Strategic extension campaign - A participatory-oriented method of agricultural extension

Table of Contents

Ronny Adhikarya, Ph.D.

Agricultural Education and Extension Service (ESHE)

Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division

A case-study of FAO's experiences.

Rome, Italy, 1994

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its frontiers or boundaries.


ISBN 92-5-103570-9

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FAO 1994



1. Introduction

1.1. Strategic extension campaigns: What and why?
1.2. The usefulness of SEC

1.2.1. Participatory planning approach
1.2.2. Needs based and demand driven oriented
1.2.3. Strategic planning and integrated systems approach
1.2.4. Human and behavioural dimensions
1.2.5. Problem solving orientation
1.2.6. Cost-effective multi-media approach
1.2.7 Specific extension support materials and training
1.2.8 Built-in process documentation and evaluation procedures
1.2.9 Applicability to other extension programmes

1.3. Purpose of this case study

2. The SEC process & context

2.1. SEC operationally defined

2.1.1 Integrated process and systems approach
2.1.2 Staff training as an integral part of SEC
2.1.3 KAP surveys, evaluation studies and follow up actions
2.1.4 Participatory oriented method of planning, implementation, and management

2.2. Suggested conceptual framework for strategic planning of extension campaigns
2.3. Phases in campaign planning*

3. SEC methodology applications

3.1. SEC implementation through FAO projects

3.1.1 Examples of SEC replications and implementation arrangements

3.2. Institutionalization problems: Neglect of SEC training
3.3. Planned replications of SEC: Building cadres of SEC planners & trainers
3.4. Facilitating the multiplier effects

3.4.1 Training of SEC "master trainers"
3.4.2 Spreading the "SEC fever" beyond Asia

3.5. Strategy of SEC implementation at country level
3.6. Facilitating SEC institutionalization and quality control

3.6.1 Develop SEC training curricula and materials
3.6.2 Develop and utilize a core group of SEC resource persons

4. SEC programmes: Highlights of results

4.1. Bangladesh: The rodent control campaigns

4.1.1 Evaluation methods
4.1.2 Evaluation results
4.1.3 Costs and benefits of the campaigns

4.2. Malaysia: The rat control campaign

4.2.1. The SEC process
4.2.2 Evaluation of SEC results
4.2.3 Costs and benefits of SEC
4.2.4. Sustainability of SEC in Malaysia

4.3. Thailand: The pest surveillance system campaign
4.4. Malaysia: The integrated weed management campaign
4.5. Zambia: Assisting small farmers through maize production campaign*

4.5.1. Staff development
4.5.2. Applying SEC for extension programme planning
4.5.3 Project evaluation

4.6. Applying SEC in population education through agriculture extension programmes

4.6.1. PEDAEX results
4.6.2. Future directions for PEDAEX replications
4.6.3. Lessons learned from PEDAEX activities

5. Lessons learned: Usefulness of SEC for improving extension system and programmes

5.1. SEC enhances the agricultural extension planning process
5. 2. SEC builds cadres of extension programme planners and trainers
5. 3. SEC helps in improving extension linkage with research
5. 4. SEC is needed most by small, resource poor farmers
5. 5. SEC helps in improving extension linkage with training
5. 6. SEC reduces extension system's workload and increases its coverage
5. 7. SEC encourages partnership with, and participation of, community-based organizations
5. 8. SEC helps revitalize extension workers' professionalism
5. 9. SEC shows that extension programmes can be strategically planned, efficiently managed, and systematically monitored & evaluated
5. 10. SEC can contribute in improving and strengthening agricultural extension systems and programmes


Selected and forthcoming FAO's publications on agricultural extension, training, and education.

Forthcoming publications

About the author