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Felicitas Piedad-Pascual

Aquaculture Specialists, Inc., 30, Fajardo Extension Jaro, Iloilo City, 5000, Philippines

PASCUAL, F.P. 1993. Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in the Philippines, p. 317-353. In M.B. New, A.G.J. Tacon and I. Csavas (eds.) Farm-made aquafeeds. Proceedings of the FAO/ AADCP Regional Expert Consultation on Farm-Made Aquafeeds, 14-18 December 1992, Bangkok, Thailand. FAO-RAPA/AADCP, Bangkok, Thailand, 434 p.


The Philippines has some 7,100 islands and a total coastline of 17,460 km. There are ten major lakes with a total area of 186,072 ha. Of the 237,438 ha of existing fishponds, 14,531 ha are freshwater and 222,907 ha are brackishwater ponds (BFAR 1991). All of these mean a substantial fisheries sector, as seen by the total number of people it employs and its production. In 1991, the sector employed 990,872 persons: 258,480 in aquaculture, 675,677 in municipal fisheries and 56,715 in commercial fisheries. Total fish production was 2,599,000 t of which 27% (692,401 t) came from aquaculture (Figure 1), which was valued at US$ 908 million (Figure 2). The remaining 1,147,000 t and 760,000 t were produced from municipal and commercial fisheries, respectively (Figure 1).

Aquaculture gained importance in the last two decades to meet the growing demand for fish protein (Camacho and Lagua 1988). For instance, the per capita consumption of fish and other marine products in 1987 was 40 kg/yr (Table 1). This is more than the total consumption of fresh meat (9.9 kg/yr), offal (1.5 kg/yr), processed meat (2.2 kg/yr), dairy products (15.7 kg/yr), poultry meat (3.3 kg/yr) and eggs (3.7 kg/yr) (BFAR 1991). Among the cultured species, milkfish has the highest per capita consumption (2 kg/yr) followed by tilapia and shrimp (1 kg/yr) (Table 1).

The major species produced through aquaculture in 1991 were seaweeds (41% of the total production of 629,401 t), milkfish (33.8%), tilapia (11.0%) and shrimp and prawns (7.4%). Mussels and other finfishes (seabass, grouper) comprised 2.5% and 4.2%, respectively (Table 2).

Figure 1

Figure 1. Volume of fish production in the Philippines in 1991

Figure 2

Figure 2. Value of fish production in the Philippines in 1991

Table 1. Per caput consumption of fish and other products in the Philippines in 1987
Food groupPer capita consumption (kg/yr)
Fresh fish 
 frigate tuna (tulingan)4
 milkfish (bangus)2
 round scad (galunggong)4
 anchovy (dilis, buo)1
 Indian mackerel (alumahan)1
 sardines (tamban)1
 fusilier (dalagang bukid)1
 slipmouth (sapsap)n
 threadfin bream (bisugo)1
Dried fish4
Processed fish 
 canned fish (sardines, mackerel, etc.)1
 smoked fish (all tinapa type)1
Crustaceans and molluscs 
 shrimp (all types)1
 others (fresh)5
 dried and processedn
 Grand total40

* does not total due to rounding up; n = negligible

Source: Fisheries Policy and Economics Division, Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, June 14, 1990

Table 2. Aquaculture production in the Philippines by species and by culture system
Culture systemSpeciesProduction (t)
Fish pensmilkfish19,00420,449
Fish cagestilapia18,22021,048
Brackishwater pondsmilkfish191,878213,674
 black tiger shrimp47,59145,740
Freshwater pondstilapia35,16937,358
Grand total 671,116692,401

* others in 1990 included tilapia (18,805 t); endeavour shrimp (5,619t); grouper (2,363 t);seabass (799 t) and white shrimp (779 t)

Source: BFAR (1991; 1992)

Though aquaculture contributes less than other sources of fish production, its output is increasing, from 392,348 t in 1982 to 692,401 t in 1991 (Figure 3). The total production by type of aquaculture system in 1991 was as follows: 291,275 t from brackishwater ponds, 37,974 t from freshwater fish ponds and 25,931 t, 23,939 t, and 313,282 t from fish pens, fish cages and mariculture, respectively (Table 2).

Figure 3

Figure 3. Fish production in the Philippines by sector, from 1981 to 1991


Fish meal is the main animal protein source in most fish feeds. In 1990, 34% of the fishery imports was fish meal (BFAR 1991). Table 3 shows total feed ingredient imports from 1987 to 1991 while Table 4 gives the amount of some feed ingredients produced locally.

According to Woiwode et al. (1992), fish meal and soybean meal comprise 35% and 15% of shrimp diets, respectively. Assuming that 35% of the 46,000 t annually produced commercial feed is fish meal and 15% is soybean meal then 16,100 t and 6,900 t of fish meal and soya meal, respectively, went into shrimp feeds.

Table 3. Some imported feed ingredients in the Philippines (t)
Meat and bone meal19,62914,88413,1981,88520,433
Fish meal16,65628,16621,5205,12615,503
Soybean meal1,74834,13524,6848,577184,488
Blood meal  128140405
Feed supplements7,0161,0247,3029165,975
Whey powder 1203,354 3,019
Feed grade milk  2,626185,248
Wheat bran/flour/gluten1012523252501,005
Squid meal  143130211
Teaseed cake  31 90
Starch residue    72
Thai alpha starch   15 
Feed flavor  65210 

Source: Animal Feed Standards Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture

Table 4. Production of feed ingredients in the Philippines (t)
Fish meal3,8235,1836,8798,272
Copra meal30,52223,58331,43718,229
Corn and byproducts17,22517,55319,64119,247
Bone meal 116513865
Pollard   1,913
Ipil-ipil meal435  424
Feed additives, supplements4,5141,5071,6691,822
Minerals16,6538,534 7,460

Source: Animal Feed Standards Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture

Table 5. Proximate composition of some feed ingredients in the Philippines
Feed ingredientNo. of samplesMoisture (%)Crude proteinCrude fatCrude fibre
N-free extractAsh
(% dry matter)
Sweet potato leaf meal34.6729.184.6811.5841.0013.56
Cassava leaf meal 3.8327.567.6611.7345.657.40
Copra meal47.3820.3217.458.1844.989.07
Najas graminea(digman)312.5118.501.8718.0839.0422.51
Fish meal(anchovy)25.9773.734.880.545.7715.08
Fish meal (lizard fish) 6.4376.204.400.422.7116.27
Shrimp meal (kuaket) 8.3022.500.978.928.8458.77
Fish meal (Peruvian)157.3268.326.510.856.2518.07
Fish meal (slipmouth)* 5.8665.9511.960.414.5117.17
Fish meal (slipmouth)** 5.6977.236.980.664.9610.17
Fish meal (sirum-sirum) 5.6874.717.040.380.0017.87
Fish meal (herring)* 7.0578.405.550.630.5014.92
Fish meal (herring)** 6.9387.544.810.580.116.96
Fish meal (trash)76.0076.826.021.233.0012.93
Fish meal (tuna)*25.2973.6912.110.562.2011.44
Fish meal (tuna)** 6.5286.516.700.620.515.66
Fish meal (white)56.3768.686.780.643.7420.16
Flour (wheat)***1612.0214.221.100.8483.160.68
Frog meat27.5762.479.911.164.7721.69
Gluten (corn)37.6562.837.532.0825.951.61
Ipil-ipil leaf meal68.8225.118.979.5142.9313.48
Kangkong leaf meal25.2629.574.2411.9838.7515.46
Ruppia maritima (kusay-kusay) 8.0815.123.8219.7846.2215.06
Chaetomorpha (lumot)35.1715.262.1815.0736.1031.39
Meat and bone meal104.9945.028.602.057.0137.32
Oyster meal95.0054.429.153.7920.8211.82
Rice bran2110.0013.9613.826.1955.7710.26
Sargassum 9.009.750.758.8340.2940.38
Shrimp head meal65.0452.976.4714.040.6825.84
Shrimp meal126.2671.793.623.405.0816.11
Snail (bagungon) 4.7413.751.680.979.7673.84
Soybean meal (def.)****129.2646.841.657.0936.877.55
Tetraselmis chui45.5047.8510.742.1220.1919.10
Yeast (brewer's) 1.4056.102.140.3331.589.85
Squid meal  79.00    

* whole sample;
** edible portion;
*** factor = 5.4;
**** factor = 5.7

Source: SEAFDEC Centralized Analytical Laboratory

Table 6. Proximate composition of some feed ingredients in the Philippines
Feed ingredientMoisture (%)Crude proteinCrude fatCrude fibreN-free extractAsh
(% dry matter)
White fish meal6.3570.505.991.112.4719.93
Peruvian fish meal6.3670.5110.561.381.0716.48
Slipmouth fish meal5.8665.9511.960.414.5117.17
Tuna fish meal6.1877.236.980.664.4210.71
Herring fish meal7.0578.405.550.630.5014.92
Shrimp meal4.5471.823.223.144.9116.91
Squid meal7.8578.695.441.627.526.73
Soybean meal8.5443.802.047.3339.277.56
Kangkong meal5.3231.903.8011.6438.6214.04
Sweet potato meal4.9730.774.7613.6437.0313.80
Ipil-ipil meal11.1627.828.849.4844.239.63
Acacia meal4.3025.285.1024.0639.635.93
Tamarind meal4.1715.125.6214.0353.8311.40

Source: Penaflorida (1989)

Tuna fish meal is locally produced. It usually contains around 73% protein and can be mixed with imported white fish meal. Other locally produced fish meals are used in finfish feeds.

Shrimp meal and shrimp head meal can be produced locally while squid meal is usually imported. In the Philippines, all parts of the squid are utilized for human consumption, unlike South Korea, where the squid mantle is canned and the by-products are converted into squid meal. Sources of carbohydrates, such as corn, rice bran and flour, are bought locally. However, the price of corn and rice bran fluctuate seasonally.

The proximate composition of some feed ingredients used in experimental diets is shown in Tables 5 and 6.


The most expensive component in aquaculture, especially in black tiger shrimp culture, is feed. Feeds account for 50-60% of the variable cost of production (Cruz 1991). Posadas (1988) reported that the average feed cost in extensive shrimp culture systems was US$ 0.17/kg; in modified extensive systems it was US$ 1.70/kg; and in both semi-intensive and intensive systems US$ 2.24/kg. Feed costs represent 8% of the total operating cost of the extensive. 55% of the moderately extensive, 60% of the semi-intensive and 55% of the intensive systems.

According to Woiwode et al. (1992), white fish meal and soybean meal comprise 35% and 15%, respectively, of the shrimp feed composition. The cost of directly imported feed ingredients is US$ 0.80/kg while locally purchased materials cost US$ 0.13/kg of feed. Duties on the imported ingredients were about US$ 0.06/kg, while value added tax was US$ 0.04/kg. Operating expenses were US$ 0.19/kg and mark up of US$ 0.04/kg for dealers and US$ 0.08/kg for feed mills resulted in a total of US$ 1.34/kg of feed.

Most, if not all, commercially produced shrimp feeds are complete feeds used for intensive culture. A few are used in semi-intensive culture, while some of those recommended for intensive culture are more effective in the semi- intensive system. San Miguel Corporation is now marketing a supplemental feed (SD-90) containing 30% crude protein for shrimp cultured at a stocking density of 5/m² (Table 7).

Agbayani et al. (1990) state that, of the total variable cost in the monoculture of mud crab (Scylla serrata), 37% goes to trash fish for crabs stocked at 5,000/ha. When the stocking rate is 10,000/ha the feed cost is 48.7%, while it is 57.2% for 15,000-20,000/ha.

In milk fish production, the cost of feeding, assuming an FCR of 1.6:1 is US$ 0.53/kg, 71.5% of variable costs at a stocking density of 16,000/ha (Ocean Feed 1992) or 73% of total production costs at 20,000/ha (Philip Cruz, Feed Pro Corporation, pers. comm.). The protein content of milkfish feeds ranges between 24-31% while for tilapia it is 21-26% (Table 7).

With two croppings per year, some farmers like Yusay (pers. comm.) find milkfish culture more lucrative than shrimp culture. The latter is presently considered a very risky venture in the Philippines. A cost/benefit analysis for increasing milkfish production using various supplemental feeds reported by Sumagaysay et al. (1991) showed that increasing the quality and quantity of nutrients, particularly protein, is beneficial if the resulting increase in sales outweighs the increase in the cost of production. They reported that supplemental feeding of a 27.4% protein diet increased profit by 46.9% compared to a diet of 22.4% protein. Their study suggests that supplemental feeding, even in less productive ponds, is advantageous. Furthermore, they showed that the use of rice bran as a single ingredient, a common practice in the Philippines, is not economical.

The proximate composition of some commercial feeds is presented in Tables 7 and 8. The crude protein content of shrimp feeds before 1990 was 41%, or higher, while crude fat varied from 3-6%. After 1990, the crude protein content was reduced to 30-39% for feeds used for intensive culture while the fat content ranged from 2-7%.

Table 7. Proximate analyses of various commercial feeds in the Philippines
Feed typeMoisture (%)Crude proteinCrude fatCrude fibreN-free extractAsh
(% dry matter)
Shrimp feeds      
B-Meg CE-90      
PL/prestarter** 13.0
starter** 13.0
grower** 14.0
finisher** 15.0
D1*  11.0
D2*10.638.56.4  10.4
D3*  10.2
B-Meg SD-90**      
starter10. 10.0
grower10. 10.0
finisher10. 10.0
Chuen Shin*
#144, C110.036.39.1  11.6
#145, C211.235.97.7  11.4
#146, C38.936.67.8  11.5
Hoc Po*
A113.139.27.6  11.8
A211.639.47.3  11.8
A310.036.56.6  11.6
A410.435.77.1  11.8
A510.036.06.4  11.7
Ocean Feeds**
starter10. 16.0
grower10. 16.0
finisher10. 16.0
starter10. 15.0
grower10. 15.0
finisher10. 15.0
B19.341.26.2  14.4
B29.639.06.1  13.3
B39.338.77.0  14.6
B410.138.06.0  14.1
B510.136.56.2  14.7
E19.939.96.2  11.6
E210.938.85.9  12.5
E310.639.66.3  12.2
Finfish Feeds      
Fuji Triumph floater      
fish feed (grower)** 10.0
Fuji Triumph sinker      
fish feed (grower)** 14.0
Ocean Feed (milkfish)**      
Robina fish feed**      
crumbles13. 12.0
SMC-B-Meg (tilapia)**      
starter13.029-328.07.0 16.0
grower13.029-328.07.0 10.0
finisher13.027-308.07.0 10.0
Tateh(tilapia)** 8.2
Tateh (milkfish)**      

* analysed by Regulatory Division, Regional Feed Laboratory Region VI, Department ofAgriculture, Iloilo City
** as labelled

Table 8. Proximate composition of some commercial shrimp feeds in the Philippines
Shrimp feedsMoisture (%)Crude protein (% dry wt.)Crude fat (% dry wt.)Crude fibre (% dry wt.)Nitrogen-free extract (% dry wt.)Ash (%dry wt.)
SMC Starter4.2445.873.601.4335.7613.34
SMC Grower5.3245.163.201.4035.6014.64
SMC Finisher6.3945.253.281.1036.9613.41
Chuen Shin9.3244.164.824.5831.2115.23
Fuji Triumph5.8445.124.611.5033.8514.92
Fuji Triumph Finisher7.5141.535.562.6237.5212.77
President Feed8.6242.996.122.0829.8518.96
Robina Crustacean Pellet7.7947.226.134.4830.2711.90
Vitarich PR 3510.3647.934.463.2829.6714.66
Vitarich Finisher8.7944.293.643.7733.5114.79

Source: Central Analytical Laboratory of SEAFDEC/AQD.

Table 9. Aquafeed production and shrimp feed imports in the Philippines (t)
YearFish feedShrimp feedTotal
Domestic aquafeed production   
Shrimp/prawn feed imports   
1987 2,4282,428
1988 2,5272,527
1989 5,1995,199
1990 1,2501,250
1991 485485

Most of the major feed manufacturers (Annex 1) and suppliers of feed manufacturing equipment (Annex 2) are located in or near Metropolitan Manila. Domestic aquafeed production in the past five years showed an increase from 10,400 t in 1987 to 58,000 t in 1991 (Table 9). Shrimp feed production increased from 10,000 t to 46,000t, while shrimp feed imports decreased from 2,428 t in 1987 to 485 t in 1991 (Table 9).

Although there was a slump in the shrimp industry, the demand for feed continued to increase, both for fish and shrimp culture. Most farmers are not yet convinced that feeding finfish like milkfish is economically viable. A few companies like Robina, Vitarich, and Fuji-Triumph have been selling feeds for milkfish for some time, while Ocean Feeds and Feed Pro Corporations began selling them in 1992. San Miguel and Feed Pro Corporations also sell feed for tilapia. The prevailing prices for shrimp and finfish feeds are given in Table 10.

Hatchery owners rely on imported artificial feeds to supplement natural food for larval culture.

Table 10. Prices of various brands of shrimp and finfish feeds in the Philippines (US$/kg)*
Feed brand**Pre-starterStarterGrowerFinisher
Shrimp feeds
B-Meg CE 901.611.441.341.28
B-Meg SD 90
Interfeeds  1.15 
Oversea 1.401.261.18
Oversea 1.321.22 
Sin Heng Chan (Singapore)
Tateh  1.30 
V-Lang 1.441.32 
Ocean Feeds1.361.361.241.20
Finfish feeds
(milkfish floater)  0.480.47
(milkfish sinker) 0.480.430.39
(tilapia) 0.480.400.39
Hoc Po (milkfish)   0.50
Ocean Feed (milkfish)  0.520.52
Tateh (milkfish) 0.540.440.43
Tateh (tilapia)0.460.420.420.42
San Miguel B-Meg (tilapia) 0.470.460.43

* exchange rate: P 25.00 = US$ 1.00
** see Annex 1 for manufacturers' addresses


On-farm feeds are not very popular in the Philippines because farmers find it more convenient to buy feeds from feed companies. Also, 90% of feed ingredients are imported (Villacorta,pers. comm.). In areas where trash fish and other fresh components of the feed are available, storage facilities may not suffice. However, the type of feed produced on the farm depends on the species being cultured. Tilapia and other low cost fish, for example, are used as feed to fatten grouper and mud crab and to culture seabass.

Roy Aguilar, an enterprising farmer from Cadiz, Negros Occidental, had his own locally made equipment for making moist feed for red tilapia. The feed ingredients he used were: fresh swamp cabbage (Ipomea aquatica), fish meal, rice bran, bread flour and afsillin, a mineral and vitamin mix marketed for swine and poultry (which contains streptomycin!). Swamp cabbage has a moisture content of89.7% and a crude protein level of 3.9% (Food and Nutrition Research Institute 1968). All the dry ingredients were mixed with the swamp cabbage and then passed through a meat grinder twice. The moisture from the swamp cabbage was sufficient to wet the resulting mass. The noodle-like extrusions were then uniformly cut and steamed for five minutes and dried in a native clay and brick oven. Mr. Aguilar also used chopped squid to supplement commercial shrimp feeds when he stocked shrimps at 80/m².

This fish farm, however, was converted to a resort when the owner's red tilapia venture became unprofitable. Most aquaculture systems, except those for shrimps, still rely on natural pond productivity. However, due to the encouraging results of feeding as shown in the shrimp industry, farmers are beginning to accept commercial feeds for tilapia and milkfish. Seabass, grouper and mud crab are also “fattened” in cages or ponds by feeding trash fish and/or crustacean pellets. The term “trash fish” differs from country to country because what is considered trash fish in Thailand, for example, is not trash fish in the Philippines. Here, trash fish is composed of various species of fish that are often spoiled, hence cannot be used for human consumption.

In the case of milkfish, some farmers use fish feeds only as a finisher for fattening, one month before harvest. They also rely on commercial fish feeds during the rainy season, when lablab growth collapses. Chicken manure is utilized to fertilize both the soil (during land preparation) and water (during the culture period). To avoid off-flavour of the milkfish flesh, manure application is terminated two weeks before the expected harvest.

When seabass, grouper or mud crab are monocultured or fattened, trash fish or tilapia is used as feed. Trash fish or a combination of 60:40 trash fish:fish crumbles is fed to groupers (Juario 1991). Fish are fed twice daily at 10% of biomass. Some cage operators feed the fish to satiation twice a day for the first 2-3 months, and once a day in the next 2-3 months. Two months prior to harvest, the fish is fed only every other day. FCR is 4-5:1 (Juario 1991). Seabass and grouper are also fed trash fish or are polycultured with tilapia.


To lower feed cost some companies, like San Miguel Corporation, are producing supplementary feeds for shrimps (Table 7). However, fertilization with organic and inorganic fertilizers to increase natural productivity of the ponds is still carried out during pond preparation. A low stocking density of 5/m² is suggested, and many farmers at present do not stock beyond 10/m². Shrimp are not fed until 2 weeks after stocking. Each feed manufacturer has a manual or a brochure, in addition to the technical assistance given to their clients, on proper feed management. Shrimp farmers often blame or suspect feed, fry, water quality, and/or disease as causes for low productivity, or when yields fall short of target (Cruz 1991). However, poor feed management is the culprit in many instances, since overfeeding or underfeeding results in high feed conversion, poor survival, water pollution, diseases, and poor quality of the produce.

In the case of milkfish, supplementary feed is given when lablab growth collapses due to frequent rainfall. Continuous fertilization or “dressing” with chicken manure is also carried out until two or three weeks before harvest.

Groupers and seabass are stocked at low densities (0.5/m³) and fed trash fish for fattening. Kohno et al. (1989) used trash fish, mainly Leiognathus spp., for growing grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) in cages in ponds previously used for shrimp culture. With a stocking density of 1/m³ and feeding fish to satiation at 10% of biomass, they found that feeding once in two days gave the best results.

A similar procedure is used in the fattening of mud crab (Scylla serrata). Kuntiyo (1992) demonstrated that crabs can be fattened in cages placed in drainage canals. The use of commercial shrimp pellets (36% protein) at 2% biomass, or trash fish composed mainly of Leiognathus spp. at 10% of body weight, was found to be effective in fattening crabs for 5 weeks.

Some farmers do not feed the shrimp immediately after stocking. They wait until two weeks to one month later, or until the shrimp are about 2 g, or when natural productivity of the pond has diminished.


Institutions engaged in aquafeed research and development include national and regional centers, cooperating stations, and specialized agencies (Annex 3). Their funding comes from both local and foreign agencies. Foreign funding agencies include the International Foundation for Science, the International Development Research Center of Canada, the American Soybean Association and many others.

An overview of the aquaculture programmes of the Philippines, based on the five-year plan of the National Aquatic Resources Research and Development System (NARRDS), coordinated by the Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development, is reported by Guerrero (1991). One of the major programmes is the diversification and expansion of viable aquaculture industries. Though much research on aquafeeds is being carried out in the national centres, particularly at the University of the Philippines in the Visayas (Annex 4), the bulk is done in specialized agencies such as SEAFDEC/AQD, specifically its Feed Development Section (FDS) (Annex 5).

The FDS is tasked to determine the nutritional requirements of fish, such as milkfish, seabass, groupers, catfish, and shrimp and to develop practical diets for each developmental stage. Carp and tilapia studies are carried out in the Freshwater Station of SEAFDEC/AQD at Tapao Point in Laguna Lake.

In 1988, aquacultureresearch received US$ 4.44 million (70%) and marine capture research US$ 1.76 (28%) of the total fisheries budget (US$6.36 million). Of this total fisheries budget, 45% came from the government of the Philippines while the rest came from foreign funding (Lacanilao 1991). Further-more, of the US$2.9 million that the government of the Philippines gave for fisheries research, US$ 1.9 million was given to SEAFDEC/AQD.

Examples of supplemental and experimental feeds

Some examples of the supplemental and experimental feeds developed by institutions in the Philippines are given in Tables 11-16. A 28% protein supplemental diet for tilapia, formulated by the Brackishwater Aquaculture Center of the University of the Philippines in the Visayas (UPV-BAC) is shown in Table 11 (Pascual 1991). Santiago et al (1988) demonstrated that Leucaena leaf meal in diets for broodstock Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) should not exceed 40% of the diet. The best diet, which gave good fry production and growth, is shown in Table 12.

In milkfish experimental diets, feed cost can be considerably reduced without affecting growth rate and yield (Sumagaysay et al. 1991) by several techniques:

Sumagaysay et al. (1991) also noted that the most cost-effective protein range in supplemental feeding for milkfish is between 22% to 27% protein. The composition of these supplemental diets is shown in Table 13. Sumagaysay and Chiu-Chern (1991) explored the nutritive value of fibre in supplemental feeds for milkfish. They demonstrated that a low protein/high fibre diet can be an economical way of increasing milkfish production in brackishwater ponds. The composition of the diets they used is shown in Table 14. They demonstrated that a low protein/high fibre diet is a feasible way of lowering the cost of milkfish feed and an economical way of increasing milkfish production in brackishwater ponds. Sumagaysay (1991) noted that milkfish diets are economical when given at a rate of 1.75% of body weight. This rate can be gradually increased as biomass increases. The experimental diet is shown in Table 15.

Santiago et al. (1991) demonstrated that by feeding bighead carp (Aristhicthys nobilis) with a 40% protein diet, the total weight of eggs per female, total number of eggs per spawning and number of eggs per kg of body weight were higher compared to fish that was not given the experimental diet shown in Table 16. Furthermore, when fry of the fed broodstock was deprived of food for ten days, a lower mortality rate was observed compared to fry that was produced from unfed broodstock.

Table 11. UPV-BAC supplemental diet for tilapia (Philippines)
Feed ingredientsComposition (%)
Local fish meal7.00
Shrimp meal14.00
Copra meal15.73
Ipil-ipil meal15.73
Soybean meal12.69
Rice bran31.35
Coconut oil1.63
Table 12. Nile tilapia experimental broodstock diet (Philippines)
IngredientsComposition (%)
Fish meal24.70
Leucaena leaf meal20.00
Fish/vegetable oil (1:1)2.60
Vitamin mix*0.73
Mineral mix*3.60

* for complete practical diets (National Research Council, 1977)

Source: Santiago et al. (1988)

Table 13. Two experimental milkfish diets (Philippines)
Ingredients27.4% protein diet (%)22.0% protein diet (%)
Peruvian fish meal54
T fish meal5-
S an meal3520
Copra meal1433
Wheat pollard18-
Rice bran1842
Crude coconut oil1-
Tricalcium phosphate2-
Dicalcium phosphate-1
Vitamin mix2-

Source: Sumagaysay et al. (1991)

Table 14. Experimental milkfish diets (Philippines)
IngredientsDiet 1Diet 2Diet 3
Rice hulls (%)55.030.0-
Peruvian fish meal (%)
Soybean (defatted) (%)10.030.422.0
Rice bran (%)3.5-46.1
Copra meal (%)16.519.611.9
Coconut oil (%)
Dicalcium phosphate (%)

Source: Sumagaysay and Chiu-Chern (1991)

Table 15. Milkfish feed (Philippines)
IngredientsComposition (%)
Peruvian fish meal4.00
Soybean meal27.50
Rice bran37.00
Copra meal20.00
Bread flour2.00
Coconut oil0.08
Dicalcium phosphate1.00

Source: Sumagaysay (1991)

Table 16. Experimental diet for bighead carp broodstock (Philippines)
IngredientsComposition (%)
Copra meal20.00
Fish meal10.00
Rice bran5.20
Soybean meal28.60
Corn gluten meal28.60
Corn oil/fish oil (1:1)4.40
Vitamin/mineral premix2.00

Source: Santiago et al. (1991)


The Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) of the Department of Agriculture has a Regulatory Division whose task is to accredit the chemical laboratories of feed manufacturers and privately owned service companies which analyze aquaculture feeds, pond soil, water, and fertilizer. BAI also closely monitors the quality of aquaculture feeds in the market. Furthermore, BAI accredits feed quality control laboratories and requires the registration of premixes, additives and supplements prior to their use in feed manufacture. Free brochures, test reagents, procedures, and protocol and certificates of analyses have to be registered with the BAI. Guidelines for accreditation are issued by its Regulatory Division. Collection of feed samples is made in the 13 regions of the country. BAI can also suspend any feed establishment for non-compliance or violation of the Feed Control Law.

The prescribed nutrient composition for complete aquaculture feeds is given in Table 17. Standards for supplemental feeds will have to be defined in the light of the present situation wherein supplementary rather than complete feeds are becoming more acceptable to farmers, due to a reduction in stocking density.

Feed mills are obliged to have an accredited laboratory and experimental ponds (Bureau of Animal Industry 1989a) where their feeds can be assessed. There are also cooperatives, such as the Negros Prawn Producers Marketing Cooperative, Inc. (Bacolod, Negros Occidental), that have their own laboratory which monitors the proximate composition, calcium, phosphorous, and aflatoxin levels of commercial aquafeeds. This service laboratory can also analyze soil and water, and examine fish and shrimp for disease.

BAI has the authority to issue import permits for feeds and feed ingredients, valid only for the specific importation applied for and for a period of sixty days from the date of issue. All containers of commercial feeds are required to bear a complete label. This includes information on:

  1. minimum % of crude protein and crude fat;

  2. maximum % of crude fibre, ash and moisture;

  3. maximum % of minerals (if more than 5%, the maximum percentage of calcium and phosphorus is to be indicated);

  4. guaranteed aflatoxin level;

  5. recommended stocking density;

  6. guaranteed peroxide level;

  1. the name and percentage of drug used;

  2. directions for use;

  3. warning against use under those conditions in which its use may be dangerous to the health of livestock and man;

  4. withdrawal period;

Table 17. Prescribed nutrient standards for aquafeeds in the Philippines
FeedMoisture (max %)Crude protein (min %)Crude fat (min %)Crude fibre (min %)Ash (max %)
Shrimp prestarter pellets/crumbles10454410
Shrimp starter pellets/crumbles10404410
Shrimp grower pellets/crumbles10354410
Shrimp finisher pellets/crumbles10304410
Fish prestarter mash/pellets crumbles/flakes granules/powder10454410
Fish starter mash/pellets crumbles/flakes granules/powder10404410
Fish grower mash/pellets crumbles/flakes granules/powder10354410
Fish finisher mash/pellets crumbles/flakes granules/powder10304410

Source: Administrative Order No. 84, Series of 1990, Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, Quezon City, Philippines


One major constraint is the lack of information on the nutritional requirements of cultured species. Studies are carried out under controlled laboratory conditions with semi-purified feed ingredients in chemically defined diets. Recently, Borlongan and Coloso (in press) defined the ten essential amino acids required by milkfish. Likewise, Santiago and Lovell (1988) have reported requirements for the ten essential amino acids of Nile tilapia (Table 18).

Table 18. Requirements of milkfish (Chanos chanos) and Nile tilapia for 10 essential amino acids
Amino acidsMilkfish*Nile tilapia**
(% of dietary protein)
Methionine + cystine3.23.2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine5.25.5

* Borlongan and Coloso (1993 in press)
** Santiago and Lovell (1988)

The essentiality of n-3 rather than n-6 fatty acids for growth and survival of milkfish juveniles at a salinity of 32 ppt has been demonstrated by Borlongan (1992). She also demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have higher growth-promoting effects than linolenic acid. No deficiency signs are exhibited if the diet contains at least 1% linolenic acid and 0.5% to 1% of highly unsaturated (n-3) fatty acids. There is hardly any data, however, on the mineral and vitamin requirements of these species. Very little is known about the pond ecosystem and the contribution of natural food (Akiyama 1991). Furthermore, information on nutrient availability both from the ponds and the diet is needed.

Another major constraint in aquafeed manufacturing is the difficulty in sourcing quality raw materials and the availability of animal and vegetable proteins. The availability of some ingredients, such as corn and rice bran, is seasonal and prices fluctuate depending on supply and demand. In the Philippines, feed ingredients may be abundant in one area but transporting them to where the demand is high is sometimes not feasible since the distribution network is somewhat inefficient. Facilities for drying cereal products are also not sufficient and sun-drying becomes the usual practice. When it rains suddenly, the grain becomes wet and, because of ineffective storage facilities, it will sprout and becomes mouldy. The grain then becomes unfit for use, having high aflatoxin levels which can cause the death of the cultured species. A list of aflatoxin levels found in some commercial feeds is shown in Table 19.

Table 19. Aflatoxin levels found in feed samples in the Philippines
FeedDate submittedProduction dateAflatoxin level* (ppb)
A26/09/9131/08/91>10 but <20
B19/09/9108/16/91>10 but<20
B08/01/9209/91>0 but<10
B08/01/9212/91>20 but<50
B10/01/9212/91>0 but<10
B11/02/9214/11/91>50 but<100
C20/07/9106/91not detected
C20/07/9106/91>0 but<10
C26/09/9107/91>0 but<10
D26/09/9107/91>10 but<20
E26/09/9107/91>10 but<20
F23/10/9110/91>10 but<20
G20/07/9106/91not detected
G26/09/927/09/91>0 but<10
G10/01/9212/91>0 but<10
H26/09/9107/91>0 but<10
H24/01/9212/91>0 but<10
H11/12/9111/91>10 but<20
H11/12/9111/91>10 but<20

* Limitations of the analysis: the aflatoxin level was determined using the aflatest kit of RhonePoulenc. This is a rapid and non-carcinogenic testing system for aflatoxin but not assensitive as the TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) or HPLC (High Performance LiquidChromatography) methods, Nevertheless, it gives an approximate value of the parameter.

Source : Service Laboratory of Negros Prawn Producers Marketing Cooperative, Inc., 17 February 1992.

There is also a lack of capital and interest rates are high (21% or even more). It is also difficult to borrow money without collateral.

Shortages in research and development funding and of competent scientists are often problems in developing countries like the Philippines. Additionally, some research work is poorly designed.


According to Woiwode et al. (1992), the demand for shrimp feeds will increase to 64,398 t in 1997. There will be no problem in meeting the feed demand, because the present capacity of feed mills is sufficient for the next five years.

Out of the 24 registered feed milling companies, 18 are in operation. Annually only about 40,000 to 50,000 t of aquafeeds are produced, indicating a significantly lower production than the installed capacity (Woiwode et al. 1992). Feed is shipped from Manila to other regions and, during transport, it may not be stored properly. Furthermore, storage facilities on the farms are far from ideal. Nutrient content, aflatoxin levels and peroxide values of feeds stored at the farms can differ from the values at the point of manufacturing.

Some feed mills plan to put up smaller production units far from Manila, where locally produced raw materials are more readily available. Feed manufacturing plants can be conveniently located near fish and shrimp processing plants as well as rice and corn mills. Some farmers are also considering establishing local feed mills that can produce enough feed for one week's consumption. This would be more convenient in terms of proximity to the ponds and monitoring of feed quality. With the shift from intensive to semi-intensive systems in shrimp culture and to intensive systems in the culture of finfish, such as milkfish, there is also a shift in the production from shrimp to finfish feeds.

More and more locally available feed ingredients are now being utilized in feeds. Whereas white fish meal was once the only kind of fish meal used, brown fish meal, locally produced tuna fish meal, and other locally produced feed ingredients are now being incorporated in order to reduce feed costs. In addition, these are used in supplemental diets, although farmers are also using fresh food such as fish and snails. There are fewer imported compound feeds in the market today. Most feeds, if not all, are produced in the Philippines.

There are about four fish farmers who manufacture feeds on their farms. Others are planning to follow suit. Farm-made aquafeeds will most likely be used as supplemental rather than as complete feeds for fish in the near future.


Agbayani, R.F., D.D. Baliao, G.P.B. Samonte, R.E. Tumaliuan and R.D. Caturao. 1990. Economic feasibility analysis of the monoculture of mud crab (Scylla serrata). Aquaculture 91:223-231.

Akiyama, M. 1991. Future considerations for the aquaculture industry, p. 5. In D.M. Akiyama and R. Tan (eds.) Proceedings of the Aquaculture Feed Processing and Nutrition Workshop. American Soybean Association, Singapore.

BFAR. 1991. Philippine Fisheries Profile 1990. Fisheries Policy Research and Economics Division. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Quezon City, Philippines. 40 p.

Borlongan, I.G. 1992. The essential fatty acid requirement of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry: 9 (5-6):401.

Borlongan, I.G. and R.M. Coloso. 1993. Requirements of juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) for essential amino acids. J. Nutr. 123 (in press).

Bureau of Animal Industry. 1989a. Maintenance of ponds for quality control purposes. Animal Industry Circular No. 1, series of 1989. Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines, Visayas Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. 1 p.

Bureau of Animal Industry. 1989b. Accreditation of feed quality control laboratories. Memorandum Circular, series of 1989. Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines, Visayas Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. 1 p.

Bureau of Animal Industry. 1989c. Registration of feed additives supplements and premixes. Memorandum Circular, series of 1989. Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines, Visayas Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. 2 p.

Bureau of Animal Industry. 1989d. Guidelines on feed sample collection at the port of entry. Memorandum Circular, series of 1989. Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines, Visayas Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. 2 p.

Bureau of Animal Industry. 1990. Guidelines on the issuance of accreditation of feed laboratories. Circular No. 1. Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines, Visayas Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. 2 p.

Bureau of Animal Industry. 1991. Granting authority to Bureau of Animal Industry to impose import/export processing fee. Administrative Order No. 37, Series of 1991. Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines, Visayas Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. 1 p.

Camacho, A.S. and N.M. Lagua. 1988. The Philippine aquaculture industry, p.91. In J.V.Juario and L.V.Benetiz (eds.) Perspectives in aquaculture development in Southeast Asia and Japan. Proceedings of the Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 8-12 September 1987.

Cruz, P.S. 1991. Shrimp feeding management: principles and practices. Kabukiran Enterprises, Inc. 440-442 R. Magsaysay Ave., Davao City, Philippines. 57 p.

De Silva, S.S. and M.K. Perera. 1984. Digestibility in Sarotherodon niloticus fry: effect of dietary protein level and salinity with further observations on variability in daily digestibility. Aquaculture 83:293-306.

Food and Nutrition Research Institute. 1968. Food composition table recommended for use in the Philippines, p.21. In Handbook No. 1, 3rd ed. National Science Development Board, Manila, Philippines.

Guerrero, R.D. III. 1991. Aquaculture research and development programs in the Philippines: an overview, p. 4-9. In R.D. Guerrero III and M.P. Garcia, Jr. (eds.) Advances in finfish and shellfish mariculture. Proceedings of the First Philippine-French Technical Workshop on Advances in Finfish and Shellfish Mariculture, October 24-26, 1990, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.

Hepher, B. and Y. Pruginin. 1981. Commercial fish farming. Wiley-Interscience, New York. 216p.

Juario, J.V. 1991. Status of finfish mariculture in the Philippines, p. 27-36. In R.D. Guerrero III and M.P. Garcia, Jr. (eds.) Advances in finfish and shellfish mariculture. Proceedings of the First Philippine-French Technical Workshop on Advances in Finfish and Shellfish Mariculture. October 24-26, 1990, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.

Kohno, A.,P.Trino, D.Gerochi and M.Duray. 1989. Effects of feeding frequency and amount of feeding on growth of grouper Epinephelus malabaricus. Phil.J.Science 118:89- 100.

Kuntiyo. 1992. Fattening of mud crab Scylla serrata Forsskal in net cages installed in the drain canal of intensive prawn ponds fed with trash fish and prawn pellet. M.S. Fisheries Thesis, University of the Philippines in the Visayas. 60 p.

Lacanilao, F. 1991. Some concerns on the development of fisheries and aquaculture in the Philippines, p. 19. In Lundayan: A quarterly publication of the Tambuyog Development Center Vol.3, No. 2, June.

National Research Council. 1977. Nutrient requirements of warmwater fishes. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 78 p.

Ocean Feed, 1992. Make the best milkfish and prawn feed. Ocean Feed Mill Corp. 8p. Penaflorida, R. 1989. An evaluation of indigenous protein sources as potential component on diet formulation for tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, using essential amino acid index (EAAI). Aquaculture 83:319-330.

Posadas, B.C. 1988. Economic analysis of various prawn farming systems, p. 12-24. In Y.N. Chiu, L.M. Santos and R.O. Juliano (eds.) Technical considerations for the management and operation of intensive prawn farms. U.P. Aquaculture Society, Iloilo City, Philippines.

Samonte, G., R.F.A.Agbayani and R.E.Tumaliuan. 1991. Economic feasibility of polyculture of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in brackishwater ponds. Asian Fisheries Science 4:335-343.

Santiago, C.B., M.B. Aladaba and M.A. Laron. 1988. Reproductive performance and growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus broodstock fed diets containing Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal. Aquaculture 70:53-61.

Santiago, C.B. and R.T. Lovell. 1988. Amino acid requirements for growth of Nile tilapia. J. Nutr. 118:1540-1546.

Santiago, C.B., A.S. Camacho and M.A. Laron. 1991. Growth and reproductive performance of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) reared with or without feeding in floating cages. Aquaculture 96:109-117.

SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. 1991. Three-year plan of the Aquaculture Department (1992-1994). Submitted to SEAFDEC Program Committee at its 14th Meeting, September 1991. 19 p.

Sumagaysay, N.S. and Y. Chiu-Chem. 1991. Effects of fiber in supplemental feeds on milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) production in brackishwater ponds. Asian Fisheries Science 4: 189-199.

Sumagaysay, N.S. 1991. Utilization of feed and rice straw compost for milkfish (Chanos chanos) production in brackishwater ponds. J.Appl. Ichthyol. 7: 230-237.

Sumagaysay, N.S., F.E. Marquez and Y.N. Chiu-Chern. 1991. Evaluation of different supplemental. feeds for milkfish (Chanos Chanos) reared in brackishwater ponds. Aquaculture 93: 177-189.

Pascual, F.P. 1991. Manual on a practical guide to the preparation of home made feeds for aquaculture. ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, Manila, Philippines. 28p.

Torres, E.G. (ed.) 1992. UPV Research Abstracts 1980-1987. Published by the Office of Research Coordination, University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Iloilo City 5000, Philippines. 164p.

Woiwode, J.G., R.O. Juliano, R.F. Agbayani, U.L. Corre, U. Hatch, W.G. Deutsch, G. Gonzales, F. Sunaz and B. Perkins. 1993. Philippine Prawn Industry Policy Study. Final Report prepared by International Center for Aquaculture and Aquatic Environments, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, U.S.A. for the Coordinating Council of the Philippines Assistance Program and U.S. Agency for International Development Contract No. DAN-4180-B-00-8009 00 Order No. 3. Philippines Assistance Program Support Project No. 492-0452. 170p.

Annex 1. Some feed mills in the Philippines, their addresses and installed capacity
Company (feed brand)Installed capacity (t/hr)*
General Reliance Co. (Aquaprime Feeds)3.05
 Sta. Clara Estate Bldg. 
 Lacson St., Bacolod City 
  Tel.: (63-34) 82-045 
Azure Pacific Trading, Inc. (Quick Grow)0.38
 Iloilo Fishing Port Complex, 
 Tanza, Iloilo City 5000 
  Tel.: (63-33) 72-932 
  Fax.: (63-33) 70-833 
Manila B-Meg Feed Plant (Tilapia feeds) 
 658 A, Bonifacio Street 
 Balintawak, Quezon City 
  Tel.: (63-2) 353-071/90; 361-4838 
  Fax.: (63-2) 817-6502; 810-4015 (c/o Mr. R. Saure) 
Pampanga B-Meg Feed Plant (B-MEG, SD-90)7.00
 Bo. Moras de la Paz 
 Sto. Nino, San Matias, Pampanga 
  Tel.: (63-45) 615-457 or 613-792 
  Fax.: (63-45) 612-791 
First El Presidente Mfg., Inc. (Chuen Shin)1.20
 228 Ortigas St., Manila 
  Tel.: (63-2) 703-115 
  Fax.: (63-2) 721-1508 
Hoc Po Feeds Co. (Hoc Po Feeds)2.00
 554 Edsa St., Caloocan, Metro Manila 
  Tel.: (63-2) 361-4419; 361-4421 
Interfeeds Philippines, Inc. (Interfeeds)1.30
 Navotas, Metro Manila 
  Tel.: (63-2) 239-685 
  Fax.: (63-2) 222-596 
Fuji Triumph Agri-Industrial Co. (Fuji-Triumph)5.00
 Triumph Building, 1610 Quezon Ave. 
 Quezon City, Metro Manila 
  Tel.: (63-2) 968-688; 952-086; 961-1213 
  Fax.: (63-2) 921-3592 
Ocean Feed Mill Co. (Ocean Feeds)2.56
 Calumangan, Bago City 
  Tel.: (63-34) 22-462/68 
  Fax.: (63-34) 28-367 
Oversea Agri-Aqua Co. (Oversea Feeds)2.00
 82 Plaridel St., Cebu City 
  Tel.: (63-32) 77-691/98 
  Fax.: (63-32) 52-426; 721-3599 
PEC Enterprises (President Prawn Feeds) 
 511 Elcano St., Binondo, Metro Manila 
  Tel.: (63-2) 486-890 
  Fax.: (63-2) 588-266 
Ram Aqua Marketing Co. (Ram) 
 Banilad, Mandaue City 
  Tel.: (63-32) 82-017 
  Fax.: (63-32) 462-247; 52-022 
Feedpro Co. (Tateh Feeds) 
 509 Camba-Jaboneros St., San Nicolas, Metro Manila 
  Tel.: (63-2) 401-368; 401-350; 530-0488; 489-260
  Fax.:'(63-2) 489-255 
VitarichCo. (Vitarich)2.50
 Marilao, Bulacan 
  Tel.: (63-97) 851-864; 347-042; 873-684; 873-817 
  Fax.: (63-97) 816-7235 
Sing Heng Chan (Well Grow Brand)2.50
 Carmona, Cavite 

* Woiwode et al. (1993)

Annex 2. Names and addresses of manufacturers of feed equipment in the Philipines
Adfran Co. 56 K Macabagdal Cor. Howmart St.
 Baesa, Quezon City
Jamandre Industries86 Rizal Street
 La Paz, Iloilo City
Annex 3. National and regional centers, cooperating stations and specialized agencies engaged in aquaculture research in the Philippines
Institution/addressResponsibility (ongoing projects)
National centers 
University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Institute of Aquaculture Miag-ao, IloiloBrackishwater aquaculture (milkfish, shrimp, tilapia, molluscs, etc.)
Central Luzon State University Freshwater Acquaculture Center Munoz, Nueva EcijaFreshwater aquaculture (tilapia genetics, integrated farming systems, etc.)
University of the Philippines, Marine Science Institute, Bolinao, Pangasinan and Diliman, Quezon CityMarine aquaculture (giant clams and seaweeds)
Regional centers 
Cagayan State University College of Fisheries Aparri, CagayanBrackishwater and marine aquaculture (grouper, tilapia,etc.)
Bicol University College of Fisheries Tabaco, AlbayBrackishwater and marine aquaculture (grouper and cockles)
Silliman University Marine Laboratory Dumaguete CityMarine aquaculture (giant clams and finfishes)
Zamboanga State College of Marine Science and Technology Zamboanga CityBrackishwater aquaculture (shrimp and tilapia)
Mindanao State University, Institute of Fisheries Research and Development Naawan, Misamis OrientalBrackishwater and marine aquaculture (crustaceans and finfishes)
Cooperating stations 
Mariano Marcos State University College of Fisheries Currimao, Ilocos NorteMarine aquaculture (seaweeds)
Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, College of Fisheries Sto. Tomas, La UnionBrackishwater and marine aquaculture (grouper, snapper, etc.)
Pangasinan State University College of Fisheries Binmaley, PangasinanBrackishwater and marine aquaculture (grouper, siganids and tilapia)
Department of Agriculture, National Freshwater Fisheries Training and Research Center, Munoz, Nueva EcijaFreshwater aquaculture (tilapia)
Department of Agriculture, UNDP-BFAR Training and Demonstration Center Paombong, BulacanBrackishwater aquaculture (milkfish and shrimp)
Palawan National Agricultural College Regional Institute of Fisheries Technology Puerto Princesa CityBrackishwater and marine aquaculture (shrimp, milkfish and seabass)
Department of Agriculture Freshwater Fisheries Research Station Los Banos, LagunaFreshwater aquaculture (tilapia and prawns)
Department of Agriculture, National Brackishwater Aquaculture Training and Research Center, Pagbilao, QuezonBrackishwater aquaculture (milkfish and prawns)
Panay State Polytechnic College Pontevedra, CapizBrackishwater aquaculture (shrimp and seabass)
Department of Agriculture Brackishwater Training Center Calape, BoholBrackishwater and marine aquaculture (milkfish, shrimp and oyster)
Department of Agriculture Guiuan Fishery Camp Guiuan, Eastern SamarMarine aquaculture (lobster and abalone)
Mindanao State University, Tawi-Tawi College Technology and Oceanography Bongao, Tawi-TawiMarine aquaculture (grouper and abalone)
Specialized agencies 
Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC), Aquaculture Department Tigbauan, IloiloBrackishwater and marine aquaculture (milkfish, shrimp grouper, siganids, molluscs, etc.)
Meralco Foundation, Inc. Agro-Aquatic Development Center Jala Jala, RizalFreshwater aquaculture (tilapia)

Source: Guerrero (1991)

Annex 4. List of some completed research studies at the University of the Philippines in the Visayas (UPV) between 1986-1992

Chiu, Y.N., V.L. Estilo, N.S. Sumagaysay and M.A.S. Sastrillo. 1986. Philippines milkfish feeding (Trial I): Effect of supplementary feeding, increased stocking rates and aeration on milkfish yields in brackishwater ponds. Technical Report, Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV, Leganes, Iloilo, Phils.

Chiu, Y.N. 1986. Effects of practical type-diets on the growth and survival of milkfish II. The effect of different levels of fish meal on the growth and survival of milkfish. A Terminal Report, Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Chiu, Y.N. 1986. Evaluation of rice bran and two pelleted diets as supplementary feed for milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) reared in brackishwater ponds. A Terminal Report, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Chiu, Y.N. 1987. Increasing milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) yields in brackishwatter ponds through increased stocking rates and supplementary feeding. A Terminal Report, Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Chiu, Y.N. 1988. Development of a supplementary feeding program for milkfish II. Effects of dietary levels of energy and fiber on protein utilization of supplemental feeds of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) reared in brackishwater ponds. A Terminal Report, Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Corre, V.L. 1986. Use of fermentation-preserved supplemental feeds for red tilapia. Technical Report, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Corre, V.L. 1986. Use of fermentation-preserved supplemental feeds for Nile tilapia (year 2). A Terminal Report, Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Corre, V.L. 1988. Effects of different ratio of plant and animal protein on the growth and survival of Nile tilapia in brackishwater fishponds. A Terminal Report, Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Corre, V.L. 1988. Effects of different ratio of plant and animal protein on the growth and survival of Nile tilapia in brackishwater fishponds (year 3). A Terminal Report, Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Corre, V.L. 1991. Feeds and feeding strategies for low cost sea bass production. A Terminal Report, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Fortes, R.D. and V.L. Corre. 1986. Effects of fertilizers and feeds as nutrient sources on Oreochromis niloticus production in Philippine brackishwater ponds, p. 121-124. In: J.L. Maclean, L.B. Dizon and L.V. Hosillos (eds.) The First Asian Fisheries Forum. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines.

Marasigan, E. 1989. Effects of different levels of trash fish in the formulated diet on the growth of sea bass. A Terminal Report, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Marasigan, E. 1992. Development of artificial feeds for sea bass culture II. Effect of different levels of protein on the growth and survival of sea bass fry. College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Naret, E. 1991. Effect of supplementary diets containing various levels of protein on the growth and survival of Siganus gattatus in ponds planted with lumut. Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines 16(1-2): 15-21, Jan.-Dec. 1991.

Pena, M.L.D. de la. 1986. Effects of practical type-diets III. Evaluation of various leguminous seeds as protein sources for milkfish (Chanos chanos) juveniles. Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Pena, M.L.D. de la, Y.N. Chiu, and F. Ganchero. 1986. Effects of practical type-diets on the growth and survival of milkfish grown from fry to fingerling under controlled environmental conditions III. Evaluation of various leguminus seeds as protein sources for milkfish,Chanos chanos juveniles, p. 19-25. In Asian Fisheries Science I, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Phils., 1987.

Seneriches, M.L.M., Y.N. Chiu, and A.S. Camacho. 1986. Effect of practical type-diets on the growth and survival of milkfish grown from fry to fingerling under controlled environmental conditions II. The effect of fish meal on the growth and survival of milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry. Technical Report, Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV. Leganes, Iloilo, Phils.

Seneriches, M.L. and Y.N. Chiu. 1987. Effect of fish meal on the growth, survival and feed efficiency of milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry. Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils. Presented at the 7th PCARRD Annual Review of Completed and Ongoing Research Projects for Fisheries, La Granja, La Carlota City, Negros Occ., Philippines, April 22-25, 1987.

Thomforde, H. and Y.N. Chiu. 1986. Effects of chicken manure and supplementary feed on production of milkfish and red tilapia in polyculture in brackishwater earthen ponds at different stocking densities. Graduate Thesis, College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils.

Tubongbanua, E.S. 1986. Preliminary study on the development of artificial feeds for sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). College of Fisheries, UPV, Iloilo, Phils. Presented at the Workshop on “The Management of Wild and Cultured Sea bass/Barramundi.” Darwin, N.T., Australia, September 24-0ctober 1, 1986.

Annex 5. List of completed research studies of SEAFDEC/AQD (1986-1991)

Acosta, B.O. 1986. Comparative effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of plankton and production carps in ponds.

Alava, V.R. 1989. Alternate sources of protein for fish meal in Lates calcarifer diets.

Alava, V.R. 1987. A reference fatty acid and amino acid profile for Lates calcarifer juveniles.

Avila, E.M. 1990. Food consumption of sea bass (Lates calcarifer in captivity. II. Group feeding.

Baliao, D. and R.F. Agbayani. 1986. Effects of formulated feeds on intensive prawn production following the modular pond system.

Bautista, M.N. Effect of dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio on shell quality of Penaeus monodon.

Borlongan, I.G. and M.M. Parazo. 1991. Effect of dietary lipid sources on growth, survival and fatty acid composition of sea bass, (Lates calcarifer) Bloch fry. Bamidgeh 43(3): 95-102.

Borlongan, I.G. and R.M. Coloso. 1993. Requirements of juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) for essential amino acids. J. Nutr. In press.

Catacutan, M. 1986. Degestibility of feedstuff for milkfish.

Catacutan, M.R. 1991. Apparent digestibility of diets with various carbohydrate levels and the growth of Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture 95:89-96.

Catacutan, M.R. 1991. Growth and fatty acid composition of Penaeus monodon juveniles fed various lipids. Bamidgeh 43:47-56.

Catacutan, M.R. Practical diet development for sea bass, Lates calcarifer: dietary protein and energy ratio.

Coloso, R.M. Nutrition and feed development for sea bass, I. Requirement for sulfur amino acids by seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) juveniles.

Coloso, 'R.M. and C. da Costa Reis. In vitro determination of protein digestibility of milkfish (Chanos chanos F.) (Thesis Research).

Corre, K.G. Effects of combined pelleted feed and trash fish on the growth and survival of prawn.

Eusebio, P.S. 1991. Effect of dehulling on the nutritive value of some leguminous seeds as protein sources for tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) juveniles. Aquaculture 99:297- 308.

Fermin, A.C. Nursery of sea bass Lates calcarifer in floating cages. I. Effects of varying stocking densities and supplemental feeding.

Gerochi, D.D. 1987. Growth and survival of siganids at various stocking densities fed with different natural food sources.

Gerochi, D.D. 1988. Effect of supplemental diet on siganids cultured in ponds with filamentous green algae.

Kohno, H. 1987. Effects of stocking density and food on growth and survival of groupers.

Kume, T. 1989. Developement of practical diet for grouper larvae.

Millamena, O.M. 1987. Refinement of SEAFDEC-formulated diet for pond-reared Penaeus monodon broodstock: effect of lecithin.

Millamena, O.M. and J.H. Primavera. 1986. Lipid requirement for P. monodon broodstock: essential fatty acids and phospholipids.

Millamena, O.M. and P. Tackaert. 1989. The use of Artemia biomass as a dietary ingredients in formulated diets of Penaeus monodon post-larvae (Ph.D. Thesis Research).

Parazo, M.M. 1990. Effect of dietary protein and energy level on growth, protein utilization and carcass composition of rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus. Aquaculture 86:41-49.

Pascual, F.P. 1986. Evaluation of various SEAFDEC formulated diets for juvenile P. monodon

Pascual, F.P. and M.R. Catacutan. 1986. Vitamin premix level requirement of P. monodon juveniles.

Pascual, F.P., N.S. Sumagaysay and I.G. Borlongan. 1991. Modular method of rearing milkfish with artificial feed, p. 159-167. In S.S. de Silva (ed.) Fish nutrition research in Asia. Proceeding of the Fourth Asian Fish Nutrition Workshop. Asian Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 5. Asian Fisheries Soceity, Manila, Philippines.

Pascual, F.P., O.M. Millamena and V.D. Penaflorida. 1986. Arginine requirement of P. monodon juveniles.

Penaflorida, V.D. 1989. Evaluation of plant protein as partial replacement for animal protein in diets of Penaeus indicus juveniles.

Ponce, A.H. Polyculture of Gracilaria (Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae) and Lates calcarifer Bloch in floating net cages.

Recodo, A., Histophysiological effects of various histidine levels in the diet on the hepatopancreas of Penaeus monodon Fabricius. M.S. Thesis, College of Science, Univ. of the Phils., Diliman, Quezon City. 104 p.

Santiago, C.B. 1988. Effects of dietary protein levels on gonadal development of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) reared in floating cages: reproductive performance of broodstock.

Santiago, C.B. 1988. The effects of dietary lipids on reproductive performance, tissue composition and growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock.

Santiago, C.B. 1990. Growth, feed utilization and body composition of young red tilapia given diets with varying protein-energy levels.

Santiago, C.B. and J.B. Pantastico. 1986. Milkfish fingerling productian in freshwater ponds using artificial and natural food.

Santiago, C.B. and J.B. Legiralde. 1989. Effect of dietary carbohydrates, lipid and energy on growth, feed efficiency, and tissue composition of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) (Research Thesis).

Santiago, C.B. and O. Reyes. 1986. Development of artificial diets for carp and freshwater fishes.

Sumagaysay, N.S. 1991. Effects of fiber supplemental feeds on milkfish (Chanos chanos) production in brackishwater ponds. Asian Fisheries Science 4:189-199.

Sumagaysay, N.S. Development of supplemental diet for milkfish (Chanos chanos) through assessment of natural food contribution to fish growth.

Trino, A.T. 1986. Culture of seabass (Lates calcarifer) in ponds: Effect of feeding rates and stocking density.

Trino, A.T. 1986. Food and feeding habits of different life stages of P. monodon in ponds.

Trino, A.T. 1987. Integrated culture of seabass andtilapia: The use of live tilapia as food for seabass, L. calcarifer Bloch.

Trino, A.T. 1989. Effect of processed feed as supplemental diet in a modified extensive culture of Penaeus monodon.

Trino, L. and L. Benitez. 1986. Studies on the digestive enzymes of milkfish and siganids.

Tuburan, I.B. 1989. Evaluation of supplementary diets on growth, survival, and production of Penaeus monodon.

Tuburan, I.B. 1990. Evaluation of unprocessed feeds in semi-intensive Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) pond culture.

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