection through to marketing of milk and milk products. The following modules will be included: characteristics of milk production management; personnel and training; management of milk collection centres; producer group and associations; functions of milk collection points; transport and distribution; financial control systems; marketing of liquid milk; diversification into milk-based products; computer technology in dairy operations.
For further information, please write to Ms Elizabeth Cobbald, Plunkett Foundation, 31 St Giles, Oxford, OX1 3LF, UK. Tel: 44 865 53960, Telex: 83147.
IBRA's newsletter for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries
This important newsletter of the International Bee Research Association has always been produced and sent worldwide free of charge to its readers under funding received by IBRA from the Overseas Development Association of the Government of the United Kingdom. From April 1991, IBRA will no longer receive this funding. Unless other sources of financial support can be located, the newsletter will be available only on subscription.
The newsletter is currently distributed to over 3 000 beekeeping projects, groups and individuals in 145 developing countries. Many recipients would be unable to obtain foreign exchange to pay a subscription fee. Since the information carried in the newsletter relates mainly to low-cost, low-technology beekeeping and is aimed primarily at those who have no other access to beekeeping news, it would be unfortunate if the newsletter were no longer distributed to these recipients.
Any offers and suggestions regarding future funding for the newsletter would be appreciated. Please write to Dr Nicola Bradbear, Advisory Officer for Tropical Apiculture, IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY, UK.
Animal Production and Health Division - Division de la production et de la santé animales - Dirección de Producción y Sanidad animal
New world screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) infestation in North Africa
Member Governments were advised on 3 May 1989 by the Director-General of FAO that the presence of the New World screwworm fly had been confirmed in North Africa. The Director-General warned that the parasite could have disastrous consequences to livestock, wildlife and perhaps even human populations in Africa, the Near East and southern Europe since the insect can spread rapidly in suitable tropical and subtropical conditions.
An article devoted to the screwworm is included in this issue and readers particularly interested in the control of this parasite should write to AGAH, FAO for "Screwworm information" sheets.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)
The disease situation in Europe continues to improve and the isolated outbreaks which occurred during 1988-89 were immediately brought under control through application of total stamping out and strict sanitary measures
In Italy outbreaks of type C1 were reported from March to July 1989. In Turkey outbreaks of type 0/A22 were reported in Anatolia, while the Thrace area has continued to remain disease-free since 1978. In the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics outbreaks of type 0/A22 were reported in southeastern provinces during 1989.
The 28th Session of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EUFMD) held at FAO headquarters, Rome, in May 1989, recommended that stamping out policy and stringent sanitary measures should continue to be applied in case of an outbreak. All FMD laboratories should meet FAO minimum safety standards, and national veterinary services in each country should ensure that standards are maintained. Agreement on common policy on vaccination in Europe, even on a regional basis, was not possible at present; there would be, almost inevitably, a withdrawal of vaccination on a step-by-step basis which may not apply to all countries.
The Commission would be prepared to collaborate with the EEC Commission in this respect in order to harmonize the European regional policy.
National laboratories should collaborate closely with the World Reference Laboratory in the production of vaccine and selection of vaccine strains. The ELISA test is more widely adopted by those laboratories carrying out FMD diagnosis. It also recommended laboratory diagnosis of swine vesicular disease (SVD). The requirements for a strategic reserve of FMD vaccine should be considered, following the assessment of the results of a cost-benefit analysis of vaccination policy in Europe. National contingency plans for FMD control should continue to be reviewed in the light of developments.
The Commission also recommended that special attention be given to the situation in Turkey (Anatolia) and in the Near East area. In addition, the Commission should make available technical advice on FMD control in the Mediterranean area, including participation in a proposed FAO seminar on FMD contingency planning to be-held in late 1990.
The meeting of the Research Group of the EUFMD held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in September 1988, discussed the characterization of vaccine strains in Europe; the protection of young stock against FMD; and the setting up of panels of monoclonal antibodies for characterization of - field isolates/vaccine strain/challenge strains. The relevant report has been published and distributed.
The vaccination campaigns for the maintenance of the buffer zone in southeastern Europe have been implemented in April 1989 with 300 000 doses of 01/A22 bivalent vaccine provided through FAO to Bulgaria and Turkey. Turkey will-use additional local vaccine to complement the buffer zone in the Turkish Thrace and Marmora area.
Workshop on open nucleus breeding systems
FAO, in cooperation with the Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding in Poland, held the above workshop from 11 to 16 June 1989 in various centres in Poland.
The theory and practice of the Open Nucleus Breeding Systems (ONBS) for dairy cattle and buffalo were presented by key scientists from developed countries who provided some of their own case-studies. They included leading experts from various European countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, Poland and the United Kingdom). There were 12 participants from ten developing countries (Argentina, China, Cuba, Ethiopia, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Senegal, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe).
It is expected that proposals from developing countries that intend to establish trial ONBS for dairy cattle and buffalo will be reviewed in the near future to identify possible funding sources. The proceedings of the workshop will be published.
Expert consultation on feeding dairy cattle in the tropics
The FAO Expert Consultation took place in Bangkok, Thailand, from 3 to 7 July 1989 at the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. The participants came from 15 countries: Australia, China, Cuba, Egypt, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, India, Mali, Malaysia, Mauritius, the Philippines, the United Republic of Tanzania, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
Eighteen papers were presented covering all aspects of feeding dairy cattle in the tropics as well as some specific cases of milk production systems in certain developing countries. The specific areas covered included basic aspects of the physiology of nutrition and reproduction in the milking/gestating cow, nutritional aspects associated with the tropical environment involving both animal and feed resource aspects, feeding and production systems based on natural or improved pastures and fodders, feeding systems using crop residues and/or agro-industrial by-products alone or m combination with classic green fodders. The report and the proceedings will be published.
The meat group's activities
Activities under the International Meat Development Scheme (IMDS) have been oriented to promote the concept of establishing small meat industries as a tool for rural development and to provide technical assistance for existing meat industries in developing countries. The intention is to create market outlets for products coming from the livestock sector to serve as a stimulus for increased animal production; to improve the quality and quantity of the meat supply; and to develop further the utilization of meat as a basic material for processed products including traditional and modern methods of food preservation.
· TCP projects have been approved for the construction of modular slaughterhouses in the Cook Islands, Colombia and Guyana.
· Missions for technical assistance under the International Meat Development Scheme have visited Africa (Cameroon, Malawi, Uganda), Latin America and the Caribbean (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Barbados, Jamaica, Dominica, St Vincent, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Chile and Guyana), and Asia (Afghanistan Viet Nam and India).
· An Expert Consultation on Constraints and Perspectives of Meat Development in Latin America was organized in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
· A paper on small-scale modular slaughterhouses was presented at the IV Simposio Centroamericano y del Caribe sobre Procesamiento de Carne, held in Costa Rica in February 1989.
Expert consultations on biotechnology in animal production and health
In October 1986 a global FAO expert consultation was held in Rome followed by regional workshops to consider the application of biotechnology to animal production health. The workshop for Latin America and the , Caribbean was held at the Institute of Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba in September 1988 and a workshop for Asia and the Pacific was held in Bangkok, Thailand in October 1988. The consultation for Latin America and the Caribbean was attended by 19 experts from eight countries of the region (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay and Venezuela) as well as from the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). The purpose of both regional workshops was to formulate guidelines for future development, identifying immediate applications, research priorities and training needs, and to approve existing national centres which will constitute an FAO Technical Cooperation Network. The recommendations covered multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET), immunobiology of reproduction, open nucleus breeding systems (ONBS), animal feeding and ruminant nutrition using transgenic organisms and production-related hormones It also covered vaccine production and disease diagnosis. A project funded by UNDP and operated by FAO has been established in the Asian region with the aim of developing the regional network.
Commission on African Animal Trypanosomiasis - Fifth session
The Commission on African Animal Trypanosomiasis was established by the FAO Conference of 1979 to advise on policies to be adopted in the planning and execution of the Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development. The current membership is 40, of which 32 are African countries affected by trypanosomiasis. The Commission has previously met in Rome (1980), in Banjul, the Gambia (1982), m Nairobi, Kenya (1984), and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (1986).
The Fifth Session of the Commission was held in Accra, Ghana, from 10 to 11 November 1988. It was attended by delegates of 19 member countries, observers from two member countries of the Commission, representatives of two UN agencies (WHO and IAEA) and observers from four international and regional organizations and from four research institutes.
The agenda included the review of the report of the evaluation of the FAO Programme for the Control of Trypanosomiasis and Related Development, recommendations of the Fourth Session, and recent and planned activities.
The Commission adopted 11 recommendations on: implementation of the conclusions and recommendations of the evaluation; functions of the Commission on Trypanosomiasis; role of the groups of experts; programme implementation; cooperation between FAO and IBAR; staff training and information; training on the role of trypanotolerant livestock; research funding; research on trypanotolerant livestock; collaboration between scientists; continued West African regional projects.
The Commission proposed that the Sixth Session be held in southern Africa.
The report of this Fifth Session is available in English and French.
FAO panels of experts on Trypanosomiasis
Experts on technical, ecological and development aspects of the Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development met in Accra, Ghana, from 7 to 9 November 1988.
The agenda focused on "integrated tsetse control and rural development", since it was understood that the control of the disease and the use of trypanotolerant livestock for rural development would be considered at subsequent meetings.
Participants included 16 members of the Panel of Experts on ecological and technical aspects, five members of the Panel of Experts on development aspects, 13 invited speakers and four members of the secretariat.
The meeting reviewed the various techniques available for integrated tsetse control; the monitoring of control operations; the protection of cleared areas; environmental aspects; integration of control with rural development programmes; funding of integrated programmes; and training aspects.
A number of recommendations on programme implementation (insecticide-treated animals, sterile insect technique, monitoring of control operations, protection of cleared areas), and research and training needs were adopted. A report is available in English and French.
FAO/IAEA/SIDA African network for rinderpest surveillance
FAO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), through the joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, have established, with Swedish Government support, a joint programme entitled the FAO/IAEA/SIDA African Network for rinderpest surveillance.
The network provides support to the OAU/ IBAR coordinated rinderpest campaigns in Africa. It is based on a recently developed test for the disease, the ELISA technique, which is especially suited for mass testing of animal sera to determine the level of vaccinal immunity. It provides campaign managers with a valuable tool for measuring the efficacy of their vaccination programmes.
The network comprises 21 African diagnostic laboratories in 19 countries, each with a research contract. Two training courses on the use of the test were held in Africa during 1988 and another in 1989.
Wild animals' genes of value for domestic stock
FAO Regional Animal Gene Banks could provide an opportunity for collaboration with the International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), where wild animal germplasm of mutual interest, in the form of semen and embryos, could be stored.
There is clearly common interest in the preservation of endangered wild relatives and ancestors of domestic animals since there are long-term expectations that biotechnology will permit the transfer of genes of value from wild animals to domestic ones. Work on pigs and peccaries could provide the starting-point for FAO cooperation with IUCN.
Model project on integrated dairy development in ecuador
This model project for Latin America and the Caribbean, based in Cañar, Ecuador, is receiving support from both the FAO Regular Programme, WFP, the FAO/Government of the Netherlands Trust Fund and from the Regional Dairy Development and Training Team for Latin America, stationed in Chile.
The project seeks to integrate production, processing and marketing with the active participation of the small producer, using a concept based on separate modules for each specific activity which can be implemented individually.
Additional emphasis will be placed on milk collection/service centres to help small farmers take a more active part in direct marketing and at the same time strengthen project identity in the region. Sources of financial credit for the small farmers in the project are being sought.
With the cooperation of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States, a computerized program for the management and information system for the project is being prepared. This system will permit the small producer to understand fully the role of the model in achieving reasonable goals in production and profitability and will facilitate monitoring of the project to allow replication within the country and region.
Workshop of coordinators of regional animal gene banks
The FAO Workshop brought together the seven coordinators of the Regional Animal Gene Banks, located in Argentina, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Mexico and Senegal. The workshop was held in June 1989 at the EAAP/FAO Global Animal Genetic Data Bank in the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany). The coordinators presented their reports at a meeting with European experts from Finland, Hungary and the Nordic Data Bank for Farm Animals as well as from the Federal Republic of Germany.
The workshop covered all aspects of the cryogenic preservation of germplasm of domestic animals. Scientific updating was provided by the European participants on aspects of semen and embryo techniques, processing and freezing of semen and; embryos, the identification of endangered breeds, sampling techniques and the necessary animal health controls. The crucial step now is to tram national staff from participating countries in each region.
Discussions with Italian veterinary institutes
In collaboration with the Italian Ministry of Health's Department of Veterinary Sciences, FAO is discussing with leading Italian veterinary institutes the possibility of closer contact of FAO Collaborating Centres within a possible global network.
Discussions were held with the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Umbria e delle Marche in Perugia, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana in Rome, the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome and the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise in Teramo.
The specific areas considered were zoonoses control, research and training, veterinary epidemiology and information technology as well as diseases of horses, enzootic bovine leucosis and the hygiene of meat and meat products.