Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


Appendix I - Basic rules for hygiene, sanitation and safety
Appendix II - Checklist of entrepreneurial characteristics
Appendix III - Feasibility study checklist
Appendix IV - Institutions that support small scale food processing

Appendix I - Basic rules for hygiene, sanitation and safety

Facilities Required in the Processing Room

· A changing room and separate area for clothing and shoes that are not worn for work, which may be combined.

· Separate hand-washing facilities in a convenient place for staff to use, with soap, clean water, nail brushes and clean towels.

· Toilets, which should be separated from the processing room by two doors or located in a nearby building.

· First aid materials in an accessible place.

· Protective clothing, including gloves and shoes if appropriate, should be provided and laundered regularly.

· Cleaning chemicals should be stored away from the processing room.

Ways of working

· Clean all areas, including toilets, washing facilities and storerooms every day.

· Use the correct chemicals for cleaning equipment, make sure there are no food residues and rinse the equipment with clean water.

· Make sure all cleaning cloths are washed and boiled each day. Do not hang them on equipment, product or window ledges to dry.

· Clean equipment 'as you go' and do not leave dirty equipment until the end of the day before cleaning it.

· Keep the area around the processing room clean and tidy, keep grass cut short.

· Do not allow wastes to accumulate but remove them as they are produced. Clean up any spillages as they occur. Wastes should be collected in special bags or bins that are not used for anything else and taken to be dumped or burned away from the processing site.

· All animals should be prevented from entering the site and especially from entering the processing area or storerooms.

· Visitors should not enter the processing room without protective clothing and under supervision.

· Wear protective clothing which does not have loose ends that could get caught in machinery. Make sure that it is kept clean.

· Wear a hat that completely covers the hair, do not comb your hair in a processing room or storeroom.

· Do not wear wristwatches or jewellery as these are a source of infection and could get caught in machinery.

· Cover all cuts, bums, sores and abrasions with a clean, waterproof dressing.

· Do not smoke, use chewing gum, snuff or betel nuts in any room where there is open food because bacteria can be transferred from the mouth to the food.

· Do not spit in any part of a processing room or storeroom.

· Wash hands and wrists thoroughly with soap after

- entering the processing room,
- using the toilet,
- between handling raw and cooked food
- eating, smoking, coughing, blowing your nose or combing your hair
- handling waste food, rubbish or cleaning chemicals.

· Dry them on a clean towel before handling food again.

· Do not use hand-washing facilities for food preparation.

· Keep finger nails cut short.

· Do not wear perfume or nail varnish as these can contaminate products.

· Do not lick fingers (e.g. when picking up sheets of wrapping paper).

· Do not handle any food if you have sores, boils, septic spots, a bad cold, sore throat or a stomach upset. Report any of these to the manager and do alternative work.

· Do not cough or sneeze over food.

· Keep food covered wherever possible.

· Keep all food, tools and equipment off the floor.

· Keep ingredients in sealed containers.

· Do not use unsuitable, broken or dirty equipment.

· Report any signs of insects, rodents or birds to the manager.

Safe working

· Do not leave metal stirrers in boiling liquids.
· Do not leave handles of boiling pans over the heat source.
· Carry knives with the point down, do not try to catch falling knives.
· Cut fruits and vegetables on a board and not using the other hand.
· Do not use a damp cloth to carry hot pans.
· Wear shoes that protect your feet from falling or hot objects.
· Cover burning cooking oil with a damp cloth, never use water to put out flames.
· Do not use gas burners in direct sunlight as the flames can become invisible.
· Do not carry large containers of hot food on your own, get assistance.
· Do not put cleaning fluids into old food containers.

(Adapted from: The Food Hygiene Handbook, by R.A Sprenger)

Appendix II - Checklist of entrepreneurial characteristics

Ask your self the questions below to see whether you are the sort of person that could set up and operate a food business.




I think that a routine pattern of life with regular working hours suits me best




I have always thought and acted by myself




Some days I seem to achieve nothing




It is not good to start something unless you are going to finish it




I am much happier when I do not have to rely on other people




I often feel that I am the victim of events that I can not control




In any bad situation I always get something good from it




It is very important to me that people recognise my success




I am not too ambitious so that I can avoid being disappointed




I am prepared to take risks only after I have thought about all of the possible consequences




When I talk to a senior person I do not usually say what I mean




People often tell me that I am good at understanding their point of view




The amount of money that I earn is more important than how hard I work to earn it




I usually work later than I planned




Yes to questions 2, 4, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14
No to questions 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13

Score 5 points for every correct answer and 0 points for every incorrect answer. The higher the score the more likely you will be a successful entrepreneur, but a score above 35 is a good sign.

(From: Starting a Small Food Processing Enterprise, by Fellows, Franco and Rios, IT Publications)

Appendix III - Feasibility study checklist


Name of Business

Location (accessibility to raw materials, labour and markets)

Description of products and benefits


Market Feasibility

Target market

Volume and value of unsatisfied demand

Present supply and competition

How will the demand be met?

Price, packaging, distribution, promotion,

Projected sales, terms of business, organisation


Technical Feasibility

The manufacturing process

Raw materials required and their sources

Labour and skills required

Equipment and utilities required

Production schedule (for one year plus optimum production volume)

Production costs


Financial Feasibility

Business costs

Sales income

Cash flow projection

Profit and loss projection

Financing needs and sources


Major Assumptions


Government policy (subsidies, incentives and taxation)


Risks and Benefits


Will the Business be Successful?

an overall assessment of feasibility

Appendix IV - Institutions that support small scale food processing


Botswana. Botswana Technology Centre (BTC), PO Bag 0082, Gaborone.

Ethiopia. Food Research and Development Centre, Ethiopian Food Corporation, PO Box 5688, Addis Ababa.

Gabon. Institute de Recherche Technologique, BP 14070, Libreville-Akebe.

Ghana. Technology Consultancy Centre (TCC), University of Science and Technology, Kumasi.

Ghana. Ghana Regional Appropriate Technology Industrial Service (GRATIS), PO Box 151, Tema.

Kenya. Federation of Kenyan Employers (FKE), PO Box 48311, Nairobi.

Kenya. Approtech, PO Box 10973, Nairobi.

Kenya. Technoserve, PO Box 14821, Nairobi.

Malawi. TCC/PHN Women in Development Project, PMB 3, Namadzi.

Malawi. Garry Whitby Associates, PO Box 1836, Lilongwe.

Malawi. Malawi Enterprise Development Institute (MEDI), PMB 2, Mpnela.

Malawi. Small Enterprise Development Organisation of Malawi (SEDOM), PO Box 525, Blantyre.

Namibia. Development Centre for Research Information Action in Africa (CRIAA), 22 Johan Albrecht Street, Windhoek.

Nigeria. Dept. Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri.

Nigeria. Dept. Food Technology, University of Agriculture, PMB 2373, Makurdi.

Nigeria. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibaban.

Republic of South Africa. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001.

Sudan. Food Processing Research Centre, Khartoum.

Tanzania. Small Industries Development Organisation (SIDO), PO Box 2476, Dar-es-Salaam.

Tanzania. National Food Control Commission, PO Box 7601, Dar-es-Salaam.

Tanzania. Dept. Food Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro.

The Gambia. Gambia Food and Nutrition Association (GAFNA), PO Box 111, Banjul.

Uganda. Uganda Manufacturers Association, PO Box 6966, Kampala.

Uganda. Uganda Small Scale Industries Association (USSIA), PO Box 2344, Mbale.

Uganda. National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), PO Box??, Kampala.

Uganda. Dept. Food Sciences and Technology, Makerere University, PO Box 7062, Kampala.

Uganda. Nile Vocational Institute, PO Box 1829, Jinja.

Zimbabwe. Ranche House College, PO Box 1880, Harare.


Bangladesh. Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), 66 Mohakhali Commercial Area, Dhaka 12,

India. Academy of Development Science (ADS) Kashele, Karjat Taluka, Raigad District, Maharashtra 410201,

India. All India Food Preservers Association (AIFPA), 206 Aurobindo Place, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016,

India. Small Industries Research Institute (SIRI), PO Box 2106, New Delhi 110007,

India. Action for Food Production (AFPRO), C52, ND South Extension II, New Delhi 16,

India. Central Food Technology Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore 570 013, Maharashtra State,

India. Dept. Food Science and Technology, JN Agricultural University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482004,

India. Agricultural and Processed Foods Export Development Authority (APEDA), 6 Bhikaji Cama Place, New Delhi 66,

India. Society for Development of Appropriate Technology (SOTEC), 182 Civil Lines, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh,

Indonesia. Bandung Institute of Technology, PO Box 276, Bandung,

Nepal. Centre for Rural Technology, PO Box 3628, Kathmandu,

Sri Lanka. National Packaging Centre, Lower Chatham Street, Colombo 1,

Sri Lanka. Mahaweli Enterprise Development Programme, Unity Plaza, Colombo 4,

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Standards Institute (SLSI), 53 Dharmapala Mawatha, Colombo 3,

Sri Lanka. Industrial Development Board (IDB), 615 Galle Road, Moratuwa,

Sri Lanka. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CISIR), PO Box 787, Colombo 7,

Thailand. Food Technology Laboratory and Institute of Food Research and Product Development, Kasatsaart University, both at 196 Phahonyothin Road, Bangkok 10900,

West Indies and South Pacific

Antigua, Chemistry and Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Lands, Dunbars, West Indies.

Papua New Guinea. Appropriate Technology Development Institute, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, PO Box 793, Lae,


Austria. United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), PO Box 300, A-1400 Vienna.

Denmark. Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA), 2 Asiatisk Plads, DK-1448, Copenhagen.

France. Groupe de Recherche et d'Echanges Technologiques (GRET), and Technologie et Partenariat en Agroalimentaire (TPA), 213 rue Lafayette, Paris 75010.

Finland. Finnish International Development Agency (FINNIDA), Katajanokanlaituri 3, FIN-00160, Helsinki.

Germany. Fordergesellschaft fur angepasste Techniken in der Dritten Welt mbH (FAKT), Stephan-Blattmannstrasse 11, D-78120, Furtwangen.

Germany. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE/GTZ), Postfach 5180, D-6236 Eschborn 1.

Italy. United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100, Rome.

Switzerland. International Labour Office (ILO), Employment and Technology Branch, CH-1211 Geneva.

Switzerland. Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management (SKAT), Vadianstrasse 42, CH-9000, St. Gallen.

The Netherlands. Technology Transfer for Development (TOOL), Sarphatistraat 650, 1018 AV Amsterdam.

The Netherlands. International Agricultural Centre (IAC), 11 Lawickse Allee, 6701 AN Wageningen.

The Netherlands. KIT Royal Tropical Institute, Mauritskade 63, 1092 AD Amsterdam.

The Netherlands. Agromisa, PO Box 41, 6700 AA Wageningen.

The Netherlands. Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU (CTA), Postbus 380, 6700 AJ, Wageningen.

UK. Midway Technology Ltd., St Oswalds Barn, Clifford, Hay on Wye, Herefordshire.

UK. Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), Myson House, Railway Terrace, Rugby, CV21 3HT, (ITDG also has offices in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Peru).

UK. Natural Resources Institute (NRI), Central Avenue, Chatham, Kent, ME4 4TB.

Latin America

Costa Rica. Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnologías de Alimentos, Universidad de Costa Rica, CP 2060.

Guatemala. Centro de Estudios Mesoamericanos sobre Tecnologías Apropiadas (CEMAT), Apartado Postal 1160, 28 Avienda 18-80, Zona 10-01010, Ciudad de Guatemala.

Guatemala. Institute de Nutrition de Centro America y Panama (INCAP), Calzada Roosevelt Zona II, Partado Postal 1188, Ciudad de Guatemala.

North America

Canada. International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Box 8500, Ottawa, K1G 3H9.

USA. Appropriate Technology International (ATI), 1828 L Street NW., Washington DC 20036.

USA. Post-Harvest Institute for Perishables Information Centre, University of Idaho Library, Moscow, Idaho 83843.

USA. United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017.

USA. Technoserve, 49 Day Street, Norwalk, Connecticut 06854.

USA. Compatible Technology Inc., 5835 Lyndale Avenue S., Minneapolis MN 55419.

NB: UN organisations can be contacted via United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) offices in most countries and bilateral donors can be contacted via Embassies or High Commissions of the countries concerned.

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page