Genetic improvement of hair sheep in the tropics. 1992. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 101. Rome, FAO. 168 pp. ISBN 92-5-103144-4.
This publication discusses the methods for genetically improving hair sheep, which comprise a number of different types and breeds. Unlike wool sheep, hair sheep have coats similar to those of cattle and horses. In general, hair sheep are characterized by the absence of wool, a large variation in coat colour, an extended breeding season and a remarkable adaptation to humid tropical conditions in which wool sheep do not thrive. The approach adopted in this publication which evolved from lecture notes - is the development of guidelines for a genetic improvement programme of hair sheep, taking into consideration important recommendations recently made by various authors on the present and future role of these animals: hair sheep are to be considered a very valuable resource in the tropics; indiscriminate crossing with wool breeds should be avoided, although planned crossbreeding could have a place in a well-structured industry; the conservation and genetic improvement of hair sheep should be attempted; and population screening and the creation of nuclei or elite flocks should be encouraged.
As the author correctly indicates, textbooks usually give a more thorough and formal coverage of the multiple issues involved in a breeding programme. However, they do not give enough details on how to design and conduct a breeding programme, particularly in new or developing industries with few structures in place and little performance recording experience. The aim of this publication is to help fill that gap for hair sheep. The principles discussed are, of course, applicable to other sheep breeds and to other species.
Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation on the Management of Global Animal Genetic Resources. 1992. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 104. Rome, FAO. 309 pp. ISBN 92-5-103235-1.
The first 22 pages of this paper present the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultation, held in Rome, April 1992. All the communications are then compiled and presented in extenso in six chapters: the first is devoted to the opening session and to general statements; the second is entitled "Monitoring animal genetic resources and criteria for priority order of endangered breeds" and it comprises three papers on surveys and databases as well as on the problems of determining the degree of risk to which a breed is exposed.
The third chapter considers practical issues for the conservation and improvement of priority breeds and a series of papers are presented on the situation of various species: buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, Camelidae, horses, poultry and wild animals closely related to the present domesticated farm animals. These are followed by a paper that examines the practical issues in developing indigenous breeds and determining breeds for priority action.
The fourth chapter considers the possible role of biotechnologies in the conservation and improved use of animal genetic resources, while chapters 5 and 6 are devoted to legal and organizational aspects.
Training manual for tsetse control personnel. Volume 4. Use of attractive devices for tsetse survey and control. 1992. Rome, FAO.
This volume is FAO's fourth Training Manual for Tsetse Control Personnel, published in English and French. The aim of this manual is to provide field personnel with guidelines on the use of attractive devices for tsetse survey and control.
In successive chapters, it explains the principles involved in the use of odours to attract tsetse flies, the use of different designs of traps and targets and how to conduct comparative experiments for new designs or different tsetse species.
Attractant devices may be employed to sample fly populations and to suppress or eradicate isolated infestations. The volume explains the interrelated issues to be considered in selecting the most appropriate approach to tsetse control.
The new tsetse control techniques described offer great promise in reducing the problem of tsetse flies in Africa. In comparison with the older methods, they are generally cheaper and less polluting and can also be combined with the more established techniques. Attractant devices may provide a solution for the control of tsetse and trypanosomiasis in areas where there has previously been a sole reliance on drugs or where there has been no tsetse or trypanosomiasis control at all. These cases may require not only the new control techniques but also new management approaches, which are discussed in the final chapter.
Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock. 1992. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 102. Proc. FAO Expert Consultation, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Kuala Lumpur, 14-18 October 1991. Rome, FAO. ISBN 92-5-103203-3
Fodder trees and shrubs have always played a significant role in feeding domestic animals. In fact, trees and shrubs are becoming increasingly recognized as important components of animal feed, particularly as a source of protein and especially in harsh environmental conditions. In such situations, the available grazing is not generally sufficient to meet the maintenance requirements of animals, at least for part of the year. This occurs, for example, in some mountainous regions and in the dry tropics where the grazing is also sometimes very degraded. On the other hand, in the humid tropics fodders from trees and shrubs, especially from leguminous ones, are beginning to be utilized more widely as dietary nitrogen supplements for ruminants. In this respect, there is now a significant move to look for new sources of protein from trees and shrubs. Given the increasing demand for forage and the extensive availability of low-quality basal feed materials, which require protein supplementation, high-protein fodders from leguminous trees and shrubs could have a much more significant role in animal feeding systems throughout the tropical and subtropical countries.
This FAO book comprises the 22 papers presented at the Consultation by the 16 experts, invited from nine countries and four international organizations, each of whom has an international reputation in the matter and in their respective fields of competence. It provides the reader with updated information on the subject which concerns the whole world. Apart from a general background, recommendations and conclusions have also been prepared, drawn from the extensive discussions held at the end of the meeting by working groups on "The resource base", "Nutritional aspects" and "Harvesting and feeding systems: regional and country case-studies". As well as being useful to scientists, field extension workers, researchers and policy-makers, this book emphasizes the huge potential of fodder trees and shrubs for having a short-term impact in many developing countries while constituting the framework and basis for starting small projects in these countries.
In situ conservation of livestock and poultry. 1992. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 99. Rome, FAO/UNEP. ISBN 92-5-103143-6
This manual has been prepared to draw together the information and experience of in situ live animal conservation theory and practice as it is found throughout the world. It is designed to assist with the planning, development and implementation of conservation projects and therefore incorporates many ideas and principles already described in previous FAO publications.
After reviewing definitions of various aspects of animal genetic resources and of influences that have produced livestock varieties, the manual presents processes of genetic change. The following chapter discusses the need for conservation, considering economic potential, scientific use and cultural importance. The importance of population sizes, including the effects of a small population size on genetic variation within populations is discussed. The manual then describes the various methods of conservation for live populations, with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of in situ and ex situ conservation, including considerations about the problem of conserving small populations (inbreeding, genetic drift) and a description of some possible breeding strategies. Finally, the practical application of in situ conservation programmes is reviewed with examples from throughout the world.
The manual is completed with a series of charts presenting a succession of steps for the identification of populations in need of conservation, strategies for conservation and suggestions for the implementation of programmes to conserve animal genetic resources in situ.
L'élevage d'aulacodes au Zaïre 1991. M. van de Velde. Administration générale de la coopération au développement, Bruxelles. Publ. Service Agricole n° 27. 90 pages.
L'aulacodiculture commence à se répandre peu à peu en Afrique occidentale et centrale. Le Centre bénino-allemand d'aulacodiculture d'Abomey-Calavi poursuit depuis une dizaine d'années les recherches commencées à la Section d'écologie appliquée et des productions aquacoles de la Faculté des sciences agronomiques de l'Université du Bénin. Depuis 1989, 30 éleveurs ruraux, dont cinq femmes, se vent progressivement installés dans le département de l'Atlantique, avec des effectifs de cinq sujets (quatre femelles et un mâle) et des résultats prometteurs.
L'élevage de ce gros rongeur, bien adapté au milieu tropical humide, semble donc plein d'avenir. La Revue mondiale de zootechnie a d'ailleurs reconnu son importance grandissante en lui consacrant deux articles (n° 60, 1986 et n° 69, 1991).
Ce manuel sur l'élevage d'aulacodes arrive donc à point nommé, d'autant plus qu'il s'adresse en priorité aux éleveurs/vulgarisateurs directement concernés. Bien qu'axées sur le Zaïre les informations qui y vent rassemblées vent aisément transposables aux autres régions tropicales humides d'Afrique centrale et occidentale.
Après une présentation du milieu naturel dans lequel évolue ce rongeur, l'animal est clairement décrit tant sur le plan anatomique que sur celui du comportement. Dans ce chapitre, il eût peut être été utile de trouver quelques notions générales de physiologie, particulièrement intéressantes pour la compréhension des chapitres suivants, consacrés à l'alimentation et à la reproduction. D'autres chapitres développent abondamment et très concrètement les problèmes de logement, de santé, de manipulation et de conduite. Un excellent glossaire explique tous les termes technico-scientifiques couramment utilisés.
Le manuel est bien illustré, tant par des schémas que par des photos de grande qualité.
Il faut espérer qu'une traduction à l'usage des pays anglophones de la région, où cet élevage connaît également un engouement grandissant (Nigéria, Ghana), sera rapidement disponible.
On peut obtenir ce manuel auprès de l'Administration générale de la coopération au développement, Place du Champ-de-Mars, 5, Boîte 57, B1050 Bruxelles.
Donkeys, mules and horses in tropical agricultural environment. D. Fielding & R.A. Pearson, eds. 1991. Edinburgh School of Agriculture.
The proceedings from a colloquium held in Edinburgh, UK, September, 1990, this book covers numerous aspects of the use of equines by humans as well as technical and economic issues related to draught animals in general. It constitutes a wealth of information for people concerned with development programmes and is a very appropriate tool for increasing awareness of the inadequate use that is made at present of the multipurpose potential of equines.
Discussions related to socio-economics focus mainly on the role of equines relative to specific countries under analysis but, although local Ethiopian conditions are presented to discuss transport for rural development, the method for studying this subject can be generalized to other situations which require a knowledge of comparative advantages of different transport means and of how to optimize combinations of these means.
The sections on nutrition, environment, reproduction and health generally correspond to research papers, and their contents will be more readily appreciated by technical experts rather than developers or the farming community.
In the remaining sections, which deal with husbandry, management, training, equines for work, promotion and communication, several quite original approaches deserve special mention. These are:
· very sound comments on the shortcomings of traditional animal training based on physical domination as opposed to progressively gaining the animal's confidence and then motivating it to learn through positive reinforcement;
· an interesting review of research results obtained for other draught animals but which could provide a useful approach to improving the use of equines as draught animals;
· the need to revise extension methods is highlighted in order to facilitate learning, build a special relationship between animals and their owners and to stress the use of apprenticeship schemes, where farmers' groups are directly responsible for training efforts and where extension agents become monitors and act as catalysts rather than technical leaders;
· results from an extension project to help pastoralists in camel improvement, which highlights the need for direct field contact with the target group and sharing daily tasks for a prolonged period (one month). Group participation is organized to identify problems, test results of traditional solutions and seek alternatives when the latter appear to be insufficient. Subjects to be studied are not restricted to livestock but include family priorities such as health and education, thus enhancing group motivation in these studies.
Summaries and recommendations for each section of the colloquium are included and they reflect ideas and opinions of the participants. There is considerable repetition among different sections on recommendations for several specific subjects and, at times, the list of priorities is excessively long.
This book can be obtained from the Edinburgh School of Agriculture, West Mains Rd. Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK.
Euro-meat - a guide to the European meat industry. Hamburg, Germany, B. Behr's Publishing Company. 1992. 661 pp. U5$100 (approx.).
Livestock production and processing of livestock products are important industries in Europe. European countries are among the world's biggest importers of livestock products and many companies are involved in the international meat trade.
With this recently published reference book about the European meat industry and meat trade, a first attempt was made to compile data regarding all important meat processing and trading companies in 18 European countries (Austria, Belgium, the Czech and the Slovak Republics, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and former Yugoslavia). Meat companies from the above-mentioned countries, which together account for 85 percent of the manufacture and trade of meat and meat products in Europe, are referred to in the publication.
There are more than 2 000 companies listed in the Euro-meat guide. The following reference data are provided about these companies: name of company, address, telephone and fax numbers and, in most cases, also details about number of employees, turnover, company structure, shareholders, names of persons in management and the variety of product lines. In separate chapters, national associations in the meat sector of all countries concerned are listed and an index is given on the main groups of meat and meat products, together with the names of the companies involved in alphabetical order.
This new book provides valuable information not only for the meat industry and meat trade in Europe but also for companies and government authorities outside Europe, including those in developing countries that are interested in establishing business contacts with the European market.
Fiches techniques d'élevage tropical. CIRAD/IEMVT/Ministère de la coopération et du développement, Paris.
Voilà quatre ans déjà que les Fiches techniques d'élevage tropical, rédigées en français et publiées conjointement par le Ministère français de la coopération et du développement et l'Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux, vent distribuées régulièrement aux institutions et techniciens concernés.
Dix fiches ont été publiées en 1989, douze en 1990, neuf en 1991 et trots en 1992, sur des sujets très divers couvrant tous les grands problèmes actuels du développement de l'élevage tropical: santé, amélioration génétique, petite élevages, suivi des troupeaux, utilisation des ressources fourragères, complémentation alimentaire.
Chaque fiche - ou ensemble de fiches consacrées au même sujet - présente, sous une forme condensée, une synthèse fort bien conçue et présentée de la situation actuelle d'un problème particulier de l'élevage tropical.
Les cartes et les photos vent d'excellente qualité, et il est à espérer que le CIRAD/IEMVT continue à produire ces documents de bonne valeur encyclopédique. Il est dommage que le strict anonymat observé par les auteurs ne permette que de les féliciter ensemble pour la valeur et l'utilité de leur contribution. On peut obtenir ces fiches auprès de l'IEMVT/CIRAD, 10, rue Pierre-Curie, Maisons-Alfort, CEDEX, France.
The rabbit project manual. S.D. Lukefahr. 1992. USA, Heifer Project International.
The main purpose of this manual is to provide some assistance to rabbit production trainers - particularly in developing countries in order to enable them to develop a rabbit training course (section one) and to assist them in establishing a viable rabbit project (section two).
In the first section, eleven different instructional modules contemplate all aspects of rabbit raising in a very comprehensive way and also give basic information on sustainable rabbit farming. These modules are extremely useful for the preparation of lessons and should supplement the trainee's personal experience. Following each module, sample activity lessons are provided.
The second section is completely devoted to the different stages of rabbit project development: feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, the various components of which are carefully indexed and detailed.
To summarize, this manual represents a very useful and efficient tool for training purposes and should be highly recommended. It contains drawings and photos as well as very clear and concise tables and graphics, which can easily be copied on transparencies to illustrate lessons.
The rabbit project manual can be ordered from Heifer Project International, PO Box 808, Little Rock, AR 72203, USA. Suggested donation: US$10 per copy.
Stockmanship - improving the care of the pig and other livestock.
P. English, G. Burgess, R. Segundo & T. Dunne. 1992. Ipswich, UK, Farming Press Books.
"Stockmen are born not made" is an adage that has no place in this book. While recognizing that there are obvious traits that are crucial in a stockbreeder, the book comprehensively covers all aspects of the art and science of stockbreeding. It provides useful guidance on many aspects that are often forgotten, particularly under the pressures of modern intensive production, but that nevertheless have a direct bearing on both profit and welfare.
The authors cover human/animal empathy, factors influencing quality of stockbreeders, all aspects of employment and a detailed chapter on training. Hints on job satisfaction and on the motivation of stockbreeders are provided.
The book will be a useful one for any livestock unit and particularly for those involving more than just members of the family. It will be a valuable guide and reminder to those wishing to improve their skills. However, it may be that the people who really need such a book are those least likely to be reading it.
Bactéries lactiques - Aspects fondamentaux et technologiques
1993. Lorica, France.
Dans cet ouvrage, 128 auteurs de sept nationalités différentes se vent appliques à exposer l'état actuel des techniques d'investigation scientifique appliquées aux bactéries lactiques et aux bactériophages, et les connaissances fondamentales qui en résultent; à décrire les techniques de sélection de propagation et de conservation des ferments à applications industrielles; à analyser de façon rigoureuse les technologies de transformation des matières premières animales et végétales par fermentation lactique; à décrire le rôle probiotique des bactéries lactiques avec leurs applications actuelles et potentielles en prophylaxie, thérapeutique et zootechnie; à présenter les technologies associées et complémentaires de la fermentation lactique; et, enfin, à évoquer les risques d'altérations alimentaires dues à la contamination par des flores lactiques indésirables.
Ce livre est le fruit d'un travail minutieux: il rend compte aussi bien des observations anciennes marquées du sceau de la tradition que des découvertes scientifiques et techniques les plus récentes qui ne tarderont pas à être exploitées dans les secteurs clés de l'économie que vent l'agriculture, l'alimentation et la santé.
Les textes vent clairs et enrichis d'abondantes illustrations, où se côtoient harmonieusement science et technologie.
On peut penser que cet ouvrage destiné aux pays en développement sera utile aux enseignants des centres de formation laitière.
Adresser les commandes à Lorica Editions, Chemin de Saint-Georges, 38410. France. Prix: 1 780 FF.
The role of draught animal technology in rural development
Proc. International Seminar, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2-12 April 1990. G. den Hertog & J.A. van Huis, eds. 1992. Wageningen, the Netherlands, Pudoc Scientific Pub.
In this new book, important draught animal technology (DAT) issues are discussed in depth, making reference to abundant on-farm research results and to data from national development programmes for DAT. The book's contents are in fact the proceedings of an international seminar, organized jointly by the Larenstein International Agricultural College (Deventer, the Netherlands) and the Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine (Edinburgh, Scotland) as a forum for discussion for 32 participants from four continents. Although there is a marked difference in calibre among the papers, all make valuable, specific contributions.
The organizers of this seminar paid great attention to maximizing information exchange among participants. To achieve this, key DAT issues were presented through lectures and followed up by field evidence on the degree of adoption of DAT coming from case-studies and papers contributed by participants; a draft position paper, prepared by the organizers, was used as a basic framework to channel discussions during the seminar and to facilitate the collective effort in developing an improved approach to the analysis of DAT issues.
Among the many DAT issues raised in this book, it is concluded that the degree of adoption of this technology is linked to a wide range of complex and interrelated aspects of the farming system as well as key features specific to each community: in general, once aware of the practical benefits, communities will adopt DAT components that are useful in their farming practices. However, these changes can have drawbacks, such as increasing cropping without any improvement in productivity or in soil conservation precautions. Similarly, DAT can also decrease progress expectations for those members of the community who are usually in a weaker position to compete (women and less privileged families).
The future role of animal traction, in mechanization schemes for small- and medium-sized farmers, is seen as complementing inputs from tractors. Asia provides interesting field data to support this view. A very clear warning is given on the reliability of economic evaluations which do not describe the whole background and impact on results of national pricing policies, subsidies for imports, land tenure problems or revenue coming from the multipurpose use of animals, for instance.
The basic features of a DAT development strategy must respond to the global needs felt by the farmer, and field work to achieve this objective should therefore follow a farming systems approach in order to monitor and evaluate progress. Participants in a DAT programme are generally from the private sector (farmers, artisans, small businesses); therefore, state interventions should play an important supporting role (training and promoting better organization) at the inception of the programme, but be phased out relatively quickly. DAT schemes must comprise a well-integrated package of interventions to provide adequate field support to farmers. Finally, the periodical exchange of information within the agricultural subsector and among different countries is essential for maintaining the improvement drive.
These proceedings indicate that, finally, draught animal technology is not viewed as a separate subject to be discussed and promoted only by specialists, but rather as an important component of farming and rural life. However, the basic concept of multipurpose livestock farming, which will justify and promote better care for the animals throughout all seasons of the year and should extend their working lives, is still weak - most technical people still link DAT only to the use of cattle for ploughing. Levels of motivation and skill, both of technical staff and farmers, usually represent the major constraint to the uptake of DAT, yet this is not clearly reflected as an important conclusion of most discussions. These aspects should therefore be included in the checklist as education/training/extension within the category of "Knowledge and skills". Likewise, feeding, reproduction, housing, training and daily management should all receive greater prominence under Animals" in the checklist.