ARC (1980). The Nutrient Requirements of Farm Livestock. Farnham Royal: Agricultural Research Council, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
Aboud, A.A.O., Owen, E., Reed, J.D. & McAllan, A.B. (1990). Feeding sorghum stover to Ethiopian sheep: effect of stover variety and amount offered on growth, intake and selection Animal Production 50, 593.
Ahn, J.H. (1990). Quality assessment of tropical browse legumes: tannin content and nitrogen degradability. PhD Thesis, University of Queensland.
Akin, D.E & Rigsby, L.L. (1985). Influence of phenolic acids on rumen fungi. Agronomy Journal 77, 180–182.
Akin, D.E., Gordon, G.L.R. & Hogan, J.P. (1983). Rumen bacterial and fungal degradation of Digetarian pentzii grown with or without sulphur. Applied Environmental Microbiology 46, 738–748.
An, B.X., Khang, D.N., Hieu, L.T. & Preston, T.R. (1994). Molasses-urea blocks for growing and milking cattle fed forage. In Improving Animal Production Systems Based on Local Feed Resources, Proceedings of the 7th AAAP Animal Science Congress, Bali, Indonesia, 11–16 July 1994. II: pp.55–66 [Andi Djajonegara and Anggraini Sukmavate, editors]. Indonesia: Ikatan Sarjana Ilmu-ilmu Peternakan.
Arreaza, C., Choo, B,S. & Leng, R.A. (1994). University of New England, (unpublished observations).
Austin, P.J., Suchar, L.A., Robbins, C.T. & Hagerman, A.E. (1989). Tanninbinding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in the saliva of sheep and cattle. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15, 1335–1339.
Ball, F.M. & Leng, R.A. (1994). University of New England, unpublished observations.
Bamualim, A., Stachiw, S., Jones, R.J. & Murray, R.M. (1984). The effect of fresh Leucaena leucocephala to post-ruminal digestible protein for sheep fed tropical pasture hay supplemented with urea and minerals. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 15, 259–262.
Barry, T.M. (1983). The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pendunculatus for sheep. 3. Rates of body and wool growth. British Journal of Nutrition 54, 211–217.
Barry, T.N. & Manley, T.R. (1984). The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 2. Qualitative digestion of carbohydrates and proteins. British Journal of Nutrition 51, 493–504
Beever, D.E. & Siddons, R.C. (1986). Digestion and metabolism in the grazing ruminant. In: Control of Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants, Proceedings of an International Symposium held in Banff, Canada, 10–14th September, 1984, pp. 479–497 [L.P.Milligan, W.L. Grovum and A. Dobson, editors]. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Beever, D.E. & Siddons, R.C. (1986). Digestion and metabolism in the grazing ruminant. In: Control of Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants, Proceedings of an International Symposium held in Banff, Canada, 10–14th September, 1984, pp. 479–497 [L.P.Milligan, W.L. Grovum and A. Dobson, editors]. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Benavides, J.E. (1994). In: Arborles y Arbustos Forrajeros en América Central, Informe técnico CATIE No 236, [Jorge Evelio Benavides, editor]. Turrialba, Costa Rica: CATIE.
Bird, S.H. & Leng, R.A. (1978). The effects of defaunation of the rumen on the growth of cattle on low-protein high-energy diets. British Journal of Nutrition 40, 163–167.
Bird, S.H., Hill, M.K. & Leng, R.A. (1979). The effects of defaunation of the rumen on the growth of lambs on low-protein high-energy diets. British Journal of Nutrition 42, 81–87.
Boniface, A.N., Murray, R.M. & Hogan, J.P. (1986). Optimum level of ammonia in the rumen liquor of cattle fed tropical pasture hay. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 16, 151–154.
Boodoo, A.A., Ramjee, R., Hulman, B., Dolberg, F. & Rowe, J.B. (1988). The effect of supplements of cowfeed and cottonseed cake on milk production in Mauritian villages. In: Milk and Beef Production in Mauritius, Proceedings of a seminar organized by The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Natural Resources and The United Nations Development Programme. pp. 7–15 [A.A.Boodoo, L.K. Ma Poon, B. Rajkomar, J.B. Rowe, F. Dolberg and B. Hulman, editors]. Reduit, Mauritius.
Borgstrom, G. (1980). The need for appropriate animal production systems for the tropics. In: Animal Production Systems for the Tropics. Stockholm: IFS.
Bray, A.C. & Till, A.R. (1975). Metabolism of sulphur in the gastro-intestinal tract. In: Digestion and Metabolism in the Ruminant, pp. 243–260 [I.W. McDonald and A.C.I. Warner, editors] Armidale, NSW: University of New England Publishing Unit.
Broderick, G.A., Wallace, R.J. & McKain, N. (1988). Uptake of small neutral peptides by mixed rumen micro-organisms in vitro. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 42, 109–118.
Broderick, G.A. (1995). Desirable characteristics of forage legumes for improving protein utilization in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 73, 2760–2773.
Bryant, M.P. (1973). Nutritional requirements of the predominant rumen celluloytic bacteria. Federation Proceedings 32, 1809–1813.
Chen, C.P., Halim, R.A. & Chin, F.Y. (1992). Fodder trees and fodder shrubs in range and farming systems of the Asian and Pacific region. In: Legume Trees and Other Fodder Trees as Protein Sources for Livestock, Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation held at the Maylaysian Agricultural Research and development Institute in Kuala Lumpur, Maylaysia, on 14–18th October, 1991. pp. 11–22. [A. Speedy and P-L. Pugliese, editors]. FAO Publication No. 102.
Chen, X.B. & Gomes, M.J. (1992). Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivative-an overview of the technical details. Occasional Publication, International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen
Chesson, A., Stewart, C.S. & Wallace, R.J. (1982). Influence of plant phenolic acids on growth and cellulolytic activity of rumen bacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology 44, 597–603.
Clatworthy, J.N. & Holland, D.G.E. (1979). Effects of legume reinforcement of veldt on the performance of beef steers. Proceedings of the Grassland Society of South Africa 14, 111–114.
Cunningham, G.M., Mulham, W.E., Milthorpe, P.L. & Leigh, J.H. (1981). Plants of Western New South Wales. Sydney: NSW Government Printing Office.
Czerkawski, J.W. (1985). An Introduction to Rumen Studies. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Dalzell, S. (1996). Sampling of condensed tannin analysis of Leucaena foliage. Leucnet News 2, 5.
Dalziel, J.M. (1948). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. London: Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations.
Dixon, R. (1995). Collation of recent information on productivity and use of supplements for breeders in the marginal and harsh regions of northern Australia. Report prepared for Meat Research Committee Project DAQ 098. Swan's Lagoon Research Station, Millaroo, Queensland 4807: Department of Primary Industries.
Dolberg, F. & Finlayson, P. (1995). Treated straw for beef production in China. World Animal Review 82, 14–24.
Fenn, P.D. & Leng, R.A. (1989). Wool growth and sulphur amino acid entry rate in sheep fed roughage based diets supplemented with bentonite and sulphur amino acids. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 40, 889–896.
Goering, H.K. & Waldo, D.R. (1974). Processing effects on protein utilization by ruminants. In: Proceedings of the 1974 Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers. Ithica, New York: Cornell University Press.
Goodchild, A.V. & McMeniman, N.P. (1994). Intake and digestibility of low quality roughages when supplemented with leguminous browse. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 122, 151–160.
Gregg, K., Cooper, C.L. Schafer, J., Sharpe, H., Beard, C.E., Allen, G. & Xu, J. (1994). Detoxification of the plant toxin fluoroacetate by a genetically modified rumen bacterium. Bio/Technology 12(13), 1361–1365.
Guo Tinshuang & Yang Zhenhai (1994). Beef fattening with treated straw in China. In Sustainable Animal Production and the Environment: Proceedings of the 7th AAAP Animal Science Congress, Bali, Indonesia, 11–16 July 1994. [Andi Djajanegara and Anggraini Sukmawate, editors]. Indonesia: Ikatan Sarjana Ilmu-ilmu Peternakan.
Gutteridge, R.C. & Shelton, H.M. (1994). Forage Legumes in Tropical Agriculture Oxford: CAB International.
Hendratno, C., Nolan, J.V. & Leng, R.A. (1991). The importance of ureamolasses multinutrient blocks for ruminant production in Indonesia. In Isotope and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health, pp. 157–170. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
Hennessy, D.W. (1984). The role of protein in improving production of cattle grazing native pastures in sub-tropical New South Wales. PhD Thesis, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
Hespell, R.B.& Bryant, M.P. (1979). Efficiency of rumen microbial growth: influence of some theoretical and experimental factors on YATP. Journal of Animal Science 49, 1640–1659.
Holroyd, R.G., Allen, P.J. & O'Rourke, P.K. (1977). Effect of pasture type and supplementary feeding on the reproductive performance of cattle in the dry tropics of north Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 17, 197–206.
Jackson, M.G. (1981). A new livestock development strategy for India. World Animal Review 37, 2–8.
Jones, R.J. & Lowry, J.B. (1984). Australian goats detoxify the goitrogen 3-hydroxy4(1H)pyridone (DHP) after rumen infusion from an Indonesian goat. Experientia 40, 1435–2436.
Jones, R.J. & Megarrity, R.G. (1986). Successful transfer of DHP-degrading bacteria from Hawaiian goats to Australian ruminants to overcome the toxicity of Leucaena. Australian Veterinary Journal 63, 259–262.
Joshi, U.N., Arora, S.K., Parody, R.S., Jutasara, D.S. & Rana, D.S. (1983). Chemical composition of Prosopis leaves to slow the process of anti-nutritional factors responsible for low in vitro dry matter digestibility. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 3, 20–21.
Jones, R.M. (1994). The role of Leucaena in improving the productivity of grazing cattle. In Forgage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture, pp. 232–244 [R.C. gutteridge and H.M.Shelton, editors]. Wallingford, Oxford: CAB International.
Kandylis, K. (1984). The role of sulphur in ruminant nutrition. A review. Livestock Production Science 11, 611–624
Kanjanapruthipong, J. & Leng, R.A. (1995). University of New England (unpublished observations).
Kass, D.L. (1994). Erythrina species-pantropical multipurpose tree legumes. In Forgage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture, pp. 84–96 [R.C.Gutteridge and H.M. Shelton, editors]. Wallingford, Oxford: CAB International.
Kellaway, R.C. & Leibholz, J. (1981). Effects of nitrogen supplements on intake and utilization of low quality forages. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia- 1981, pp. 66–73 [D.J. Farrell, editor]. Armidale, NSW: University of New England Publishing Unit.
Kerridge, P.C., Edwards, D.G. & Sale, P.W.G. (1986). Soil fertility constraints— amelioration and plant adaptation. In: Forges in Southeast Asian and South Pacific Agriculture ACIAR Proceedings 12, 179–187.
Kumar, R.A. & Singh, M. (1984). Tannins: their adverse role in ruminant nutrition. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 32(3), 447–453.
Kumar, R.A. (1983). Chemical and biochemical nature of fodder tree leaf tannin. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 31, 1364–1366.
Le Hourou, H.N. (1980). Browse in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: ILCA.
Leng, R.A, Jessop, N & Kanjanapruthipong, J. (1993). Control of feed intake and the efficiency of utilization of feed by ruminants. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, p. 70–88 [D.J. Farrell, editor]. Armidale, NSW: University of New England Publishing Unit.
Leng, R.A. & Kunju, P.J.G. (1988). A new approach on protein nutrition for ruminants. Report published by the National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India.
Leng, R.A. & Preston, T.R. (1976). Sugar cane for cattle production: present constraints, perspectives and research priorities. Tropical Animal Production 1, 1–22.
Leng, R.A., Bird, S.H., Klieve, A., Choo, B.S., Ball, F.M., Asefa, G., Brumby, P., Mudgal, V.D., Chaudry, U.B., Suharyano & Hendratno, N. (1992). The potential for tree forage supplements to manipulate rumen protozoa to enhance protein to energy ratios in ruminants fed on poor quality forages. In: Legume Trees and Other Fodder Trees as Protein Sources for Livestock, FOA Animal Production and Health Paper 102. pp. 177–191 Rome: FAO.
Leng, R.A., Davis, J. & Hill, M.K. (1983). An assay for bypass protein. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition—1983, pp. 192–194. [D.J. Farrell and Prahn Vohra, editors]. Armidale, NSW: University of New England Publishing Unit.
Leng, R.A., Kempton, T.J. & Nolan, J.V. (1977). Non-protein nitrogen and bypass proteins in ruminant diets. Australian Meat Research Council Review 33, 1–21.
Leng, R.A. (1981). Modification of rumen fermentation. In: Nutritional Limits to Animal Production from Pastures, Proceedings of an International Symposium held at St. Lucia, Queensland, 24–28th August 1981, pp. 427–453 [J.B. Hacker, editor]. Farnham Royal: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
Leng, R.A. (1989). Reducing methane emissions from ruminants in developing countries by using nutritional supplements. A Report prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S.A.
Leng, R.A. (1990). Factors affecting the utilisation of ‘poor quality’ forages by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nutrition Research Reviews 3, 277– 303.
Leng, R.A. (1991). Improving ruminant production and reducing methane emissions by strategic supplementation. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C.: EPA.
Leng, R.A. (1995). Environmental issues and their potential effects on animal agriculturetowards 2005. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, p. 149–159 [J.B.Rowe and J.V. Nolan, editors]. Armidale, NSW: University of New England Publishing Unit.
Lewis, M., Klopfenstein, T., Britton, R. & Winowiski, T. (1988). Nonenzymatic browning with sulphite liquor reduces rumen degradation of soybean meal. University of Nebraska Agricultural Station Report 48–51.
Lindsay, J.A. & Loxton, I.D. (1981). Supplementation of tropical forage diets with protected proteins. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia—1981, pp. 1A (abstract) [D.J. Farrell, editor]. Armidale, NSW: University of New England Publishing Unit.
Lindsay, J.A., Mason, G.W.J. & Toleman, M.A. (1982). Supplementation of pregnant cows with protected proteins when fed tropical forage diets. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 14, 67–78.
Linzell, J.L. (1967). The effect of infusions of glucose, acetate and amino acids on hourly milk yield in fed, fasted and insulin-treated goats. Journal of Physiology (London) 190, 347–357.
Maeng, W.J., Chang, M.B. & Yun, H.S. (1989). Dilution rates on the efficiency of rumen microbial growth in continuous culture. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 2(3), 477–480.
Maeng,W.J., van Nevel C.J., Baldwin, R.L. & Morris, J.G. (1976). Rumen microbial growth rates and yields: effects of amino acids and protein. Journal of Dairy Science 59(1), 68–79.
Mangan, J.L. (1988). Nutritional effects of tannins in animal feeds. Nutrition Research Reviews 1, 209–231.
Mannetje, L. (1984). Nutritive value of tropical and subtropical pastures, with special reference to protein and energy deficiency in relation to animal production. In: Herbivore Nutrition in the Subtropics and Tropics, Proceedings of an International Symposium held in Pretoria, South Africa, 5–9th April, 1983, pp. 51–66 [F.M.C. Gilchrist and R.I. Mackie, editors]. Craighall, South Africa: Science Press.
Marks, S.M. & Yetley, M.J. (1987). Global food demand patterns over changing levels of economic development. USDA, ERS, Agriculture and Trade Analysis Division (vi) 42pp.
Marten, G.C. & Ehle, F.R. (1984). Influence of quality variation in four legume species on weight gains of grazing heifers. Agronomy Abstracts p.159.
Mastika, M. & Cumming, R.B. (1994). Effect of previous experience and environmental variations on the performance and pattern of feed intake of choice fed and complete fed broilers. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, p. 260–282 [D.J. Farrell, editor]. Armidale, NSW: University of New England Publishing Unit.
McLennan, S.R., Poppi, D.P & Gulbransen, B. (1995). Supplementation to increase growth rates of cattle in the tropics—protein or energy. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, p. 89–96 [J.B. Rowe and J.V. Nolan, editors]. Armidale, NSW: University of New England Publishing Unit.
McLeod, M.N. (1974). Plant tannins—their role in forage quality. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 44(11), 803–815.
Mehansho, H., Butler, L.G. & Carlson, D.M. (1987). Dietary tannins and salivary proline-rich proteins: interactions, induction, and defense mechanisms. Annual Review of Nutrition 7, 423–440.
Merry, R.J., & McAllan, A.B. (1983). A comparison of the chemical composition of mixed bacteria harvested from the liquid and solid fractions of rumen digesta. British Journal of Nutrition 50, 701–709.
Milford, R. (1967). Nutritive values and chemical composition of seven tropical legumes and lucerne grown in subtropical south-eastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 7, 540–545.
Minson, D.J. (1982). Effects of chemical and physical composition of herbage upon intake. In: Nutritional Limits to Animal Production from Pastures, Proceedings of an International Symposium held at St. Lucia, Queensland, 24–28th August 1981, pp. 167–182 [J.B. Hacker, editor]. Farnham Royal: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
NDDB. (1989). Annual Report of the National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India.
Ndlovu, L.R. & Buchanan-Smith, J.G. (1985). Utilization of poor quality roughages by sheep: effects of alfalfa supplementation on ruminal parameters, fibre digestion and rate of passage from the rumen. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 65, 693–703.
Nolan, J.V. & Leng, R.A. (1989). Manipulation of the rumen to increase ruminant production. Proceedings of the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on Development of Feeding Strategies for Improving Productivity of Ruminant Livestock in Developing Countries pp. 149–166. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, Panel Proceedings Series.
Nolan, J.V., Lee, G.J., Hennessy, D.W. & Leng, R.A. (1986). Metabolic responses to supplementation in growing ruminants consuming low digestibility fibrous diets. In Nuclear Techniques in Studies of Animal Production and Health. pp. 439–455. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
Nolan, J.V. (1975). Quantitative models of nitrogen metabolism in sheep. In Digestion and Metabolism in the Ruminant, pp. 416–431 [I.W. McDonald and A.C.I. Warner, editors]. Armidale, NSW: University of New England Publishing Unit.
Norton, B.W. (1994a). The nutritive value of tree legumes. In Forgage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture, pp. 177–191 [R.C.Gutteridge and H.M. Shelton, editors]. Wallingford, Oxford: CAB International.
Norton, B.W. (1994b). Tree legumes as dietary supplements for ruminants. In Forgage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture, pp. 192–201 [R.C.Gutteridge and H.M.Shelton, editors]. Wallingford, Oxford: CAB International.
Norton, B.W. (1994c). Anti-nutritive and toxic factors in forage tree legumes. In Forgage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture, pp. 202–215 [R.C.Gutteridge and H.M.Shelton, editors]. Wallingford, Oxford: CAB International.
Olafsson, B.L. & Gudmundsson, O. (1990). Utilization of fisheries byproducts as supplements fed with roughages to ruminants. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Research Co-ordination Meeting on Development of feeding strategies for improving ruminant productivity in areas of fluctuating nutrient supply through the use of nuclear and related techniques. October, 1990. Thailand: FAO/IAEA.
Palmer, B. & Schlink, A.C. (1992). The effect of drying on the intake and rate of digestion of the shrub legume Calliandra calothyrsus. Tropical Grasslands 26, 89–93.
Palmer, B., Macqueen, D.J. & Bray, R.A.C. (1995). Opportunities and limitations in Calliandra. In: Leucaena—Opportunities and Limitations, [H.M. Shelton, C.M. Piggin and J.L. Brewbaker, editors]. ACIAR Proceedings 57, 179–187.
Perdok, H.B. & Leng, R.A. (1990). Effect of supplementation with protein meal on the growth of cattle given a basal diet of untreated or ammoniated rice straw. Asian-Australian Journal of Agricultural Science 3, 269–279.
Perdok, H.B., Leng, R.A., Bird, S.H., Habib, G. & van Houtert, M. (1988). Improving livestock production from straw-based diets. In: Increasing Small Ruminant Productivity in Semi-arid Areas, pp. 81–91 [E.F. Thomson and F.S. Thomson, editors]. Syria: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas.
Preston, T.R. & Leng, R.A. (1986). Matching Ruminant Production Systems with Available Resources in the Tropics and Subtropics, Armidale: Penambul Books.
Preston, T.R., Carcano, C., Alvarez, F.J. & Guttierez D.G. (1976). Rice polishings as a supplement in a sugar cane diet: effect of level of rice polishings and processing the sugar cane by derinding or chopping. Tropical Animal Production 1, 150–163.
Pritchard, D.A., Stocks, D., O'Sullivan, B., Martin, P., Hurwood, I.S. & O'Rourke, P. (1988). The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on wool growth and liveweight of sheep consuming mulga (Acacia aneura) diet. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 17, 290–294.
Quirk, M.F., Paton, C.J. & Bushell, J.J. (1990). Increasing the amount of Leucaena on offer gives faster growth rates of grazing cattle in South East Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 30, 51–54.
Reed, J.D., Horvath, P.J., Allen, M.S. & van Soest, P.J. (1985). Gravimetric determination of soluble phenolics including tannins from leaves by precipitation with trivalent ytterbium. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 36, 255–61.
Robertson, B.M. (1988). The nutritive value of five browse legumes fed as supplements to goats offered a basal rice straw diet. MAgSc Thesis, University of Queensland.
Rojas, H. & Benavides, J. (1994). Producción de leche de cabras alimentadas con pasto y suplementadas con altos nivels de Morera (Morus sp.). In: Arborles y Arbustos Forrajeros en América Central, Informe técnico CATIE No 236, pp. 305– 320 [Jorge Evelio Benavides, editor]. Turrialba, Costa Rica: CATIE.
Sanchez, M. (1996). Estudio actual y perspectivas de los pequeños rumiantes en América Tropical. Xth Seminario Cientifico de la Estación Experimental de Pasto de Forrajes Indio Hatuey. Memorias, Central España Republicana. In press.
Sansoucy, R. (1995). New developments in the manufacture and utilization of multinutrient blocks. World Animal Review 82(1), 78–83.
Satter, L.D. & Slyter, L.L. (1974). Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. British Journal of Nutrition 32, 199–208
Sehgal, J.P. (1984). Tannin content of different top feed leaves and utilization of tannin rich pala (Ziziphus nummularia) leaves with concentrates for growing lambs. Indian Journal of Animal Science 54, 126–128.
Seijas, J., Arrendondo, B., Torrealba, H. & Combellas, J. (1994). Influence of Gliricidia sepium, multinutritional blocks and fish meal on liveweight gain and rumen fermentation of growing cattle in grazing conditions. Livestock Research for Rural Development 6(1), 90–100.
Shelton, H.M., Piggin, C.M. & Brewbaker, J.L. (1995). Leucaena— Opportunities and Limitations. Canberra: ACIAR Proceedings 57.
Smith R.H. & McAllen A.B. (1971). Nucleic acid metabolism in the ruminant. 3. Amounts of nucleic acids and total and ammonia nitrogen in digesta from the rumen, duodenum and ileum of calves. British Journal of Nutrition 25, 181–190.
Stephenson, R.G.A., Edwards, J.C. & Hopkins, P.S. (1987). The use of urea to improve milk yield and lamb survival of merinos in dry tropical environments. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 32, 497–509.
Stobbs, T.H. (1966). Beef production from Uganda pastures containing Stylosanthes gracilis and Centrosoma pubescens. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Grasslands Congress, pp. 939–942. Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Stobbs, T.H. (1969). Animal production from Hyparrhenia grassland oversown with Stylosanthes guyanensis. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 35, 128– 134.
Thompson, D.J. (1977). The role of legumes in improving the quality of forage diets. In: Proceedings of an International Meeting of Animal Production from Temperate Grasslands, pp. 131–135. Dublin.
Ulyatt, M.J. (1980) The feeding value of temperate pastures. In: Grazing Animals, pp. 125–141 [F.H.W. Morley, editor] Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Vaithiyonathan, S. & Singh, M. (1989). Seasonal changes in tannin content in some top feeds in arid regions. Indian Journal of Animal Science 59(12), 1345– 1367.
Vargas, J.E. & Riviera, J.G. (1994). Efecto de suplementación con bloque nultiuntritional sobre el comportamiento productivo y reporductivo en ovejas de pelo africans. In: Bloques Multinutricionales, Proceedings of an International Conference hel in Guanare, Venezuela, 29–31st Julu, 1994, pp. 91–96.
Viera, D.M., Ivan, M. & Jul, P.Y. (1983). Rumen ciliate protozoa: effects on digestion in the stomach of sheep. Journal of Dairy Science 66, 1015–1022.
Waghorn, G.C. & Shelton, I.D. (1995). Effect of condensed tannins in Lotus pedunculatus on the nutritive value of rye grass Lolium perenne fed to sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science 125, 291–297.
Wahyuni, S., Yulianti, E.S., Komara, W., Yates, N.G., Obst, J.M. & Lowry, J.B. (1982). The performance of ongole cattle offered either grass, sun-dried Leucaena leucocephala or varying proportions of each. Tropical Animal Production 7, 275–283.
Walker, B. (1987). Animal production from pasture and forages in the tropics. In: Proceedings of the 4th Animal Science Congress of the Asian Australiasian Association of Animal Production Societies, Hamilton, New Zealand, pp. 5–8 [T.F. Reardon, J.L. Adam, A.G. Campbell and R.M.W. Sumner, editors] ISBN 0-47300426–7.
Webster, A.J.F. (1989). Bioenergetics, bioengineering and growth. Animal Production 48, 249–269.
Wheeler, R.A., Norton, B.W. & Shelton, H.M. (1995). Condensed tannins in Leucaena species and hybrids and implications for nutritive value. In: Leucaena—Opportunities and Limitations, Proceedings of a workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, 24–29th January, 1994, pp. 112–118 [H.M. Shelton, C.M. Piggin and J.L. Brewbaker, editors] Canberra: ICIAR.
Winks, L., Laing, A.R. & Stokoe, J. (1972). Level of urea for grazing yearling cattle during the dry season in tropical Queensland. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal production 9, 258–261.
Winks,L., Laing, A.R., O'Rourke, P.K. & Wright, G.S. (1979). Factors affecting response to urea—molasses supplements by yearling cattle in tropical Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 19, 522–529.
van Eys, J.E., Mathius, I.W., Pongsapan, P. & Johnson, W.L. (1986). Foliage of the tree legumes glyricidia, leucaena and sesbania as a supplement to napier grass for growing goats. Journal of Agricultural Science 107, 227–233.
van Hoven, W. (1985). The tree's secret weapon. South African Panorama 30(3), 34–37.
van Hoven, W. (1991). Mortalities in Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) populations related to chemical defence of trees. Revue de Zoologie Africaine 105, 141–145.
van Soest, P.J. (1982). Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PAPERS
|1||Animal breeding: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1977(C E F S)|
|2||Eradication of hog cholera and African swine fever, 1976 (E F S)|
|3||Insecticides and application equipment for tsetse contol, 1977 (E F)|
|4||New feed resources, 1977 (E/F/S)|
|5||Bibilography of the criollo cattle of the Americas, 1977 (E/S)|
|6||Mediterranean cattle and sheep in crossbreeding, 1977 (E F)|
|7||The environmental impact of tseetse control operations, 1977 (E F)|
|7 Rev. 1||The environmental impact of tsetse control operations, 1980 (E F)|
|8||Declining breeds of Mediterranean sheep, 1978 (E F)|
|9||Slaughterhouse and slaughterslab design and construction, 1978 (E F S)|
|10||Treating straw for animal feedign, 1978 (C E F S)|
|11||Packaging, storage and distribution of processed milk, 1978 (E)|
|12||Ruminant nutrition: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1978 (C E F S)|
|13||Buffalo reproduction and artificial insemination, 1979 (E *)|
|14||The African trypanosomiases, 1979 (E F)|
|15||Establishment of dairy training centres, 1979 (E)|
|16||Open yard housing for young cattle, 1981 (Ar E F S)|
|17||Prolific tropical sheep, 1980 (E F S)|
|18||Feed from animal wastes: state of knowledge, 1980 (C E)|
|19||East Coast fever and related tick-borne diseases, 1980 (E)|
|20/1||Trypanotolerant livestock in West and Central Africa vol. 1. General study, 1980 (E F)|
|20/2||TRypanotolerant livestock in West and Central Africa vol. 2. Country studies, 1980 (E F)|
|20/3||Le bétail trypanotolérant en Afrique occidentale et centrale - Vol. 3. Bilan d'une décennie, 1988 (F)|
|21||Guideline for dairy accountin, 1980 (E)|
|22||Recursos genéticos animales en Améerica Latina, 1981 (S)|
|23||Disease control in semen and embryos, 1981 (C E F S)|
|24||Animal genetic resources - conservation and management, 1981 (C E)|
|25||Reproductive efficiency in cattle, 1982 (C E F S)|
|26||Camels and camel milk, 1982 (E)|
|27||Deer farming, 1982 (E)|
|28||Feed from animal wastes: feeding manual, 1982 (C E)|
|29||Echinococcosis/hydatidosis surveillance, prevention and control: FAO/UNEP/WHO guidelins, 1982 (E)|
|30||Sheep and goat breeds of India, 1982 (E)|
|31||Hormones in animal production, 1982 (E)|
|32||Crop residues and agro-industrial by-products in animal feeding, 1982 (E/F)|
|33||Haemorrhagic septicaemia, 1982 (E F)|
|34||Breeding plans for ruminant livestock in the tropics, 1982 (E F S)|
|35||Off-tastes in raw and reconstituted milk, 1983 (Ar E F S)|
|36||Ticks and tick-borne diseases: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1983 (E F S)|
|37||African animal trypanosomiasis: selected articles from the World Animal Reiviw, 1983 (E F)|
|38||Diagnosis and vaccination for the control of brucellosis in the Near East, 1982 (Ar E)|
|39||Solar energy in small-scale milk collection and processing, 1983 (E F)|
|40||Intensive sheep production in the Near East, 1983 (Ar E)|
|41||Integrating crops and livestock in West Afric, 1983 (E F)|
|42||Animal energy in agriculture in Africa and Asia, 1984 (E/F S)|
|43||Olive by-products for animal feed, 1985 (Ar E F S)|
|44/1||Animal genetic resources conservation by management, data banks and training, 1984 (E)|
|44/2||Animal genetic resources: cryogenic storage of germplasm and molecular engineering, 1984 (E)|
|45||Maintenance systems for the dairy plant, 1984 (E)|
|46||Livestock breeds of China, 1984 (E F S)|
|47||Réfrigération du lait à la ferme et organisation des transports, 1985 (F)|
|48||La fromagerie et les variétés de fromages du bassin méditerranéen, 1985 (F)|
|49||Manual for the slaughter of small ruminants in developing countries, 1985 (E)|
|50||Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: research guidelines — 1. State of knowledge, 1985 (E)|
|50/2||Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: research guidelines — 2. A practical manual for research workers, 1986 (E)|
|51||Dried salted meats: charque and carne-de-sol, 1985 (E)|
|52||Small-scale sausage production, 1985 (E)|
|53||Slaughterhouse cleaning and sanitation, 1985 (E)|
|54||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. l. Selected papers presented for the Expert Consultation on Small Ruminant Research and Development in the Near East (Tunis, 1985), 1987 (E)|
|55||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol.ll. Selected articles from World Animal Review 1972–1986, 1987 (Ar E)|
|56||Sheep and goats in Pakistan, 1985 (E)|
|57||The Awassi sheep with special reference to the improved dairy tyhpe, 1985 (E)|
|58||Small ruminant production in the developing countries, 1986 (E)|
|59/1||Animal genetic resources data banks - 1. Computer systems study for regional data banks, 1986 (E)|
|59/2||Animal genetic resources data banks - 2. Descriptor lists for cattle, buffalo, pigs, sheep and goats, 1986 (E F S)|
|59/3||Animal genetic resources data banks - 3. Descriptor lists for poultry, 1986 (E F S)|
|60||Sheep and goats in Turkey, 1986 (E)|
|61||The Przewalski horse and restoration to its natural habitat in Mongolia, 1986 (E)|
|62||Milk and daery products: production and processing costs, 1988 (E F S)|
|63||Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on the substitution of imported concentrate feeds in animal production systems in developing countries, 1987 (C E)|
|64||Poultry management and diseases in the Near East, 1987 (Ar)|
|65||Animal genetic resources of the USSR, 1989 (E)|
|66||Animal genetic resources - strategies for improved use and conservation, 1987 (E)|
|67/1||Trypanotolerant cattle and livestock development in West and Central Africa - Vol. l, 1987 (E)|
|67/2||Trupanotolerant cattle and livestock development in West and Central Africa - Vol. ll, 1987 (E)|
|68||Crossbreeding Bos indicus and Bos taurus for milk production in the tropics, 1987 (E)|
|69||Village milk processing, 1988 (E F S)|
|70||Sheep and goat meat production in the humid tropics of West Africa, 1989 (E/F)|
|71||The development of village-based sheep production in West Africa, 1988 (Ar E F S) (Published as Training manual for extension workers M/S5840E)|
|72||Sugarcane as feed, 1988 (E/S)|
|73||Standard design for small-scale modular slaughterhouses, 1988 (E)|
|74||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. lll. North Africa, 1989 (E)|
|75||The eradication of ticks, 1989 (E/S)|
|76||Ex situ cruoconservation of genomes and genes of endangered cattle breeds by means of modern biotechnoligcal methods, 1989 (E)|
|77||Training manual for embryo transfer in cattle, 1991 (E)|
|78||Miliking, milk production hygiene and udder health, 1989 (E)|
|79||Manual of simple methods of meat preservation, 1990 (E)|
|80||Animal genetic resources - a global programme for sustainable development, 1990 (E)|
|81||Veterinary diagnostic bacteriology - a manual of laboratory procedures of selected diseases of livestock, 1990 (E F)|
|82||Reproduction in camels - a review, 1990 (E)|
|83||Training manual on artificial insemination in sheep and goats, 1991 (E F)|
|84||Training manual for embryo transfer in water buffaloes, 1991 (E)|
|85||The technology of traditional milk products in developing countries, 1990 (E)|
|86||Feeding dairy cows in the tropics, 1991 (E)|
|87||Manual for the production of anthrax and blackleg vaccines, 1991 (E F)|
|88||Small ruminant production and the small ruminant genetic resource in tropical Africa, 1991 (E)|
|89||Manual for the production of Marek's disease, Gumboro disease and inactivated newcastle disease vaccines, 1991 (E F)|
|90||Application of biotechnology to nutrition of animals in developing countries, 1991 (E F)|
|91||Guidelines for slaughtering, meat cutting and further processing, 1991 (E F)|
|92||Manual on meat cold store operation and management, 1991 (E S)|
|93||Utilization of renewable energy sources and energy-saving technologies by small-scale milk plants and collection centres, 1992 (E)|
|94||Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on the genetic aspects of trypanotolerance, 1992 (E)|
|95||Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding, 1992 (E)|
|96||Distribution and impact of helminth diseases of livestock in developing countries, 1992 (E)|
|97||Construction and operation of medium-sized abattoirs in developing countries, 1992 (E)|
|98||small-scale poultry processing, 1992 (Ar E)|
|99||In situ conservation of livestock and poultry, 1992 (E)|
|100||Programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development, 1992 (E)|
|101||Genetic improvement of hair sheep in the tropics, 1992 (E)|
|102||Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock, 1992 (E)|
|103||Improving sheep reproduction in the Near East, 1992 (Ar)|
|104||The management of global animal genetic resources, 1992 (E)|
|105||Ssustainable livestock production in the mountain agroecosystem of Nepal, 1992 (E)|
|106||Sustainable animal production from small farm systems in South-East Asia, 1993 (E)|
|107||Strategies for sustainable animal agriculture in developing countries, 1993 (E F)|
|108||Evaluation of breeds and crosses of domestic animals, 1993 (E)|
|109||Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, 1993 (Ar E)|
|110||L'amélioration génétique des bovins en Afrique de I'Ouest, 1993 (F)|
|111||L'utilización sostenible de hembras F1 en la producción del ganado lechero tropical, 1993 (S)|
|112||Physiologie de la reprodction des bovins trypanotolérants, 1993 (F)|
|113||La technologie des fromages au lait de dromadaire (Camelus dromedarius), 1993 (F)|
|114||Food losses due to non-infectious and production diseases in developing countries, 1993 (E)|
|115||Manuel de formation pratique pour la transplantation embryonnaire chez la brebis et la chèvre, 1993 (F S)|
|116||Quality control of veterinary vaccines in developing countries, 1993 (E)|
|117||L'hygiène dans l'industrie alimentaire, 1993 - Les produits et l'aplication de l'hygiène, 1993 (F)|
|118||Quality control testing of rinderpest cell culture vaccine, 1994 (E)|
|119||Manual on meat inspection for developing countries, 1994 (E)|
|120||Manual para la instalación del pequeño matadero modular de la FAO, 1994 (S)|
|121||A systematic approach to tsetse and trypanosomiasis control, 1994 (E/F)|
|122||El capibara (Hydrochoerus hydorcheaeris) - Estado actual de su producción, 1994 (S)|
|123||Edible by-products of slaughter animals, 1995 (E S)|
|124||L'approvisionnement des villes africaines en lait et produits laitiers, 1995 (F)|
|125||Veterinary education, 1995 (E)|
|126||Tropical animal feeding - A manual for research workers, 1995 (E)|
|127||World livestock production systems - Current status, issues and trends, 1996 (E)|
|128||Quality control testing of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia live atteneated vaccine - Standard operating procedures, 1996 (E F)|
|129||The world without rinderpest, 1996 (E)|
|130||Manual de prácticas de manejo de alpacas y llamas, 1996 (S)|
|131||Les perspectives de développement de la filière lait de chèvre dans le bassin méditerranéen, 1996 (F)|
|132||Feeding pigs in the tropics, 1997 (E)|
|133||Prevention and control of transboundary animal diseases, 1997 (E)|
|134||Tratamiento y utilización de residuos de orígen animal, pesquero y alimenticio en la alimentación animal, 1997 (S)|
|135||Roughage utilization in warm climates, 1997 (E F)|
|136||Proceedings of the first Internet Conference on Salivarian Trypanosomes, 1997 (E)|
|137||Developing national emergency prevention systems for transboundary animal diseases, 1997 (E)|
|138||Producción de cuyes (Cavia Porcellus), 1997 (S)|
|139||Tree foliage in ruminant nutrition, 1997 (E)|
Availability: December 1997
Ar - Arabic
C - Chinese
E - English
F - French
P - Portuguese
S - Spanish
Multi - Multilingual
* Out of print
** In preparation
The FAO Technical papers are available through the authorized FAO Sales Agents or directly from Sales and Marketing Group. FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.