Krill Fisheries of the World













Table of Contents


FAO
FISHERIES
TECHNICAL
PAPER
367

Food
and
Agriculture
Organization
of
the
United
Nations

Rome, 1997

by
Stephen Nicol
Krill Research Group
Australian Antarctic Division
Channel Highway
Kingston, Tasmania
Australia 7050
Fax: 03 62 323351
E-Mail: [email protected]ntdiv.gov.au

and

Yoshinari Endo
Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology
Division of Environmental Remediation
Faculty of Agriculture
Tohoku University
Sendai 981
Japan
Fax: 022 717 8734
E-mail: [email protected]

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-43
ISBN 92-5-104012-5

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

© FAO 1997

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. INTRODUCTION TO EUPHAUSIIDS OR KRILL

3. SPECIES OF KRILL CURRENTLY BEING COMMERCIALLY HARVESTED

3.1 Species with documented commercial potential

4. BIOLOGY AND FISHERIES HISTORY OF THE COMMERCIALLY HARVESTED SPECIES

4.1 Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba)

4.1.1 Distribution
4.1.2 Life history
4.1.3 The fishery
4.1.4 Management
4.1.5 Ecosystem interactions
4.1.6 Ecosystem monitoring
4.1.7 Bycatch

4.2 North Pacific krill (Euphausia pacifica)

4.2.1 Japan

4.2.1.1 Distribution
4.2.1.2 Life history
4.2.1.3 Fishery
4.2.1.4 Management
4.2.1.5 Ecosystem interactions

4.2.2 Canada

4.2.2.1 Distribution
4.2.2.2 Life history
4.2.2.3 Fishery
4.2.2.4 Management
4.2.2.5 Ecosystem interactions

4.3 Other species of krill harvested in Japanese waters

4.3.1 Thysanoessa inermis
4.3.2 Euphausia nana

4.4 Krill in the North Atlantic (Meganyctiphanes norvegica, Thysanoessa raschii and Thysanoessa inermis)

4.4.1 Meganyctiphanes norvegica
4.4.2 Thysanoessa raschii
4.4.3 Thysanoessa inermis
4.4.4 North Atlantic Fisheries

4.4.4.1 Gulf of St. Lawrence
4.4.4.2 Scotian Shelf

4.5 Other potential krill fisheries

4.5.1 Nyctiphanes australis in Australian waters

5. PRODUCTS

5.1 Current uses of krill

5.1.1 Human consumption
5.1.2 Sport fishing
5.1.3 Aquarium food
5.1.4 Aquaculture

5.2 New products

5.2.1 Biochemicals
5.2.2 Autoproteolytic precipitates
5.2.3 Krill as a food additive
5.2.4 Krill hydrolysate
5.2.5 Low-fluoride krill paste and krill protein concentrates
5.2.6 Krill as a source of chitin
5.2.7 Krill as a source of lipids
5.2.8 Enzymes

5.3 Economics
5.4 Trends and future developments

6. CONCLUSIONS

7. ESSENTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

8. LITERATURE CITED

TABLES

FIGURES

PHOTOGRAPHS

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