9.13.4 Sun protection

Contents - Previous - Next

Sun cream

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

10 Beeswax
2 Ozocerite
2 Glyceryl monostearate
20 Isopropyl
2 Sun filter
2 Isopropyl lanolate
22 Lanolin alcohol ethers (20 OP)
3 Hydroxylated lanolin
0.6 Borax
33.4 Water
q.s. Perfume and preseratives

Sun cream (w/o)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

5 Beeswax
5 PEG 2) dodecyl glycol copolymer
2.5 Sorbitan oleate
5 Sterol alcohols
2.5 UV filter
2.5 Pentaerithritol ether
15 Squalene
5 Fat-soluble walnut extract
1 Hyfrogenated ricinus oil

Follow instructions for mixing the copolymer or mix it very slowly with the melted beeswax. Add other ingredients while stirring.

Suntan oil

Ingredients (in parts by volume) modified from Krochmal (1973):


Olive oil



Olive oil





Sesame oil


Peanut oil




Peanut oil


Oil of jasmine


Oil of rose


Pollen extract (20% GEP)


Propolis (GEP)

Combine all the ingredients. Other oils such as coconut or palm oil may also be used. It is better to use refined rather than regular cooking oil, though the latter can be used for products consumed at home. Different essential oils may be added as well. Either pollen extracted can with propylene glycol or with concentrated ethanol (with the ethanol largely evaporated or replaced by glycol) can be used. Pollen is said to promote tanning and propolis (ethanol or glycol extract) can be added to increase sun protection. For additional protection against UV radiation, special synthetic UV filters can be included. These may require an additional agent to dissolve or suspend them in the oils. Such information can be obtained when purchasing the raw material. Commercial formulations generally do not contain much more than has been listed in this recipe.

For personal use, ready-made suntan lotions may be purchased and the pollen or propolis extracts be added directly to them.

Sun gel (lipogel – an ointment to which a stabilizer, in this case hydrogenated ricinus oil has been added)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

2.5 Beeswax 2.5 UV filter
50 Sesame oil 5 Hydrogenated lanolin
25 Vegetable oil 2 Liquid jojoba wax
2.5 Unsaponifiable olive oil 0.5 Essential oils
5 Lipid-soluble walnut extract 5 Hydrogenated ricinus oil

Melt the beeswax in a water bath and add the other ingredients. The fragrances and ricinus oil are added last. Ricinus oil (castor oil) is extracted from Ricinus communis seeds.

The product will be improved by the addition of propolis as a weak UV screen, and pollen extract (2 parts) for its effect on tanning, will ffirther improve the product.

After sun gel (monophasic gel)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

10 Honey
50 Water (boiled and cooled)
30 Witch hazel (aqueous extract)
1 Carbopol 940
5 Glycerol
2.75 Ricinus oil (40) OE
0.25 Chamomile oil
1 Neutralizing base
1-2 Propolis extract

Dissolve the honey in a little water. Premix the neutralizing base in a little glycerol or water. At room temperature, mix the rest of the water and the witch hazel and add the carbopol very slowly while stirring vigorously. Stir until everything has dissolved. Mix the oils in the glycerol. Add the glycerol/oil phase to the carbopol/water phase. Mix carejully without incorporating air. when homogeneous, add the premixed base and stir slowly for another 30 minutes.

A glycolic propolis extract, preferably in paste form can also be added. It should be mixed with the glycerol before adding to the carbopol/water.

9.13.5 Shampoos

Generic ingredients (parts by weight)


Bath foam

Anfoteric surfactant
Anionic surfactant
Non-ionic lather booster
Alkyl glucoside C8-C10
Restoring, conditioning agents
Honey and other be products
Preservatives and chelating agents
Fragrances and antioxidants

q.s. to 100



q.s. to 100

Without heating, mix all the ingredients, except the thickener, water and pe~me. Use a slow moving blade mixer and mix until a homogeneous mixture is obtained, avoiding as much as possible the trapping of air. Slowly add the water and mix until homogeneous. The thickener is heated slightly and added to the main mass. Shampoos with a glycerol or oil phase can also include a small percentage of beeswax.

Fragrances and other additives can be added shortly before pouring into storage vessels and before control and/or adjustment of physical characteristics.

The following two shampoos have been described by Proserpio (1981):

For dry hair For oily hair
15 Coccoilamido propylbetain 25 Lauryl ethoxy sulphate MEA
10 Cocoimidazolin 5 Lauryl sulfur succinate NA
4 Glucose C8 10 alkylether 2 Coccoilamid
1 Lecithin amide 2 Abietoil polypeptide
0.5 Essential oils or fragrances 0.5 Essential oils or fragrances
65 Water (boiled and cooled) 45 Water (boiled and cooled)
2.5 Hydrolysed pollen 0.5 Citric acid
2 Honey 2 Hydrolysed pollen
2.5 Propolis extract (10%, GEP)

The following two formulas are adopted from Krochmal (1985). They are very simple and use relatively common materials. However, they do not produce a very stable product for marketing in most stores.

Ingredients (parts by volume)

Honey-pollen shampoo

Honey-egg shampoo

12 honey
24 glycerol
3 witch hazel
12 cologne
1 liquid soap
2 alcohol
6 pollen extract
12 honey
3 almond oil
3 witch hazel
3 cologne
6 liquid soap
6 water
1 large egg per 60 ml honey

Cologne (perfumed aqueous alcohol) can be used, but rose water, orange flower water or other aqueous aromatic extracts which are much cheaper than cologne can also be used. If a glycol extract of pollen is used, the shampoo will have a smoother texture. Propolis extract can be added to treat dandruff The honey content may be reduced in order to reduce costs.

For very small quantities, when 1 part is equivalent to one teaspoon (and 24 parts to a cup), the ingredients may be put in a bottle and shaken until a more or less homogeneous solution is obtained. For larger quantities dissolve the honey in the cologne and the soap in the alcohol. After glycerol is mixed into the honey and the cologne, the witch hazel, pollen and soap are added.

The problem for marketing is the lack of preservatives (and consequently the short shelf-life), and the possibility of separation of the ingredients after a short time. The honey-pollen recipe already has an alcohol content which functions as preservative, but the egg in the second recipe makes it very perishable. If sold without the egg, the shampoo should keep for many weeks. Customers might be advised to add an egg themselves.

After- shampoo balsam

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

2.6 Cetyl alcohol
2.5 Jojoba oil
1.0 Cetyl polyethoxy ammonium phosphate
4.0 Tallow (15) OE polyamine
80 Water (boiled and cooled)
1.0 Citric acid
0.5 Essential oils of fragrances
3.5 Hydrolysed pollen
5.0 Propolis extract (10%, GEP)

The thickeners (phosphate and polyamine) also junction as emulsifiers and can be replaced by other, more readily available thickeners and emulsifiers. Beeswax can be included at a very small percentage (1-2%).

Foam baths (with honey or propolis)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

50 Lauryl ethoxy sulphate (sodium salt)
10 Lauryl sulfur succinate (sodium salt)
5 Glucose C8 10 alkylether
2.5 Coccoilamid
7.5 Coccoilamido betaine
2.5 Essential oils or fragrances
20 Water (boiled and cooled)
2.5 Honey and/or propolis extract (10%, GEP)

In addition to three variations distinguished by the addition of honey, propolis or both, herbal extracts to promote relaxation and stimulation of circulation may be added to this kind of formulation.

A simple, attractive gift package

Figure 9.13 : A simple, attractive gift package

9.13.6 Solid soaps

The addition of propolis to any soap products will cause a strong greyish colouring.

Basic beeswax soap

Ingredients (in parts by volume) after Berthold (1992):

72 Tallow, clean, rendered 36 Water (soft, rain water)
24 Vegetable oil 12 Lye flakes (potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide)
9 Beeswax 1 Citronella oil
0.25 Lemon oil optional
6 Honey, optional
5-10 Propolis extract 10% EEC, optional

Melt the beeswax in a water bath and stir in the vegetable oil. In a separate pot, melt the tallow and measure the right quantity. Dissolve the lye flakes in cold water, then thoroughly mix the lye solution with the melted tallow and add the melted beeswax-vegetable oil mixture in a thin stream. Beat mixture vigorously until blended thoroughly. Add honey (if desired), the propolis extract, citronella and the lemon oil or other essential oils (rose, sandalwood or lavender) and pour into greased moulds. The soap will take a while to harden. Protect it from dust.

Scented honey-propolis-beeswax soap

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Dany (1988):

180 Beeswax 50 Rosewater
80 Bar soap, milk 20 Honey
30 Almond oil 1 Propolis extract

Melt the beeswax in a water bath and slowly add small chunks of the soap. Remove the hot waxAoap mix and gently heat the almond oil, rosewater and propolis in a separate pot to 400C, while stirring. The rosewater can be replaced with other preferred fragrances. when the wax and soap mixture has cooled to about the same temperature, add the two liquids together and stir well. Before it cools completely, stir in the honey. Then pour into oiled (mineral or vegetable oil) forms. It will take a while for the soap to harden. Lightly cover to provent dust and dirt settling on top of the soap, but do not close hermetically because of continuing evaporation of water when hard, remove, wrap in paper, label and box in a nice carton. If the soap is of pleasant colour and shape, it may also be packed in clear plastic and sealed.

Honey-propolis soap

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

100 Soap base (chips or bar soap)
5 Honey diluted with 2 water
2 Propolis in 18 parts glycerol or equivalent of 10% GEP

The honey needs to be diluted with the water prior to jurther mixing. The propolis can be extracted in glycerol directly (though not very efficient) or an alcohol extract may be thickened by evaporation and mixed (emulsified or dispersed) in the glycerol at a concentration of 10% paste.

The soap chips can be tumbled in the two liquids and then refined and extruded as described in 9.2.4 or the soap may be careffilly melted. Shortly before hardening, the warmed honey - water (35 - 400c) and proplis are stirred in.

Honey-beeswax soap

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

90 Soap base (chips or bars)
5 Glycerol
0.5 Beeswax
2.5 Essential oil (or propolis extract)
2.5 honey

This is another very simple formula in which essential oil is added for fragrance. Pigments can be added alone to the formula or accompanied with a specljic dispersing agent, if necessary. Melt and blend the soap, glycerol and beeswax. when the mixture starts to thicken during cooling, add the honey and essential oils. Pour into greased or oiled moulds.

9.13.7 Liquid soaps

Honey, pollen and propolis can be easily incorporated into liquid soaps. The polypeptide and amino acid components of hydrolysed pollen are thought to reduce the irritant and defatting action of the surfactants (soaps). In hygiene products for women, propolis has proven particularly effective.

Intimate soap (liquid)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

15 Coccoilamid betaine
10 Coccoimidazolin
5 Glucose C8-10 alkylether
1 Coccoilamid
1 Essential oils of fragrances
65 Water (boiled and cooled)
2 Citric acid
1 Propolis ectract (10%GEP)

The ingredients are mixed careffilly at room temperature.

Aloe and honey soap

Ingredients (in parts by volume) after Krochmal (undated):

24 Aloe vera gel
1 Chamomile extract
1 Calendula extract
12 Glycerol
12 Liquid castile soap
q.s. Honey, pollen or propolis extract

Combine all the ingredients except the soap and stir or shake well in ajar. Then add the liquid soap. Pour into a soap dispenser or storage vessel. Honey, lipid pollen extract and EEP propolis extract can be added in small percentages, as well as special herb extracts.

9.13.8 Toothpaste and mouth rinses

From an economic and manufacturing point of view, large batches of toothpaste will be difficult to make in many countries. Obtaining the printed tubes and packing them requires special non-versatile expensive machines. Buying a base and adding flavouring, colouring, propolis and honey still leaves a packing problem, unless everything is done by a third party to specific specifications. This might only be feasible to complete a product line. For improving toothpaste for home use, and a recipe which contains propolis, see 5.16.8. Adding beneficial products, however, does not remove less desirable ones already part of the base product. Mouth rinses are easier to prepare and package. The first three recipes use three different thickening agents.

Toothpaste (calcium carbonate base)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

60 Water (boiled and cooled)
2 Hydroxy ethyl cellulose
0.5 Xanthum gum
5 Propolis extract (10%, GEP)
60 Glycerol
3.5 Sweetener and aroma
60 Calcium carbonate
5 Pyrogenic silica
4 Sodium laurysulfate

Mix the propolis with the glycerol. Heat the water slightly and slowly add the cellulose. when dissolved, add the xanthum gum and then the glycerol. Stir carefully without mixing air into the paste. Continue stirring, while letting it cool and adding the other ingredients.

Toothpaste (phosphate base)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

50 Water (boiled and cooled)
2 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
5 Propolis extract (10%, GEP)
50 Glycerol
3 Sweetener and aroma
80 Dibasic calcium phosphate
6 Pyrogenic silica
4 Sodium laurylsulfate

Mix the cellulose slowly into the water without heating. Mix the propolis with the glycerol then add the glycerol to the water. Stir well for 15 minutes (avoid trapping air) then add the other ingredients and continue stirring slowly for 20 to 30 minutes.

Clear gel

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Bennet (1970):

40 Glycerol
282 Water
0.6 Sodium saccharin **ate? or q.s. honey
6.6 Carbopol 940 resin
0.4 Duponol C
40 Water
28 Sodium hydroxide (10%solution)
1 Propolis paste
q.s. peppermint

Prior to processing, dissolve the propolis paste in the glycerol. If the liquid is not clear, leave for 24 hours, refrigerate and filter. The saccharin sweetener may be replaced with about 3 parts of honey, or according to taste. Take a small portion from the 282 parts water and dissolve the honey in it.

While stirring the 282 parts of water, add the glycerol. Then sprinkle in the saccharin (or add honey) and mix for two minutes. Very slowly add the carbopol, mix for ten minutes and deaerate (in a vacuum) or with time for settling.

Dissolve the su~actant (Duponol) in the 40 parts of water and add to the Carbopol solution. Mix slowly for 60 minutes. Add the sodium hydroxide solution and stir for another 30 minutes. Finally, mix in the peppermint oil and stir for another 15 minutes.

Classic Toothpaste

Ingredients (in parts by volume) after Krochmal (1731):

9 Soap flakes
64 Precipitated fine chalk
12 Glycerol
0.5 Oil of peppermint
1 Ethanol (70% by volume)
q.s. Propolis extract and honey

Combine the chalk and the soap flakes. Add the glycerol and stir until smooth. Dissolve the oil in the alcohol and add to the soap mixture. Propolis extract can be added to the alcohol part, but in the alkaline environment (soap), the propolis will discolour the toothpaste to a dark brown. Today '5 pastes do not use soaps any more, but other surfactants.

Aerosol mouthwash

Ingredients (in parts by volume):

12 Propolis extract, 10 - 20% in ethanol
q.s. Honey to taste
2 Peppermint oil
1 Coumarin (food spice)
20 Water
40 Glycerol
325 Ethanol (complete to 100%)

Mix all the ingredients together until dissolved. The mixture can then be filled into a mechanical mister and used as a mouth spray. Other flavours can be used such as eucalyptol, menthol, cinnamon oil, citric acid or clove oil and mixed according to taste.

Water soluble peppermint extracts can be used and the propolis precipitate filtered out, or a more aqueous extract of propolis can be used. Glycerol in such a preparation, though preferred technically, should be minimized (or avoided) because of its relative toxicity.

Water content can only be increased slightly, before causing precipitation of the propolis extract, once the peppermint oil is added.

Aerosol mouthwash

Another aerosol mouthwash has been described as an oral spray in section 5.16.2.

9.13.9 Deodorants

A warning should be given here about adding alcohol extracts to preformulated bases or those prepared with certain gels and thickeners. The alcohol may have a strong thinning effect. The alcohol may have to be evaporated first or be replaced with another compatible liquid. Alternatively, a different thickener may be chosen. Very simple basic cold creams (section 9.13.3) or lotions (section 9.13.1) with an increased content of propolis work well and are less irritant.

1) Cream deodorant

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

1-3 Beeswax
8-15 Isoparaffins (C10-C11)
3-5 Vegetable oils
0-2 Fatty alcohols (C16-C18)
0-2 Fatty acids or long chain fatty esters
1-2 Thickeners
5-10 Emulsifying agent
q.s. Antioxidants
8-12 Zinc oxide
1-3 Enzyme inhibitor (triethylcitrate)
1-3 Zinc ricinoleate
1-3 Propolis glycerol extract (20%)
q.s. Perfume, preservatives
q.s. to 100 water

Melt the first 8 ingredients and mix them together. The next four are mixed in water and heated to 500C at which point they are mixed with the oil phase heated to the same temperature. During cooling and continuous stirring the perfumes, preservatives and propolis extract are added (at 30 to 40C).

Emulsifiers include a wide range of cosmetics ingredients: sorbitan esters and sorbitan polyoxyethylenated esters are extensively used. Glyceryl monostearate is also useffil in many cases, when blended with alkaline soaps.

The glycerol extract can be made in the same way as the ethanol extract, by using glycerol instead of ethanol (see section 5.7). This type of extract is not expected to be as effective as ethanol extract even if the glycerol solution is heated to 40 0C. If this extract is replaced by an EEP, the alcohol should be eliminated as much as possible and the thick paste added at 0.3 to 1 parts.

2) Liquid (alcoholic) deodorant

Generic ingredients (in parts by weight):

50-70 Ethanol*
1-3 Glycol extracts
0.1-0.5 Allantoin
1-3 Enzyme inhibitor
0.5-1 Antibacterial agent*
q.s. Antioxidant
1-3 Propolis extract (10-20% EEP)*
q.s. Perfume
q.s. to 100 water

All ingredients can be mixed at room temperature with a paddle or propeller mixer, careffilly avoiding incorporation of air.

9.13.10 Face packs Honey face pack

Honey face pack

Ingredients (in parts by weight)

Lipid phase Aqueous phase
8-15 Vegetable and/or ineral oils 0.5-2 Thickener
1-3 Beeswax 3-8 Humectants (polyalcohols)
1-3 Fatty alcohol (C16-C18) 3-8 Honey
5-10 Emulsifiers q.s. Preservatives
0.5-1 Polysiloxantes q.s. Fragrances
q.s. Antioxidants q.s. to 100 Water

Heat and mix both the ingredients of each phase separately; then combine, homogenize and stir while cooling. Add fragrances when almost cold. This face mask can be packaged and sold. Storability in a refrigerator without preservatives and antitoxidants is several weeks. With preservatives, it should last as long as any other emulsified industrial creams.

Face mask gel (monophasic gel)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

10 Honey
75 Water
5 Hydroxymethyl cellulose
2.25 Ricinus oil (40) OE
0.25 Essential oils of fragrances
2.5 Pollen, glycol extract
5 Glycerol

Dissolve the honey in 10 parts of water, then add to the rest of the water at room temperature. Rapidly stirring the honey water, add the cellulose very slowly. Stir until completely dissolved and avoid aerating the solution too much. Mix the pollen extract with the glycerol and add all the oils one after the other to the cellulose, honey and water mix. Stir for a few more minutes to ensure homogeneous distribution.

This face mask can be stored refrigerated over a long period. For regular marketing it should keep at least a few months. Glycol extract of propolis may be added too, and will increase the cleansing power of the mask.

9.13.11 Make-up

Eye colouring cake

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

4 Glyceryl stearate SE
1 Propylene glycol stearate SE
2 Stearic acid TP
1 Beeswax
1 Isopropanolamine
1 Pigments
q.s. Preservatives

Mix and heat until a homogeneous mass is formed. Before completely cool, fill into trays or small forms in which the various coloured cakes are to be sold.

Eye colouring cream

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

8 Propylene glycol
3 Cetyl alcohol
9 Beeswax
7 Isopropyl miristate
8 Glyceryl stearate and laureth-23
1.3 Cetyl lactate
2 Polyglyceryl-r oleate and PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate
9 Pigments
0.2 Calcium stearate
q.s. Preservatives
q.s. to 100 water

Melt, mix and emulsijy like other w/o creams.

Eye shadow

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Brown (1981):

1 Beeswax 4 Liquid paraffin or mineral oil
2 Lanolin 2 White petrolatum (Vaseline)
2 Paraffin wax 4 Pigment
q.s. Essential oils

This is a much simpler recipe than the preceding one and is said to work well.

Melt the ingredients in a water bath and mix well. Disperse the pigment in part of the liquid paraffin using a mortar and pestle or mill, then add it to the melted waxes. Stir very well and continue stirring during cooling but avoid aerating the mixture. Essential oils may be added for fragrance.

Eyelid make-up crayons

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

20-40 Ceresin wax
10-22 Petrolatum (Vaseline)
1-12 Lanolin (or beeswax)
10-20 Castor oil
5-23 Pigments

The ingredients are warmed and thoroughly mixed together. The oil and waxes can be varied in type and quantity to achieve the right consistency. This recipe cited by Fox (1992) has been described in a Polish patent awarded to Pruszkowskie Zaklady Materialow.

Eyebrow pencil

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

15 Lanolin (or beeswax) 20 Japan wax (or beeswax)
15 Stearic acid 10 Stearic acid
20 Carbon black (lamp black) 25 Carbon black
10 Titanium dioxide 5 Titanium dioxide
20 Talc 20 Talc
17 Sericite (mica) 14 Sericite (mica)
3 Sodium carboxyl-methyl-cellulose (as binder) 6 Hydroxyethyl cellulose as binder
24 Water 42 water

The water-soluble binder is mixed with water and added to the rest of the ingredients. The mix is heated and moulded into rods which are dried. A proper wrapping or other protective shell should be applied. As can be seen from the second, similar formulation other aqueous binders can be used and the proportion and types of wax may be changed. The base recipes (without beeswax) are from a patent of the Tombow Pencil Co., Ltd., as reported in Fox (1992).

Mascara (o/w, water and smudge proof)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Cosmetics and Toiletries (1992):

A) 1 Carnauba wax
5 Candelile wax
5 Beeswax
2 Ozocerite
5 Stearic acid
B) 54.25 Deionized water
3 Propylene glycol
3 Cetyl alcohol
3 Lanolin oil
C) 5 Dermacryl 79, Acrylates/t-octylpropenamid copolymer
D) 5 Iron oxide (7133 Purified Black Oxide)
E) 1 Propylene lycol, diazolidinyl ure, methylparaben propylparaben

Combine the ingredients listed under A and heat to 85 0C. Mix the ingredients listed under B in a separate vessel. While maintaining good agitation, without aeration, slowly add the Dermacryl 79 (C) to the mixture B. Heat to 850C. When uniform, add mixture A to mixture BC, then add the iron oxide (D) and continue mixing. Cool to 500C and add the ingredients listed under E. Cool to room temperature. The final pH should be approximately 7.8.

Black mascara (simple recipe)

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Brown (1981):

6 Beeswax 16 Triethanolamine
20 Paraffin 5 Carbon black
4 Lanolin q.s. Essential oils

Melt the waxes and mix well. Take two or three parts of the melted waxes and mix with the carbon black with a mortar and pestle or ball mill. Stir well during and after adding the premixed pigment. If necessary, mill using a pebble or ball mill. Continue stirring during cooling. Below 400C, add the essential oils, pour into shallow tins or jars and allow to set before sealing.

Contents - Previous - Next